If Bretz had remembered this, a strong case might have been still stronger. If works of dubious literary value such as Les Microbes humains had not been authored by a famous female anarchist perhaps to keep from starving after her release from a penal colony , Valera would hardly have engaged in the gratuitous task of demolishing the work in his Apuntes. Perhaps Bretz's analysis of Spanish antifeminism relies too heavily on assumptions derived from general feminist criticism. She strives to explain a great deal by appealing to fear of female sexuality, but fails to mention the liberals' dread of the clergy's political influence on women if female suffrage is attained.
In this respect, the fact that she focuses totally on literary criticism to the exclusion of the novels themselves has resulted in her overlooking this fear in the hidden subtexts of the polemics on naturalism. This volume attests to the expanding expression of cultural pluralism in Spain as well as to the increasing scholarly interest in Galicia within and beyond Spain's borders.
Though lacking editorial comment helpful in understanding the selection and organization of papers, overriding issues, underlying threads and tensions between and among essays and in drawing overall conclusions, this collection does, nevertheless, give an overview of the evolution of Galician literature. Concentrating only on salient essays in each section, we call attention to two of the plenary sessions.
The non-Portuguese orthography used by many scholars writing in Galician in this very volume, however, indicates that the debate is hardly resolved. The medieval literature section contains several papers with parallel thrusts. Connie Scarborough's and Carlos Vegas's pieces concern the multiple dimensions of Alfonso X's poetry: the former holds that, responding to the religious currents of the time, Alfonso's texts serve as handbooks of penance; the latter concentrates on the self-referentiality in the visual and written representation of the devil in Canticle Seventy-four and on the modern theoretical implications of its artistic scheme.
Combined, these papers underscore the complexity of medieval literature that literary manuals seldom suggest.
Cómics y vinilos
With only three essays, the section on Rosalia de Castro seems unusually short, but is meant to enclose only readings following recent critical trends. Applying different methods, Joanna Courteau and Angel Loureiro show that Rosalia's poetic texts question the subject-object opposition and the whole notion of the text itself. The essays on contemporary narrative are uniformly strong. No manuscript would be complete without typographical errors.
It is our hope that this volume precedes future ones that further study expressions of Galician culture. While all medieval Hispanists are familiar with the research and publications of Samuel Armistead, the bibliography of his work included in Hispanic Studies in Honor of Samuel G. Armistead is singularly impressive. It contains some items published by Prof. Armistead during forty years of scholarship: His interests in the romancero , Sephardic studies, the oral tradition, ballad collection, and the cantar de gesta are widely documented in the carefully compiled bibliography. Likewise, the articles contained in the volume reflect the major areas of Prof.
Armistead's research. Without exception the articles are examples of sound scholarship and provide thoughtful insights. Moreover, the handsome volume is virtually free of typographical errors. The articles are arranged alphabetically by author and, while space does not permit me to review each of the articles contained in the volume, I will categorize the majority of the studies by thematic grouping and highlight their main theses.
The largest group of articles deals with the ballad, and of these, several treat judeo-Spanish topics. Iacob M. Katz argues that in order to establish possible links between extant Sephardic romance melodies and those existing in the Peninsula at the time of expulsion, one must go beyond fragmented melodic vestiges and seek out larger and more convincing units such as melodic incipits, internal phrases of like contour, cadential patterns, and similar strophic structures.
Deyermond convincingly argues that, in contrast to other critics' analyses, the poem actually manifests a binary structure in which the first half leads the listener to sympathize with the Moors while, in the second part, one sees that such sympathy was misguided when the treason of the Moors is revealed. The structure is significant, according to Deyermond, because its use to effect a radical change of readers' sympathies in a tragic or serious context was not common in medieval literature. Two studies in the volume deal with cancionero poetry.
Clarke especially concentrates on the seven serpents section of the poem and concludes that the poet was probably upbraiding the nobles for allowing the Catholic Church and the political situation in Castile to become seriously eroded by the 's. Other studies in the collection concentrate on oral transmission of traditional texts and their impact on written texts. He affirms that all versions of the Mary the Egyptian legend are the works of clerics and that vestiges of orality in the texts should not be construed as juglaresque.
John E. Manuel da Costa Fontes deals with two Portuguese folk tales which are still alive in the oral tradition and which, he concludes, were also known by Fernando de Rojas and by Cervantes. The collection's two editors, E. Michael Gerli and Harvey L Sharrer, make significant contributions to the book. The intended audience exerts as much power upon the form and authority of the narrative as the very poet himself Such a statement is still true today.
Ann L. Mackenzie pays particular attention to two key preoccupations of the Calderonian dramatists, recasting and collaboration. Mackenzie defends such recastings against those who see them as symptoms of these playwrights' lack of originality. Indeed, the Calderonian playwrights never chose masterpieces from Lope's period. The third chapter on collaboration is even more significant. Critics have all but ignored the Calderonian dramatists' penchant for writing plays in collaboration, considering these comedias unworthy of commentary.
Plays were often written by three authors, each penning one of the acts. There could be as few as two authors or as many as nine as in La menor Luna africana. It may be that this progression allowed these playwrights to produce texts that had an amazing similarity in style and a strong unity of action.
Mackenzie also points out that these collaborative plays are seldom refundiciones , so that the two most common techniques of the period were most often kept separate. Chapters are dedicated to specific types of plays produced during this period. Characterization is often poor. On the other hand, the Calderonian playwrights excelled in creating comedias de enredo. Mackenzie notes that a decree from the Council of Castille ordering that plots for the theater should not be invented, but be based on history or hagiography, may account for the large number of historical plays written by Calderonian dramatists.
Although only twenty per cent are based on foreign history, many of these works are particularly engaging. Coello's El conde de Sex is a prime example of this type, while El rey Enrique el Enfermo , attributed by Mackenzie to Rojas Zorrilla is a good example of works based on Spanish history. Although one may have wished for a more extensive treatment of each of the different types of plays mentioned by Mackenzie in this chapter, it certainly provides an introduction to the issues and problems confronting a critic who wishes to study these works.
The concluding chapter outlines the causes of theatrical decadence and their characteristics. Two key errors are detected by Mackenzie in these playwrights: sensationalism be it psychological, stylistic, didactic or in staging and conventionalism. Many of the errors, she notes, derive not only from religious or political sources, but also from the influence exercised by the public who attended these plays. A number of interesting examples of the public's influence are provided by Mackenzie.
Madrid: Alianza Editoral, Memorias reviewed in Hispania , Or, to use his own analogy, at almost the moment philosophers discovered the new continent of human life in the non-biological sense they turned their backs on it rather than explore it. For centuries philosophers have considered the human person as a variety of things, as one kind of being among other beings.
Now we can recognize human life as another form, a distinct form, of reality, irreducible to other forms because of its freedom. As a synthesis of Marias's own philosophical thinking for over half a century, this book is a rarity. Seldomly do philosophers pause to recapitulate or integrate their previous books. The first is his theory of human life on earth, any and each human person, while the second is his theory of a particular form of social life.
Each synthesizes his previous works on its theme and acts as a source for elaboration in further studies. Particularly interesting to me at this point in my own teaching and research is Marias's use of Ortega's distinction between ideas and creencias , for the distinction throws more light on many misunderstandings in history and on the origin and continuation of various social conflicts than does any other theory of which I am aware. Unos pocos son realmente comentarios de textos. This volume represents a welcome addition to two expanding bodies of textual material: literature by women writers and dramatic works by Latin American playwrights, two areas of growing interest to scholars and professors both here and abroad.
Specifically, Dramaturgas latinoamericanas is a direct response to the chronic scarcity of texts by Latin American female dramatists, particularly in published anthologies of Latin American theater. As Andrade and Cramsie note, the aim of this anthology is not to analyze the range or content of feminine or feminist theatrical discourse but to make that discourse the plays available to readers.
They hope that the availability of materials will promote interest in those plays and lead to more analytical studies on Latin American women dramatists until the latter are studied as frequently as Latin American women who write either poetry or prose. Thus, while the playwrights represented in this anthology may have little in common other than the Spanish language , the selected works all have very specific historical referents as their common denominator; in each, the author is concerned with the sociopolitical issues of her country, one but only one of which is the role of women in contemporary society.
Because the editors have sought a balance among the various Spanish American countries as well as representation of both established playwrights and less-noted ones, familiar works and the unfamiliar, they have included an eclectic assortment of seven plays. Four of them are fairly well-known, written by playwrights whose names are likely to be recognized: Retablo de Yumbel , published in by Isidora Aguirre Chile, b. In it, Andrade and Cramsie acknowledge the wide range of thematic, formal and ideological positions that have been taken by women writers in general and dramatists in particular, and recognize that the very attempt to speak of a specifically feminine discourse theatrical or otherwise is problematic at best.
They further remind the reader that although all the playwrights represented here are women, the particular social position of the individual writer necessarily produces significantly different personal, artistic concerns -thus the wide range of thematic and stylistic focuses among the plays included.
In addition, the editors provide a brief review of women, Latin American and others, who have made names for themselves in the field of theater in spite of the fact that women are more frequently excluded from this genre than from others. In addition the editors have included the playwrights' individual responses to a series of ten  questions. Those questions address the dramatist's perception of a specifically female dramaturgy in terms of themes, techniques, or discourse and her individual concerns in regard to both her work in general and the specific play included in this anthology.
In the case of the deceased Parrado, in lieu of answers to the questions, the editors have reproduced a dramatized prologue, written by David Camp , to her Teatro. Unquestionably, any of the criteria one might use to select works for inclusion in an anthology is open to challenge. In this particular case, one could object to the blatant Marxism of the Parrado work or the truncated form of the Buitrago play as it is reproduced here.
On the other hand, I find La malasangre a particularly good selection to represent the work of such an important playwright as Gambaro, who, outside of a small group of specialists, is often known only for her early El campo. Both playwrights and their works are relatively unknown and inaccessible outside of Puerto Rico and Costa Rica, respectively, but both are definitely worthy of further study. In sum, the choice of works here seems neither better nor worse than any other.
In conclusion, Andrade and Cramsie have made these plays available in anthology form, and have provided perceptive introductions to the lives and works of the various playwrights, as well as thought-provoking interviews. Some of the autobiographical profiles included in this encyclopedia possess an appealingly intimate literary quality and offer engrossing insights into some of the authors' perspectives regarding what has motivated them to write.
A number of the biographical entries on some authors provide extensive details on their fives, their politics, and their literary corpus, yet other entries on some major figures are all too brief. The entry on Jorge Luis Borges is one of the most distressing and culpable cases in point. However, when Borges is thus slighted, it becomes necessary once again to hold accountable any literary history or dictionary of this type for facile dismissals of many important literary figures who preceded the Boom.
A more recent critical bibliography covering the last fifteen or twenty years of Borges criticism would have been extremely helpful for any reader interested in what the more recent critical and theoretical approaches have added to our understanding of Borges. The reader may also find problematic the fact  that the dictionary contains novelists and poets of the twentieth century, but claims not to cover short story writers and dramatists.
One of the most egregious omissions in the dictionary is that of Horacio Quiroga. Perhaps the dictionary should be titled, Spanish American Poets and Novelists so as to inform purchasers of exactly who is included, although it would have been well worth the effort to expand the dictionary to include theater and short prose fiction.
The exclusion of dramatists is surprising in light of the fact that some of the most important Spanish American writers of the past thirty years are dramatists. Notwithstanding its omissions and favoritism with regard to Boom novelists, this book is extremely useful and fascinating. It includes dozens of Spanish American women writers although Alfonsina Storni is another unfortunate omission who have frequently been overlooked in literary histories. For the most part, the critical bibliographies are very helpful guides, and this book provides an unending source of surprising and illuminating anecdotes and accounts of great writers' lives.
Also included is Kiss of the Spider Woman , which -in spite of the fact that it is based on Puig's novel- can only marginally be classified as an example of Argentine cinema. Foster provides incisive commentaries throughout, especially relating the films to Argentine history and literature. Given the excellent quality of the most recent Argentine cinema such as Aristarain's Un lugar en el mundo , readers who enjoy Contemporary Argentine Cinema will look forward to further studies on the subject.
This book is an augmented, revised edition of the work originally published by the Universidad de Salamanca in As the title indicates, the work does not purport to be a study of the development of the essay either in a historical perspective or as a literary genre, but rather an analysis of the essential characteristics that define the essay and distinguish it from other literary and non-literary kinds of narrative forms. The works of both Latin American and Spanish writers are used as representative examples of essay forms.
Each of the two sections carries an extensive bibliography. From among the multiple chapters of the first part, a few may be cited. Indeed, the essayist may be subtler, less direct than the treatise writer, but no less desirous of convincing the reader of the validity of his own views. I would think just the opposite, that there is rarely a course in Spanish literature, even a survey course, that does not include one of his essays. Furthermore, in undergraduate courses in philosophy at American universities, there are generally just two Hispanic names: one is Unamuno, the other is Ortega.
While it is true that the purpose of the essay is not to establish proof of something in the same way that a treatise does, in its own subjective way it certainly tries to have the reader concur with the ideas or points of view presented. The attractive edition unfortunately has, at least in the copy at hand, two typographical errors: the transposition of pages 46 and 47, and the duplication of the last line of page The University of Texas at Austin provided the setting for a symposium in honoring the centenary of Oswald de Andrade, certainly a major figure in the cultural life of twentieth-century Brazil.
Poet, novelist, playwright, and ever dynamic critic of his times, Oswald de Andrade and his legacy doubtless provided a lively topic of discussion for the twenty scholars listed in this volume, which includes thirteen of their presentations. In addition, there are three introductory pieces, including an overview by the editor, who has also compiled a useful bibliographical appendix listing the prolific writer's works. It follows from Oswald de Andrade's prominent role as a leader of Brazil's cultural avant-garde that each paper examines the modernist perspective as it appears in his works and in the works of other Latin Americans intent on creating a distinctive cultural expression for the twentieth century.
Variation of a different sort concerns D. Manfio, who relates the daunting task implied in the preparation of a critical edition of Oswald de Andrade's poetry. Manfio acknowledges the poet's careful scholarship and historical acumen, which may surprise some given his reputation as an irreverent iconoclast.
Also focused on a specific genre is V. Chalmers' piece dealing with de Andrade's satirical journalism spanning two decades, from O Pirralho in to the short lived O Homem do Povo in The political lampoons of the former, written in a patois of Italian and Portuguese under the pseudonym Annibale Scipione, fared better in the face of censorship than the more doctrinaire Marxism of the latter, whose pressroom was sabotaged by infuriated right wing law students.
Almost as controversial was his play, A Morta, which V. Rounding out the papers devoted specifically to the works of Oswald de Andrade are R. Antelo's comments on the author's and Murilo Mendes' pastiches of Brazilian history. More tangential is an illuminating comparison by H.
Olea, who notes the similarities between the rhetoric of de Andrade's manifestos and the diction employed by Portuguese futurists. In addition to literature, other art forms have been shaped by the views and techniques of the Oswaldian avant-garde, as C. Perrone carefully shows in his chapter concerning Brazilian popular music in recent years.
Amaral in a translated essay regarding the visual arts. In this regard, K. One Hundred Years of Invention presents a few problems. One wonders why, for example, a piece by A. Amaral required a rather poor translation in a volume containing chapters in both English and Portuguese, including a second contribution by Amaral that appears in the original Portuguese. Also, S. A more technical problem stems from the large number of typographical errors that are disconcerting and at times impede comprehension though Oswald de Andrade would find amusing.
Such qualifications, however, do not seriously detract from the volume's worth as an appreciation of the writer's place in the Latin American avant-garde. The bibliography on Modernism in Brazil is enhanced by this centenary celebration of Oswald de Andrade. One of Chile's most prominent men of letters, Ariel Dorfman has distinguished himself as essayist, novelist, poet, dramatist, and writer of short stories.
Perhaps because his works are often complex and difficult to interpret, the bibliography on Dorfman is hardly extensive. For this reason Salvador Oropesa's monograph will be especially welcome to those interested in contemporary Spanish American literature. Oropesa has divided his book into six major chapters, four dealing with Dorfman's four novels, one treating a selection of his short stories, and one discussing his writings on pop culture.
In his introduction Oropesa presents an overview of Dorfman's life and work and, in addition, alludes to the major influences on his literary formation, including Borges, Kundera, Marx, Barthes, and Jakobson. Oropesa also sees it as a Brechtian work whose preoccupation with the narrative process makes the reader more conscious of its ideological content. Moros en la costa stands out as a strong statement, with Marxist overtones, on Chile under Salvador Allende. Laconic in its prose and more traditional in structure, Viudas contrasts sharply with its predecessor.
Here Dorfman has invented an allegory about his homeland under General Pinochet's military regime, the setting of which is a Greek village Longa suffering from Nazi oppression during World War II. Oropesa sees in this tragic novel a Manichean struggle between good and evil, the widows of the village embodying good and their German oppressors, evil.
Also pointed out by the critic are resonances of Borges in the narrative technique. The two protagonists are militant Allende supporters in the process of writing a satirical film script about Augusto Pinochet. But this work  has multiple narrative voices and at least three plot threads, one of which involves fetuses refusing to be born into a society suffering from the abuses of power a major theme.
Among the possible influences on this text are Brecht and modernist fiction writers, who emphasize estrangement techniques, and Barthes and Jakobson, whose ideas on deconstruction are plainly discernible.
Visor de obras.
Important aspects of this novel, we are told, include elements of the absurd, parallels between linguistic and physical violence, and echoes of Milan Kundera's fiction. Para leer al pato Donald , Dorfman's best-known treatise on pop culture, is the principal subject of Oropesa's final chapter, which analyzes this well-known essay both as an example of postmodernism and as a Marxist attack on the capitalistic ideology conveyed by the eponymous Disney cartoon.
Salvador Oropesa's monograph is marred by printing errors, but his scholarly study represents a fine contribution to the bibliography on an internationally acclaimed writer. Her study becomes more interesting when she moves away from critics and definitions and concentrates on the many and varied uses of the carnivalesque in the four novels analyzed. Similarly, she perceives an overabundance of religious symbolism in El general en su laberinto , as well as a surprising presence of the author in the text.
She identifies many and varied illustrative examples from the novels in question, and also accurately observes the presence of abundant biblical and literary allusions and religious symbolism. But she exaggerates some points and overexplains other rather simple ones, such as St. Peter's denial of Christ.
Useful contributions are somewhat obscured, as well, by an abundance of typing or printing errors  which a good editor or a more careful rereading might have caught, resulting in a much more readable work. Shaw, Donald L. Borges: Narrative Strategy. Leeds: Francis Cairns, Borges scholarship is currently being produced at such a phenomenal rate that scholars now have to be more selective than ever in their reading.
This intellectually stimulating volume adds significantly to the ongoing critical discussion. The subject matter is Borges's literary craftsmanship, namely his fictional technique, rather than the meaning of his stories. The second chapter concerns narrative techniques in Borges's earliest collection of stories, Historia universal de la infamia. Successive chapters treat opening strategies, framing devices, pivotal episodes and shifting themes, interludes and inlaid details, narratorial stances, and finally, closing strategies. Throughout this study, Shaw highlights Borges's contributions toward dismantling the typical straightforward, linear style of narration based on the generally accepted view of reality as the product of cause and effect.
Borges interprets reality as something much less predictable and more chaotic than the version offered by previous narrators, and his writings call into question the notion that it can be perceived or communicated in a rational, orderly manner. It is, therefore, not surprising that he employs nontraditional patterns to describe that reality. This is a necessary recourse because the solutions offered by popular fiction are unconvincing; real-life endings cannot always be so tidy.
Shaw also focuses on the close correlation between technique and theme. The tight interweaving of form and content and the skillful blending of the real and the imaginary undermine deeply-rooted beliefs concerning existence, identity, and the nature of reality. Shaw occasionally becomes contentious when taking issue with other critics.
Hispania. Volume 77, Number 1, March 1994
Readily acknowledging that there is more than one way to read Borges, he nevertheless deliberately? Borges would appreciate the irony. The study concludes with a selective bibliography of secondary sources treating Borges's narrative techniques and a quick-reference index to all the stories discussed. In the face of the infinite, chaotic stream of critical writing on Borges, this is one contribution that will not get lost in the shuffle. Elzbieta Sklodowska has written a fine introduction to the testimonio and its status in Latin American letters.
In this timely book, she identifies many of the complexities inherent in the  nature of the testimonio and questions the haste with which such a problematic form of discourse has been canonized by scholars. While recognizing the contributions of other researchers, she convincingly argues that many of the assertions that have been made about testimonial literature to date do not stand up well to critical scrutiny.
The author dedicates the first half of her book to theoretical issues involved in the production and criticism of testimonial literature. To define testimonio , they borrow the conventions of realist literature, conventions that are anachronistic in a postmodern context. She discusses the analogies between the testimonio and the discourse of modern ethnography, and points out the problematic relationship between the editor and informant, as well as the political issues raised by these two forms of discourse.
The second half of the book treats four mediated testimonial texts. The relationship between informants, editors, and the targeted reading public is complex and troublesome. Sklodowska believes that a defect of many testimonios is that they avoid or cover up these tensions in their meta-discourses. For the critic, this self-examination of the contradictions of testimonial literature is not only a more honest approach, but one that makes for more effective texts.
Sklodowska's arguments are well-reasoned and articulately stated. Her book -the recipient of the Northeast Modern Language Association Foreign Language Award-, raises questions that will enhance the discussion over testimonial literature and stimulate further research into this interesting phenomenon.
Tittler, Jonathan. Manuel Puig. New York: Twayne Publishers, Through a close reading that draws upon Freud' psychoanalysis and Bakhtin's theories of narrative, Tittler offers a remarkable study of Puig's eight novels and some of his works in other genres. Tittler not only acknowledges Puig's innovative narrative techniques, but reveals the crucial link between his style and thematic. He declares that Puig's innovation in the novel consists in his incorporation of mass-entertainment products and in his replacement of the patriarchal ethereal discourse by a polyphonic decentered one, that not only eliminates the hierarchy of the narrative but also attacks the absolutist society and its power structures.
Puig, through an already deviated narrative form, questions the proper novelistic discourse and experiments with new strategies. Colloquial language becomes literary and the idiom of Hollywood is used to express the  sublime. The first transgression is the fragmentation of the textual totality. In Heartbreak Tango, the parts, the isolated effects, are more important than the whole. Pubis Angelical 's dream scene, according to Tittler, encloses a very strong metatextual statement. It is the answer to the patriarchal resistance to change.
Eternal Curse on the Reader of These Pages makes the erasure motif a central theme. Tittler shows us how Puig continues to try new ways of conveying meaning in a world where, in many cases, the image is stronger than the word. There is no doubt that Jonathan Tittler has long pondered what he so clearly develops here. The volume concludes with a brief, two-essay segment on the oral literary tradition in Mexico. By and large, the intellectual and scholarly quality of the thirty-two essays is very good, and the two volumes are meticulously proved and attractively bound.
Some of the strongest essays are penned by guest-contributors. The conscious decision to present the widest-ranging scope of the current research interests of the CELL faculty necessarily results in a lack of a cohesive focus in the collection, both in the individual volumes themselves and in the subsections of each volume.
Likewise, there is a perhaps understandable lack of balance in the section of the Literature volume dedicated to literature in Spanish from the Colonial period to the present, since seven of the thirteen essays in question deal with Mexican topics. This is neither a reference grammar of Spanish nor an inquiry into the nature of grammar itself. Instead, it is a discourse on some areas that tend to prove problematic for the English-speaking student of Spanish.
The book consists of ten chapters of grammatical analyses and exercises, to which are appended seven short stories as foci and exemplars of the linguistic arguments expounded in the body of the text.
- Virgins Desire (Erotica);
- Loyola School of Languages realizará exámenes de inglés en el ámbito profesional.
- Mistake; Alien Abduction I : Simons side.
- at the junction - Spanish translation – Linguee?
- Hispania. Volume 77, Number 1, March 1994.
- How the Outside Gets In: Modeling Conversational Permeation (Annual Review of Sociology Book 34)?
- The Commandment (The Ancestors. Trilogy Book 2)?
There is in addition a useful Instructor's Manual of thirty eight pages. For some reason this is in English, even though the rest of the text is in Spanish and one presumes that the class discussions will be in Spanish. The first section in each chapter is titled Para Empezar. This often includes a translation exercise Spanish to English that dwells on the problems to be tackled in the chapter. This is really the core of each chapter. It offers grammatical explications as well as exercises specific to the points being discussed. The exercises here could usually be handled either as written or oral.
In this part students are required to find and interview native speakers of Spanish in an attempt to elicit various speech patterns. The authors maintain that finding native speakers is rarely a problem if students spend enough time looking. While this might be true in large areas of the country, it is still quite untrue for even larger areas.
Hence these exercises would have to be ignored or adapted when compliant native speakers of Spanish prove impossible to find. Finally, an attempt is made to apply the grammar in Lecturas , the seven short stories  included at the end of the text. Quite a few of the sample sentences used throughout the book to exemplify particular grammatical points are drawn from these readings. The concentration is on uses of the language in these short stories, rather than characterization or theme, but for many instructors the presence of these short stories could provide opportunities for introductory literary analysis.
Not all the other selections are of outstanding intrinsic interest. Though one might hope that all students at this level would possess their own Spanish-English dictionary, it might have been useful to offer a more comprehensive gloss of the words used in the readings. The book does offer a glosario, but this is used for defining grammatical terms, not for the lexicon used in the readings. Regrettably, the book provides no index of topics treated. Apart from the literary readings, each chapter uses sentences or whole paragraphs to exemplify particular points. These selections can be a little grating.
For instance, is a long paragraph on the British royal family or fairy tales such as Little Red Riding Hood and Goldilocks appropriate for this kind of book? The Instructor's Manual, too, is marred from time to time by a slightly patronizing attitude to teachers of Spanish, e. Manual 2. It is probably inevitable that some elements in extensive discussions of grammar such as contained in this or any book will provoke less than unanimous agreement among readers.
Several formulations offered by Lunn and DeCesaris are at least highly debatable, if not erroneous. Does any native speaker of Spanish really construe the future tense as employed in a Spanish weather forecast to be the future of probability 13? Of course there are. They are usually identical in form with the infinitive, but they are still subjunctives, e. Or think of a doublet such as I insist that Patrick works here versus I think that Patrick work here.
There are other cases where at least one reader would differ from these authors. For instance, they follow the old analysis of deriving command forms haga algo from a putative underlying form such as yo quiero que usted haga algo. But if this is valid, how is it that affirmative familiar commands don't obey the paradigm? The authors see their book as oriented towards advanced students. However, quite a few of the topics dealt with do not appear too advanced.
For instance, there are two pages on the formation of adverbs, not exactly a difficult matter in Spanish. And the exposition of hay seems unnecessarily long. For students of Spanish at this level, is it really necessary to point out that usted and ustedes behave like third person pronouns? The level of discourse when treating other topics is sometimes less than advanced.
These common expressions are seldom introduced in our elementary and intermediate texts, and a student can go through an entire program in Spanish without ever coming across them. Here too might have fitted an extended treatment of gustar , a construction which even our best undergraduate students never appear to master. There are many other cases where one feels that the book might have offered the advanced student a somewhat richer diet. As for the subjunctive: the book does add somewhat to explanations which students will have previously encountered in beginning and intermediate textbooks.
For instance, it ties together para que and antes de que. Even those non-native speakers of Spanish who think they know all the rules are sometimes surprised by a native speaker's choice of aspect in the past tense. The authors offer an interesting but short exposition on journalistic uses of the preterite and imperfect, but a book at this level could have expanded on these non-paradigmatic uses. There are lots of good things in the book, and the authors illuminate many subtleties of Spanish that rarely receive comment.
Take their treatment of the distinction between simple future and ir a future And it is an interesting insight to link verbs that always carry the reflexive pronoun, such as quejarse , atreverse , with a verb like suicidarse that is explicitly reflexive. The treatment of se is very comprehensive, though students at this level need to be alerted to the morphology of a phrase like se le vio. The book's production quality is good, the only misprint noticed being matromonio The Spanish-language and punctuation -in which the book is written would scarcely be typical of that of a similar book produced in Spain, but only one Anglicism stands out Lunn and DeCesaris believe that a detailed linguistic study of a language will yield long term benefits in both listening and speaking.
In their view this book will help students not just in the acquisition of Spanish but also in the ability to think and make generalizations about language itself. One can differ with some of their formulations and disagree with choices and emphases the authors have made.
However, this should not cloud the fact that Lunn and DeCesaris have produced a workman-like text that provides a welcome addition to our rather sparse shelf of advanced grammar textbooks. Divided into sixteen chapters organized around a variety of themes, such as the family, student life, and tourism, each chapter contains dialogues, one or two communicative functions, a grammar section, a reading, and dialogue translations. A Spanish-English dictionary and a grammar index round out the text. No answer key is provided.
Grammar topics have been carefully chosen and limited, and include, for example, the present, the present progressive, the preterite and imperfect, formal commands, present subjunctive, and the essential pronouns. Grammar presentations are contrastive and given in English. Explanations are simple, minimal and explicit, and tend to be followed immediately by an application, usually a drill. Lecturas begin in chapter 1 and gradually increase in length and complexity. Readings and dialogues often have footnoted information of cultural interest, given in Spanish after the first  chapter.
Supporting cultural learning as well are the numerous newspaper ads and print realia interspersed throughout the text. Active vocabulary is presented in complete Spanish sentences in Palabras en contexto at the beginning of each chapter. Students unable to intuit word meaning by context can turn to the dictionary for an English equivalent and the number of the chapter where the word first appears.
Graphic images are imprecise. Typographical errors include incorrect capitalization in the Table of Contents iii. Viernes 42 and pomelo are active lexical items not found in the text dictionary. Maja appears in a dialogue, but no meaning or translation is given.
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