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My understanding is that "wirken" means work in the sense of having an effect on something, while "arbeiten " means doing work. The noun forms -die Wirkung and die Arbeit - have a similar difference in meaning where "Wirkung" is effect, and "Arbeit" is work. In English we use work for both- not so in German.

I understand that If something is currently happening would it not be "is working" The medicine is working. As it is stating the medicine has already worked. If what you are saying is true the " The animal runs" and "The animal is running" would mean the same thing. While on is stating an action that the animal can do, while the other is stating what the animal is doing.

Same with the medicine. Get started. Topic: German. October 30, At last,the medicine works. Why isn't it correct? October 31, Would just point out that they used Medizin not Medikament. December 13, Either works. May 30, May 17, August 8, August 22, Is there any difference between wirken and funktionieren, or are they synonyms? December 5, The author bases her portrayal largely on articles in Jewish newspapers and magazines. Schenker, who did indeed voice his idiosyncratic opinion publicly, may represent a not so small group of assimilated Jews in Austria whose opinions were not represented in Jewish periodicals and who developed their Jewish identity, which they did not want to give up, in diverse and divergent ways.

Schenker was against democracy and for a monarchical or also authoritarian form of government. He preferred the Habsburg monarchy to the modern democratic states which replaced it. Federhofer interprets a pertinent comment by Schenker as evidence that he was a monarchist loyal to the Habsburgs and that he felt connected with the Habsburg Empire his whole life and sincerely mourned its demise. He was highly critical of the Sixtus Affair after secret peace negotiations between Austria and France, initiated by Emperor Karl — , had emerged.

World War I, which the nearly year-old critical newspaper reader Schenker lived through in Vienna, triggered an immense surge of German nationalist sentiment in him. His diaries are full of invectives against the Slavs and the western peoples. Germany is portrayed as a victim of an international conspiracy. In the foreword, the author describes Germany as the most able nation on earth, richer in talents and capabilities than even the Greeks and Romans.

To whom are these raving comments addressed? Shortly before World War I, he started corresponding with the music author Walter Dahms — , who wrote numerous biographies of composers, especially from the 19th century. Schenker met the conductor in May at an evening social event at the home of the banker Paul Hammerschlag — It is noteworthy that in the discussion, Schenker tried to make the pacifist Rolland, a strict opponent of nationalism, seem untrustworthy. It is also characteristic of Schenker that he positioned himself in opposition to all of the other people involved in the conversation.

Schenker against everyone: that was his preferred modus operandi. In his attacks against various music scholars and theoreticians, the addressee of the polemic was clear. This is not the case for his rants about the western forces: it does not appear that the countries under attack are the actual target. In this case, it seems to have to do with positioning within a discourse among Jews, aggressively targeting a cosmopolitan and pacifist worldview that Schenker, as he says, associates with incorrectly understood Jewish values.

Another adversary with whom Schenker shared the same conflict, even though less intensely, was the graphic artist and painter Viktor Hammer — , who painted a portrait of Schenker. In the self-image of central European Jews in the early 20th century, there were various possibilities, including Jewish nationalist Zionism , cosmopolitan, and German nationalist positions. Schenker chose a German nationalist identity and thus belonged to a group that was growing quickly within the entire spectrum of political activists but which was certainly a minority among Jews. What drove him to make this choice and to publicly proclaim it?

As an opponent of the avant-garde, he reproached the composer for this progressiveness, naturally without denying his great artistic qualities. In , his essay on Judaism in music was republished. He saw himself explicitly as a Jew, called to save German music. He understood himself as a type of prophet, as the Moses of music culture. After all, Schenker did not support the idea of generally abolishing the boundaries between denominations. Just the opposite is true.

This young Jew attempts to join a group of well-situated people of his age, who hold him at bay with mockery of his extravagant apparel, for example. As Jew and as an individual in general, you have two choices: either you adapt to a society or you avoid the society if you do not fit in.

You should not express your otherness if you want to belong at the same time. If you do not assimilate yourself, you have to keep your distance. Both too much and not enough assimilation can be wrong. Two years later, Schenker recalled the play when he found himself in a comparable situation. This was a chance to establish his reputation as a Beethoven expert. The situation meant a lot to Schenker; he had to justify his ultimate decision to refuse the invitation to men from his inner circle, such as Otto Erich Deutsch — and Anthony van Hoboken — One would expect that he turned down the invitation because he did not want to deviate from his usual manner of writing about Beethoven and because he thought that would be inappropriate at a congress.

Adler letter : I thank him for his invitation but turn it down as I am driven by inner compulsion to express myself about Beethoven in the way in which I have previously been accustomed, which would however not be suitable at a conference. The way you show yourself to others and want to be seen by them is one side of identity, and the way you live is another.

Schenker shared his life with his wife in many ways. Their holidays and everyday life were only rarely marked by religious practices that the two likely learned in childhood. Until his death, Schenker and she had a very intimate relationship. Kornfeld and Schenker were friends, which is how Jeanette and Heinrich met in at the latest. In she left her family and moved to Vienna, and a long fight for divorce ensued.

It was not until that Jeanette Kornfeld and Heinrich Schenker were able to marry. Schenker always spoke of his wife with the utmost respect. In , she traveled to Chile for five months, but returned to Vienna. In she was deported to the concentration camp in Theresienstadt, where she died in January at age They mark events in the present that are worth remembering or keep the memory of such events alive after the fact.

In general, there were few celebrations in the Schenker home, and even then the celebrations were given little space. Their wedding anniversary passed without note. Presents they gave each other on their birthdays are not mentioned in the diary; a special dish at a meal or a small house concert that he gave her was enough. There was no day of rest on the Sabbath, nor on Sundays.

endlich | translate German to English: Cambridge Dictionary

The Jewish holidays were not celebrated. They appear briefly in apparent minor details or almost accidentally; there are only a few places in the dairy where such a memory flashes up. Old memories.

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The ritual meal unexpectedly clears up an upset stomach that has been going on already for several days! They seem foreign and familiar at the same time. Individual elements of such celebrations that can be summoned up lead people back to their own past, but they no longer provide a viable basis for their own existence. Six years would pass before they would take that short trip for the first time. It appears that he had a very close relationship with her; after all, Schenker wrote a six-page obituary to his mother in his diary.


He considered having her remains transported to Vienna so that he could be buried next to her and his wife. While Heinrich and Jeanette Schenker placed rather little importance on the culture of remembering in their everyday lives, it was especially clear on one occasion. One celebration was held regularly and with special emphasis.

It was a totally private celebration, but it was given a religious twist nonetheless or for that very reason. The couple celebrated the day Jeanette arrived in Vienna, September 30, , after having left her family. The anniversary of this day was celebrated by both with great relish. Festive garments were donned. Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish new year celebration, falls between September 5 and October 5.


Jeanette and Heinrich tied their personal anniversary to this celebration. Their Apple Celebration recalls the tradition of eating an apple dipped in honey at Rosh Hashanah. The day after the Apple Celebration, October 1, was always the beginning of a new year of teaching, and private pupils once again came to the house. And with the new teaching cycle, another rare practice of remembering started: writing his diary. Writing a diary is working on memories.

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The text gets mulled over, intensively performed, written three times and dictated once. Both were involved: Heinrich took notes and dictated them later—up to a year later! Only at the end of the diary does her own voice emerge. And even though it was not meant to be made public, Jeanette appears to have thought it worth preserving. She gave Moriz Violin the last notes for a diary entry written by her husband. Schenker died as a German. In his last days, Jewish rituals and memories of religious practices from his childhood did not play a role. The day Schenker died, January 13, , was the day of the popular referendum in the Saar territory in which an overwhelming majority of the population cast their vote for reincorporating the territory into Germany.

In , Schenker had publicly insisted on the right of the population of the Saar territory to self-determination. In addition, it is a site where his childhood memories are recorded: it records memories. The secularization of realms of memory introduced above and motifs of religious celebration translated into personal life are easily paired with denominational incognito: the parts of Schenker that were Jewish remained private.

However, his vociferous commitment to Germanness contrasts sharply with that quiet practice.

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  7. Schenker sees himself as more German than the Germans; he, the Jew, wants to be the better German. Against the backdrop of his Polish socialization, the decision to be a German takes on a new dimension. For an Arian German nationalist, Germanness is an inheritance that must be defended; for Henryk Schenker, however, it indicates the Promised Land, a parting from the culture of his childhood, and the terrain where he can fulfill his mission as a Jew.

    His emphatic commitment to Germanness underlines his clear decision to participate in German culture, his mission as a musician and music theorist to save German music, and his assimilation—all this, however, without abandoning his position as a self-imposed outsider, and without allowing his Jewish identity in his remembrance and practice of celebration to totally disappear. Version: 1.

    Abstract During his lifetime the music theorist Heinrich Schenker — was confronted with a variety of different cultures. Introduction The Austrian music theorist Heinrich Schenker moved to the capital of the Habsburg Empire from his birthplace, Galicia, on the eastern border of the Danube monarchy, as a youth in Schenker attended the school in the school year —80 By courtesy of: Center for Urban History of East Central Europe , Collection Igor and Iryna Kotlobulatov Upon enrolling in and registering at the University of Vienna, Schenker listed his native language as Polish for the first five semesters.

    The bell rang at One of the teachers entered and stepped up to the lectern, above which an enormous crucifix hung on the wall.

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    At the same instant, all of the pupils stood up in their tables. The teacher and the Polish pupils crossed themselves, he invoked the trinity, and they repeated after him, then they all prayed out loud together. We Jews stood there motionless, our eyes down, until we were allowed to be seated. Guests by force; having to participate in a sacred ceremony as a thing, a ceremony which not an iota of my being was able to or wanted to participate in; and that morning for morning for eight years: that made an impression on the life substance of the boy.

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    Denominational Incognito Heinrich Schenker believed in the Jewish faith but did not practice it publicly. Political Profession Marsha L. The conversation again became guarded, since people may have been afraid of hurting or embarrassing one another, especially on matters of general interest.