Release Date November 13, Styles Film Score Soundtracks. Track Listing. Dragon Racing. John Powell. John Williams. Domestic Pressures. Hans Zimmer. Stephen Sondheim. The Book Thief. Howard Shore. The King's Speech. Alexandre Desplat. Nick Urata. The Reunion. Dance with Me. Dario Marianelli. Let it Go. How To Train Your Dragon 2.
Dragon Racing John Powell. The Theory Of Everything. Time Hans Zimmer. Into The Woods. This section includes books and essays that summarize and take positions on film music historical narratives, film music studies as a scholarly discipline, or broadly based questions of interpretation and analysis. The early books de la Motte-Haber and Emons and Gorbman try to cover the entire field. Gorbman , Neumeyer , Donnelly , Stilwell , and Rosar all focus on disciplinary issues. Gorbman addresses film criticism as a practice, and Marks discusses research methods and materials.
Filmmusik: Eine systematische Beschreibung. Munich and Vienna: Carl Hanser Verlag, Foundational German source equivalent in scope to Gorbman Divided into parts with chapters on early theories, music in abstract film, film-music aesthetics, music and image, music and narrative, and music in relation to the viewer. Wide range of repertoire discussed, including many classical Hollywood films.
Donnelly, K. Edited by K. Donnelly, 1— New York: Continuum, Gorbman, Claudia. Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, The foundation of American film music studies. Chapter 1 covers basic aesthetic and methodological issues, positioning film music in relation to narrative and the viewer. Chapter 4 adds and illustrates a detailed analytical model based on classical Hollywood practice. Chapters 2—3 focus on history. Case studies of Mildred Pierce and Hangover Square.
Focuses specifically on writing about films and their music but also comments on the relationship of criticism and narratological studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, General introduction to film music studies in relation to the central concerns of film studies. Firmly interdisciplinary in orientation. Marks, Martin.
By Martin Marks, 1— An excellent general introduction to research issues, especially with respect to treatment of source materials. Neumeyer, David. Rosar, William. The critical survey runs thirty pages and is divided into nine sections that create strong contexts for the cited items.
The final section pp. The cinematic medium is dense with information, aural, visual, and narrative. Given the force of narrative, it is a challenge to pay attention to the other aspects, much less to describe them in any systematic way.
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And yet that is exactly what is required to build convincing accounts of style, technique, and effects. Altman, et al. Chion and Chion address the same issues in creative, less systematic ways. Larsen offers an excellent model analysis. Cohen surveys the empirical literature, and Cook folds film music into a broad multimedia theory. Case studies are illuminated by a very detailed graphing method that traces the three sound elements music, speech, sound effects on a second-by-second basis. Part 1 of this textbook lays out a method and terminology for critical listening.
The method does not separate music out as somehow a special agent but places it in the context of the sound track. It is the sound track that functions in the overriding systems of film narrative. Chion, Michel. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. Edited and translated by Claudia Gorbman. New York: Columbia University Press, Although it is concerned with the sound track as a whole and only addresses music specifically on a few pages, Audio-Vision offers a theoretical framework that is essential to understanding the functional relations of sound and image, along with many creative terms and techniques for analysis.
Its arguments are largely absorbed into Chion Film, A Sound Art. Translated by Claudia Gorbman. Reproduces and greatly expands on most of the argument of Chion as well as The Voice in the Cinema Covers a wide range of film repertoire, but its theoretical arguments and historical narrative include classical Hollywood in their purview.
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Cohen, Annabel J. Edited by D. Neumeyer, C. Flinn, and J. Buhler, — Cook, Nicholas. Analysing Musical Multimedia. This volume encompasses all manner of combinations of music with other elements in media such as song, opera, and dance, in addition to visual media such as film and television. Larsen, Peter. Film Music. Translated by John Irons. London: Reaktion, A film history text, but its chapter 6, on The Big Sleep , is an exceptionally good example of a clear, concise, but thorough analysis of a film for its music.
The musical examples are well placed and very helpful. Edited by Kevin J. Donnelly, 16— Methods of music analysis can be adapted or may resist adaptation to film music, contributing to a richer understanding of what music, considered on its own terms, can accomplish in a film. The book suggests ways to reveal connections and continuities between the practices of composers in cinema and concert.
Tagg, Philip, and Bob Clarida. For the literature on a famous document in film music aesthetics, see Eisler and Adorno. The authors listed here propose models for interpretation based on a guiding functional principle: Brown tackles myth, Buhler and Kalinak deal with image-soundtrack parallelism, Gorbman proposes a narratological model, Laing offers a gender-based model, and Smith a cognitivist model.
Keller mixes questions of method and priorities into exemplars of critical practice. Brown, Royal S. Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. A wide-ranging book with historical, aesthetic, and critical components. Buhler, James. Donnelly, 39— This essay presents a set of alternatives to analyzing music as a relatively autonomous element of film. The three elements of the sound track constitute an integral, parallel track to the images.
Image and sound are most fruitfully interpreted as in a dialectical tension, each track structured in turn by its own internal dialectic. Chapter 1 covers basic aesthetic and methodological issues, positioning film music in relation to narrative and the viewer; to this chapter 4 adds and illustrates a detailed analytical model based on classical Hollywood practice. Kalinak, Kathryn. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, First to adopt the view that music is equal to the image in shaping narrative and, therefore, film analysis should always engage with the musical element—not a popular academic practice at the time.
The specifically musical theory has some weaknesses, but the several case studies here are excellent: there are chapters on Captain Blood, The Informer, The Magnificent Ambersons, and Laura. Keller, Hans, ed. Christopher Wintle. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell and Brewer, An impressive editorial feat that gathers periodical essays and newspaper articles and columns by the most famous British film-music critics. The repertoire covered is wide ranging; at least half of it is from Hollywood. Keller does not offer a systematic theory, but his writings are invaluable for their keen analytical-critical practice presented in a clear and engaging style.
Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, The best contemporary formulation of a feminist theoretical and critical model for music in classical Hollywood. Updates Gorbman to permit readings with more complex and positive views of female subjectivity. Distinguishes between biological gender and cultural constructions of the masculine and feminine, bringing music more in line with contemporary viewpoints characteristic of literary-critical and feminist literatures. Smith, Jeff.
Edited by Carl Plantinga and Greg M. Smith, — Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Its Marxist critique is dated but Adorno now acknowledged as the principal author is still the focus of a substantial critical literature. Rosen connects the book to Marxist theory. Adorno, Theodor W.
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Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, Adorno, Theodor, and Hanns Eisler. Composing for the Films. Reproduces the text of the English edition, with a newly written critical and historical introduction by Graham McCann. This is a reprint of the original publication, London: Athlone, Bick, Sally. Eisler, Hanns. This is the first English edition, published three years after the German text was written.
By Claudia Gorbman, 99— Rosen, Philip. DOI: A critical appreciation of Composing for the Films that systematically explains the Marxist foundations of its several arguments and prescriptions for film music practice. Schweinhardt, Peter, ed. Eisler-Studien Band 3. Eleven essays, six of them in English abstracts for all are in an appendix. Although often separated from dramatic feature films in the scholarly literature, musicals were very much a part of classical Hollywood practice in terms of basic aesthetics, narrative patterns, and production practices. The popular or trade-book literature on many film genres is very large, and musicals are no exception.
The few works listed here are oriented to research: Altman is the classic scholarly survey in the field, and Knapp is a major study of both stage and film musicals. Cohan and Marshall and Stilwell are two essay anthologies. Altman, Rick. The American Film Musical. As much a theory of genre and genre analysis as it is a specific study of the film musical, its categories have become the standards in the field: fairy-tale musical, show musical, and folk musical.
Cohan, Steve. Hollywood Musicals: The Film Reader. A collection of fourteen previously published articles and book chapters, including one from Altman All topics are firmly situated in classical Hollywood and include not only considerations of the musical as a genre but also questions of gender, race, and sexual orientation seen here in terms of camp.
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Knapp, Raymond. Film musicals lead a turn away from the national and political to the personal. Chapter 2 is specifically on the movie musical, but the case studies in later chapters include both film and stage works. Marshall, Bill, and Robynn Stilwell. Musicals: Hollywood and Beyond. About half the essays concern classical Hollywood and work from a variety of starting points, including film structure, space and classical practice, the star, and identity.
Television drew mainly on the stage, radio shows, and film shorts cartoons, serials until the mids, when studios began licensing feature films. A spate of hour-length dramatic series followed, created using film apparatus and production methods. Personnel of studio music departments thus moved easily into television work, taking their skills and priorities with them.
Burlingame offers thorough documentation, and Rodman is a strong theoretical model. Goldmark is included here because cartoons are known to most people through television rather than theatrical presentation. Burlingame, Jon. Broader in scope than its title suggests, this is in effect a history of music in television. Written in a highly readable trade-book style, the book is grounded in solid scholarship, based on extensive interviews and archival research. Goldmark, Daniel. Not a history but a set of case studies that collectively provide a good overview of music in short animated films during the classical Hollywood era.
Does not discuss feature-length animated films. Chapters on two major composers in studio settings—Carl Stalling at Warner Bros. Rodman, Ronald. The strongest theoretical work to date on music in television. The first three chapters present an associative theory grounded in semiotics and built on the idea of ancrage alignment or interaction of image and sound ; the remaining chapters address topics such as music performances or genres such as music in police dramas.
Repertoire covered is from to The musical practices of cinema exhibition from the beginning were complex but essentially egalitarian. Even in the first decades of the sound era, an association of diegetic music performances with popular music and underscore with classical orchestral music is inadequate to describe practice, especially as waltz songs or foxtrots were frequently incorporated into the musical underscoring.
Nevertheless, the great majority of the scholarly literature focuses on underscore and its composers and says little about popular musics. The few items listed here cover some important aspects: songs in transition-era films Spring , jazz Gabbard , and the interplay of popular music, sound tracks, and marketing after Smith Furia and Patterson offers a historical survey of songs in musicals and other films.
Song indices are listed under Music Titles and Credits. Furia, Philip, and Laurie Patterson. The Songs of Hollywood. A well-written survey of the use of songs in Hollywood sound films. Ten of the eleven chapters concern classical Hollywood; each embeds functional readings of songs in well-known films within the chronological account.
Very readable and thorough, if mostly uncritical and sometimes inclined to the anecdotal. Gabbard, Krin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, The classic study on the representation of jazz in feature films. Chapters are set up as case studies of genres The Jazz Singer and films in its aftermath, jazz biopics , representation jazz as high art, eroticized jazz , and artists Ellington, Armstrong. The result, nevertheless, is a wide-ranging historical narrative that demythologizes jazz as put on offer by classical Hollywood.
Most of this book focuses on the period — and the interactions of popular music, recording, and the film industry. Theory chapter 1 , and historical summary chapters 2 and 3 , are followed by case studies of music by Henry Mancini, John Barry, and Ennio Morricone, and a chapter on pop songs and compilation scores. Spring, Katherine. Thorough historical and documentary account of popular songs not only in musicals which dominated the box office at the time but also other films that offer song performances.
Shows processes at work in the earliest years of the sound feature film that are very like those Smith charts for thirty years later. Historical musicologists traditionally focus on classical concert music and opera. Serious study of popular musics, even historical repertoires such as the Strauss waltzes of 19th-century Vienna, is quite a recent phenomenon. Kramer and Kramer are masterful exercises in interpretation despite these biases. Citron , Gilman and Joe , and Grover-Friedlander address different aspects of cinema in relation to opera.
Long has a wider repertorial range, but Stilwell is a model of the study that gives equal weight to musical and cinematic priorities. Citron, Marcia J. Opera on Screen. Positive and searching account of the meeting of the traditional stage medium of opera with visual media. A study of filmed or televised opera, not dramatic feature films that highlight opera in their narratives. The essential book on the topic. Gilman, Sander, and Jeongwon Joe, eds. Wagner and Cinema. Eighteen essays, plus editorial introduction and epilogue, a short archival article, and a sixteen-page filmography.
Only a half dozen essays focus on classical Hollywood sound film, but these include especially insightful case studies by Marcia Citron and Scott Paulin; rich background information can also be gleaned from the four chapters on Wagner and silent film. Grover-Friedlander, Michal. By Michal Grover-Friedlander, 33— The only chapter on classical Hollywood sound film in this book, which is a set of case studies thematically organized about the idea of the operatic voice in cinema.
Kramer, Lawrence. Several essays by this distinguished interpretive critic focus on, or otherwise involve, cinematic representations of traditional European concert musics. By Lawrence Kramer, 71— The one in this volume is the most general of them, in that music performances in film are a case study p. Long, Michael. A rich text ranging over all the past century in respect to the classic which means neither classical Hollywood nor classical music but the idea of the historical or traditional.
Frequently exasperating in its shifts of rhetorical pitch, the book nevertheless offers a highly imaginative attempt at a postclassical historical narrative of a kind that comfortably enfolds film music. The film is outside the era of classical Hollywood—though in many respects classically constructed—but this now classic essay is a model of a deeply informed film narrative reading that interprets traditional concert music successfully while avoiding overreading.
Information by and about composers of underscore for classical Hollywood films may be found in a variety of source: consult Sherk cited under Bibliographies and Research Guides. McCarty cited under Music Titles and Credits has detailed and reliable lists of composer credits. Surveys organized by chapters on individual composers are among the staples of the literature: see Darby and Du Bois , Palmer , and Thomas A few historical narratives were written by composers themselves: Bazelon and Burt Biographies such as Smith are still few and far between, though Danly provides something analogous by collecting documentary sources.
Skinner is a special case: a book-length account of the details of music composition and production. Bazelon, Irwin. Knowing the Score: Notes on Film Music. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, Tries to cover ample ground with a historical perspective, which leads to a chapter on contemporary film composition, followed by chapters on aesthetics and analysis.
Burt, George. Boston: Northeastern University Press, Although presented as a theory of film-music functions, it is better understood as a collection of historical observations and analyses. Danly, Linda, ed. A gathering of documents on the composer who worked as an orchestrator in the s and s notably for Max Steiner , before becoming known as a composer himself. The editor contributes a biographical chapter, but the heart of the book is a long interview conducted as part of an oral history project in the s. Darby, William, and Jack Du Bois. Arranged chronologically. Fourteen chapters on individual composers, ranging from Max Steiner to John Williams.
Consists mainly of descriptions of music in their films. Six additional chapters provide some additional historical context. Many brief musical examples. Palmer, Christopher. The Composer in Hollywood. London and New York: Marion Boyars, Arranged chronologically in the form of chapters on individual composers. Cast as a critical history of film music in classical Hollywood, the book offers more historical context than Darby and Du Bois , but its narrative is marred by bias toward Miklos Rozsa and Bernard Herrmann, both of whom Palmer had worked for.
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New York: Criterion Music, Skinner worked in the music department at Universal. Many musical examples in score or short-score format. Smith, Steven C. A standard biography of the composer who was active in concert music and radio in New York in the s, worked with Orson Welles Citizen Kane, The Magnificent Ambersons in the early s, and collaborated with Alfred Hitchcock Vertigo, Psycho, and others in the s and s. Thomas, Tony. Burbank, CA: Riverwood, Barnes, Brief introduction and twenty-five chapters on individual composers, including some not given ample attention in Darby and Du Bois or Palmer such as Ernest Gold, Hans Salter, and Bronislau Kaper.
Comments on film music from the composers themselves. Composer-director collaborations similar to that of John Williams and Steven Spielberg in recent decades were rare in the studio production environment of classical Hollywood. The studies listed here take a different tack: Kalinak and Sullivan , for example, survey music in films by a single director. Lerner, Neil. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde