Introduction by William J.
1. General and Collected Works
New York: Oxford Univ. Press, Complete text of report on experiments carried out since the s, with new index and discussion notes. Geary; and Kris L. Hardin, eds. African Material Culture. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, Washington, D. New Haven: Yale Univ. From the founding of Yellowstone National Park in to the present. New York: John Wiley, Endres — R. Han- erns.
Endres, Das Slawenmotiv bei Geburtstag. Die Welt der Slaven. Studien zu Endres — R. Endres, Slawen in Franken. Leipzig — Endres, Die Schweinfurter Eichler — E. In: F. Debus et al. Schweinfurter Fehde und die Landschaft am ed. Obermain Referate des wissenschaftli- W. Geistes- u. Juli in 1 Stuttgart 19— Eichler — E. Eichler, Slavische Siedlungsna- Schweinfurter Museumsschr. Jakob, Slawis- Ernst — B. Leipzig, nenden Hochmittelalters in der Cham- Ges. Further Senke und ihrem Umfeld. Jakob, Arbeitsgem. Ostbayern, West- u. Leipzig, Ettel — P. Ettel, Burgenbau in Franken.
In: Elster. Sied- E. Schwein- Forschung 1. Kommuni- furter Museumsschr. Greule — A. In: schichte. Ein Handbuch zur Geschichte der F. Bittmann et al. Greule, Der hydronymische Ettel et al. Ettel et al. Mosaiksteine 11 1. Oktober Heidelberg — Mainz Fastnacht — D. Fastnacht, Ebermannstadt. Greule a — A. Morphologie, Benennungsmotive, Schichten. Bayern, Oberfranken 4 In: E. Eichler et al. Greule b — A. Greule b, Namen von Fastnacht — D. Fastnacht, Staffelstein. In: maliger Landkreis Staffelstein. Ortsna- E. Fishman, The sociology of schichten in Nordostbayern.
In: P. Patocka eds. Wiesinger Wien Fischer — G. Fischer, Die Flurnamen des Greule b — A. Greule, Ortsnamenschichten Gerichtsbezirkes Eger. Flurna- in Nordostbayern. Fischer — R. Fischer, Zur Namenkunde des 23, , 69— Die slawischen Ortsnamen des Greule — A. Berliner Beitr. Namen- Frank et al. Schuh, Namenkd. Ehemaliger Landkreis Greule a — A. In: H. Castri- ern. Werner eds. George, Lichtenfels.
RGA 63 Berlin — Bayern. Giesler — J. Giesler, Der Ostalpenraum vom Greule b — A. Greule, Spuren der 8. His- und andere Namengeschichten. In: torische Interpretation. Springer eds. Glatthaar, Die drei Fassun- und als Geschichtsquellen. Archiv Erforsch. Mittelalter 69, , namenbuch. Janka, Der Linguistics — Linguistique de contact. Janka, Der Haberlah-Pohl — A. Acta berg. Der Altlandkreis. Atlas Bayern, onomastica 49, , — Franken, R. Janka, Drei Haberstroh — C. Haberstroh ed. In: Speichersdorf. Staatssammlung 30 K. Janka eds. Schnee- Haberstroh — J. Haberstroh, Merowingische berger Regensburg 91— Funde an der Regnitz.
Landesausbau an der Greule et al. Schuh, Ostgrenze des Frankenreichs. In: A. Prinz eds. Vor- 75— Von Guttenberg — E. Haberstroh, Slawische Territorienbildung am Obermain. Siedlungen in Nordostbayern. Wieczo- Teil. Hinz eds. XVII, 1— Haberstroh b — J. Ortsnamen derungszeit. Haberstroh, Radiokar- stigen bairischen Nordgaus.
NF 24, , 57— Jahrhunderts Fichtelgebirge. In: C. Haberstroh , , 85— In: — Schirnding. Archiv Gesch. Oberfranken 69, J. Schuh Hrsg. Haberstroh, Siedlungsge- gen bairischen Nordgaues. Bergmann et al. Oberfranken 80, , 41— Schmid Ages. Early Middle Ages 12 Turnhout Hrsg. Namenforschung 35— Hardt — M. Beier eds. Sprache u. Literatur , , 1— Hasil — J. Guy, Language, social class Chebska. Haubrichs ed. Hensch — M. Werther eds. Bohemia 3, , — Hengst — K. Hengst, Sprachkontakt und Herrmann — E. Ergebnisse der topono- lierung der Slawen in Ostfranken im Hoch- mastischen Analyse im deutsch-slawischen mittelalter.
Slawistik 30, , 87— Herrmann — E. Herrmann, Zur Siedlungs- Hengst — K. Herrmann ed. Geschichte und Kultur der Wiss. Neisse vom 6. Jahrhundert: ein Hand- Hengst — K. Hengst, Namenschichten und buch. Alte Gesch. DDR 14 Berlin Leip- Hickey — R. Hickey ed. November of Language Contact. Blackwell Handb. Lin- Heidelberg 59— Ehe- Sprachaustausch: Slavisch. Janka — W. Haus- In: R. Schmid ner eds. Namenforschung in Imena, Jeziki i Kulture Festschr.
Wien — Janka, Die Siedlungsna- Hengst — K. Plangg eds. Namen in Grenzregionen. Hensch, Burg Sulzbach in Namenforsch. Rie- schaftszentrums des 8. Jahrhunderts pertinger et al. Jahre Nachbarschaft. Katalog zur Bayer- Hensch — M. Jah- Janka — W. Janka, Ortsnamenforschung im rhunderts in der mittleren Oberpfalz. Schmotz Hrsg. In: M. Thieser Pressath 95— Janka, Zur lautlichen und struk- Losert b — H.
In: Hau- Sicht. Niederbayerischen brichs , — Kahl — H. Kahl, Alladorf und die Slawen. Losert — H. Bamberger Geogr. Kahl, Heidenfrage und Slawen- Sonderf. Berg- Europe in the Middle Ages 4 Leiden Ein suchungen am Rauhen Kulm in der Flednitz. Thieser eds.
Kleiber, Historische Phonetik 65— In: Eichler et Losert — H. Losert, Moinvinidi, Radan- al. Geschichte und Klepsch — A. In: schichte aus sprachwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Jahr- of the language situation in the Early Middle hundert. Ostmitteleuropa in Vergangenheit Ages. Konrad — R. Krahe, Die Struktur der alteur- — Greule ed. Kolloquium des Kranzmayer — E.
Feb- ktraumes Wien In: Gesch. Kultur Euregio Egrensis, Qu.
Manske eds. Manske, Der Raum Kem- — Mittelalter, Beih. In: T. Puchner, Das Banzer Reichsur- G. In: D. Reindel eds. Geburt- and Typology. Menke, Die bairisch besiedelten in Bayern. Dann- Von Reitzenstein — W. Darm- und Bedeutung.
Landkarten über das Mittelalter
Oberfranken, Mittelfranken, stadt Mesthrie — R. Mesthrie ed. Romaine, Bilingualism. Lan- bridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Cam- guage in society 13 Oxford Language and Linguistics Romaine — S. Romaine, Contact and Lan- Cambridge Gordon book of Language Contact. Method and Interpre- Linguistics Chichester — Language in society 34 Oxford Roth — W. Roth, Die Mundart des engeren Milroy — L.
Milroy, Social Networks. In: Egerlandes Lautlehre. Kenntnis Sude- J. Schilling- tendt. Mundarten 9 Reichenberg Estes eds. Rowley, Morphologische Variation and Change. Milroy, Lin- Zeitschr. Dialektologie u. Linguistik, Beih. Linguistics 21, , — Sage — W. Nitz, Mittelalterliche Raumer- Ch. Sandness — B. Sandness, Describing lan- Pfaffenberger — S. Pfaffenberger, Von guage contact in place-names. Cavill eds. Sankoff — G. Sankoff, Linguistic Out- Pleintinger — A. Cham- namen im Bereich der oberen Eger. Kolloquium des Schlesinger — W. Skizze Namenforschung, Regensburg, Feb- eines Forschungsprogramms.
Hessisches ruar Regensburg — Schwarz, Die Ortsnamen der — Entwicklung bis zur Eingliederung ins Schwarz — E. Schwarz, Deutsche Namen- Merowingische Reich. Geschichte Frankens bis zum Ausgang des Schwarz — E. Schwarz, Die ing-Namen des Chamer Beckens. In: Eichler et al. Schwarz, Beobachtungen — In: Schwarz a — E. Schwarz, Sprache und H. Ammon ed. Erlanger Beitr. Schwarz b — E. Schwarz, Deutsch-slawische Schuh — R. Schuh, Gunzenhausen. Ehema- Namensbeziehungen von der Ostsee bis zur liger Landkreis Gunzenhausen.
Orts- Adria. In: VI. Schuh — R. In: Ausgrabungen in Schuh — R. Oberpfalz im Spiegel der Ortsnamen. In: 1—2 Mainz — Girisch eds. Schwarz — K. RGZM Monogr. Wenderhorst ed. A, 79 Erlangen 21— Schuh, Die germanisch-deutsche Sonderegger — S.
Geschichte der Stadt Aschersleben
Schuh schichtlichen Interferenzforschung in Sprach- eds. Ramge talis, Franconia, Land zu Franken. Raum und eds. Schulze, Die Grafschafts- Grenzgebieten. Verfassungs- Sperber — R. Hydronymia Germ. Geschichte und Gegenwart Steger — H. Zeitschrift slav. Steidle, Die Entstehung der verbindung zwischen Coburg und Saalfeld. Gesellschaftsgeschichte und Feudalismus- u. Lichte der schriftlichen Dokumente.
Frank- Siedlungsgesch. Walther — H. Walther, Die Ausbreitung der Sturm — H. Sturm, Tirschenreuth. Altbayern, R. In: Herrmann , Sturm — H. Sturm, Districtus Egranus. Eine 36— Atlas Walther — H. Walther, Zur Namenkunde Bayern. Leipzig Thomason — S. Thomason, Contact Expla- Walther — H. Walther, Namenkunde und nations in Linguistics. Handbook of Language Contact. Blackwell Weinreich — U. Weinreich, Languages in Handb. Linguistics Chichester 31— Findings and Problems. Der ens im Mittelalter. Von der Besiedlung zum ehemalige Landkreis.
Atlas Bayern. Trudgill, Domains: Introduc- chkeit in der Geschichte Neustadt a. Aisch tion. Schil- 51— In: guistics, Oxford — Udolph — J. Udolph, Studien zu slavischen Wiesinger — P. Ein Beitrag zur Frage nach der Urheimat Ostsiedlung. Schlesinger ed. Reichenau- Udolph — J. Wiesinger, Die Ortsnamen namenwechsel. Bamberger Symposion 1. Oktober Heidelberg — Debus ed. RGA 9 Beitr.
The disciplinary methods reversed this relation, lowered the threshold of describable individuality, and made of this description a means of control and a method of domination. It is no longer a monument for future memory, but a document for possible use. Das Vermachtnis. By focusing on the disciplined body of the soldier and Boll's use of body language, I expect to reveal Boll's emphasis on the importance of the role of the body and his sustained demand for the dignity of human beings under any circumstances. During Hitler's rule, the everyday existence of German citizens became highly orchestrated.
Through his use of propaganda and the staging of numerous festivals and sporting events Hitler skilfully created an artificial world that looked extraordinarily real to Germans from 17 all walks of life. The "mirroring" bodies discussed in Chapter V are reflections of this deceptive world of make believe. For example, Colonel Bressen, a character in Boll's war novel Wo warst du. In other words, the Colonel's physical appearance and behaviour reflect the tastes and values of the class to which he aspires.
However, it is a class that only exists in the "Scheinwelt" of the Third Reich. It simply does not exist in his contemporary world. The Colonel assures himself of satisfaction by "seeing" his desires already fulfilled in everything he observes and does. His mirroring body is therefore a closed, self-centred body. Boll's treatment of body language, especially noses, in Wo warst du. It was this image of an elite race that increasingly came to dominate the German world of economics and politics.
In the decades leading up to and including the duration of the Third Reich, those who believed in this racial ideology showed nothing but contempt for mankind. In this regime, nakedness became an outward symbol of the god-like superiority and "Schonheitsideal" that must be aimed for, and for which, real, living men had to sacrifice their bodies. In a macabre twist of fate, the political history of the body is here intricately tied to the intellectual history of the body. Wo warst du. These themes demonstrate the importance of community and communication for him and his fellow Germans in a world shattered by the war.
In ChapterVII, I will identify and investigate "Communicative Bodies" in terms of discourses, institutions, and the physical nature of the body. In contrast to the closed, dissociated, "disciplined" and "mirroring" bodies, and the negatively associated dominating body, the "communicative" body is positive, open, and willing to associate and share itself with others. For him: "Die Deutschen [ In this series of lectures at the University of Frankfurt, Boll clearly makes the distinction between the words "Gebundenheit," i.
For Frank Finlay, any consideration of Boll's legacy for contemporary literature must recognise that he: always eschews the lofty detachment of the ivory tower; all his utterances emanate from a sense of co-responsibility for the fate of the society to which he belongs. Boll, [ Rationality An understanding of this difference between his use of the words "Gesellschaft" and "Gebundenheit," therefore, is important for a better understanding of the pre-war, war, and post-war era that Boll captures in his writings. Moreover, because they need recognition in one form or another, regardless of their current condition, they remain open to all possibilities, and have the right to be flexible and spontaneous.
Und sagte kein einziges Wort. Haus ohne Hiiter. In these works, the communicative nature of Boll's characters is revealed through his use of literary body language, and the motifs of "Zartlichkeit'V'Gebundenheit" and of the hand. This chapter provides a good opportunity to reflect upon the centrality of the hand in Boll's writing, an aspect which has not yet been fully recognised or explored by many Boll scholars.
In Chapter VIII, I will summarise the findings of my thesis and suggest directions for further research stemming from the work begun here. The aim of my dissertation, therefore, is to bring Boll's writings into the current discourse of the body. In fact, in Boll's early prose we can trace the changing fortunes of the supposedly new, perfect, beautiful, and inviolable human beings that the Nazis tried at all costs to create and to present to the German nation and to the world.
Boll also portrays their horribly mutilated bodies as they lie wounded, dying or dead in their own blood, or rather in "Fiihrerblut. In addition, Boll describes their mutilated, suffering, and lonely bodies lying in field hospitals, and also as cowards and deserters fleeing from the enemy and their own military police.
His images are a far cry from those spewed out by the tireless Nazi propaganda machine. When the Third Reich bubble finally burst at the end of the war, civilians and soldiers who survived the carnage, returned home without fanfare and glory to widespread devastation. His ability to to criticise his fellow Germans not only emphasises his ambiguous relationship with them but also allows him to show his deep affection for his fellow men. Hilmar Hoffmann Die heutige Zeit arbeitet an einem neuen Menschentyp, ungeheure Anstrengungen werden It is one that begins with sublime ideals of beauty and the dignity of man in the German Classical Period, only to degenerate into unspeakable acts of man's inhumanity to man in the Third Reich.
But it is precisely this story, with all its twists and turns, as well as all its high and low points, that becomes both background and thematic material for Heinrich Boll's early prose. It is a tale, therefore, that must be told. Although this chapter aims to provide a comprehensive look at the concept of this body, one that could simultaneously engender both fascination and violence, it can in no measure presume to be exhaustive in its scope.
A brief introduction of Hitler's interpretation of the body politic will lead off the discussion. In addition, it will facilitate a better understanding of Boll's early prose as a discourse of war-damaged bodies.
Hitler's Drive to Reconstitute Germany's "Body" Chapter IPs first epigraph, "Die Summe der gesunden Korper konstituiert den gesunden Volkskorper, ein Politikum der obersten NS-Kategorie," will be a useful point of departure for a discussion of how Hitler and his part members viewed the role of the individual body in relation to the body politics of a new, whole Germany.
For the Nazis, therefore, the most important political issue was that all healthy bodies of the new state should collectively constitute the healthy national body. In the national propaganda of a twentieth century Germany ruled by Hitler's National Socialist regime, the concept of the body of the individual was therefore represented as being synonymous with Germany's body.
Individuals constituted the body of the German warrior state. Hitler referred to Germany as a "German warrior" under attack in the First World War on all sides by its enemies: "Fast vier Jahre lang war man gegen den deutschen Recken angerannt und konnte ihn nicht zum Sturze bringen; [ Hitler and others blamed the eventual defeat of the German warrior on a stab in the back administered by revolutionaries, Jews and striking women on the home front.
It is still considered to be a classic about the fascist consciousness per se. Hitler, who felt that he had the political mandate and the foolproof plan to accomplish this job, embraced Richard Walther Darre's "Blut und Boden"40 policy. After a successful plebiscite, the Saar region was officially turned over to the Third Reich on March 1, On September 29,, the Third Reich, in agreement with the Czech government, acquired 10, square miles of Sudetenland, and thereby immediately increased its population by three and a half million.
On March 12, , through annexation, Austria became a part of the Third Reich, and on March 15, , military forces of the Third Reich occupied the Czech part of Czechoslovakia. Bohemia and Moravia were then declared German protectorates. By , Hitler's expansion plan was well underway. Klaus Theweleit summed up Hitler's drive to heal and reassemble Germany's dismembered body in this way: Osterreich muBte "angeschlossen" werden, angenaht, und nun los auf den Osten, Bdhmen, die Tschechoslowakei, Polen Kdrper-Protektorate, beherrscht von "Schutz-Staffeln" Deutschland beginnt seinen schutzenden Krieg Das Land According to Klaus Theweleit, because of the Nazis' "Unverletzlichkeitsphantasie" propaganda, millions upon millions of Germans allowed themselves to be driven into the Second World War conflict Das Land However, the beautiful "Schein" of invulnerability soon became the horrific "Sein" of the vulnerable flesh and blood of members of Hitler's "super-race" as they lay injured, mutilated and rotting on battlefields and in towns and villages reduced to rubble.
Hitler, in soundly rejecting the Weimar democratic system of government, proposed a folkish state that would be completely free of the parliamentary principle of majority rule. He proposed instead a state in which the "Personlichkeitsprinzip" would take precedence. For him, "der volkische Staat" should only have advisory bodies standing at the side of the elected leader 4 0 Richard Walther Darre, a close friend of Himmler from his student days in the League of Artamanen, was the proponent of "Blut und Boden" blood and soil mysticism.
As the author of several publications on biological determinism which gained him the reputation as an expert in "human breeding," he eventually became the head of the "SS Rasse und Siedlungs Hauptamt" in Dane glorified German farmers as the remnant of the true Nordic race, seeing them as the future source of Germany's racial elite See Ziegler, Aristocracy See also Jensen, "Blut und Boden" Soweit sie dabei unserem Volkskorper fremdes Blut zufuhrten, wirkten sie mit an jener unseligen Zersplirterung unseres inneren Wesens, die sich in dem - leider vielfach sogar noch gepriesenen - deutschen Uberindividualismus auswirkt" It was Hitler's intention, therefore, to right these wrongs through the vigorous implementation of R.
Darre's racial policy of "Blut und Boden," one that would purify the German race and restore lost land, add new land, and also create more space in which the "new" race could flourish. That all decision-making was to be the exclusive privilege of the responsible leader was based upon Hitler's understanding of the Prussian army's winning principle: "Autoritat jedes Fuhrers nach unten und Verantwortlichkeit nach oben" Kampf Moreover, Hitler demanded that the National Socialist movement immediately reflect these ideas within its own organisation and also be prepared to place the perfected body of the state at its service.
In other words, the body politic, with Hitler as the head and everyone else serving him, expected complete authority and blind obedience from its "subjects. After its unconditional surrender, Germany's "master race body" was again dismembered, first into sectors and zones, and then, in , into the two large political blocks of West Federal Republic of Germany and East German Democratic Republic Germany. Unification would not officially occur until His pertinent comments are uncomfortable reminders of the race and body discourses of the Third Reich. For example, Peter Schneider writes: Eine Freundin aus Rumanien, die fliefiend Deutsch spricht und mehrfach als Dissidentin verhaftet worden war, konnte den zustandigen deutschen Beamten nicht von ihrem Deutschtum iiberzeugen.
In hellem Zorn fragte sie, ob sie sich etwa darauf berufen musse, da! Ein solcher Nachweis ware hilfreich, erhielt sie kiihl zur Antwort, Die Nazi-Vergangenheit eines Verwandten, die man in jedem anderen Land der Welt lieber verschweigen wurde, ist offenbar in der Bundesrepublik immer noch fur Privilegien gut.
- The Blessing Next to the Wound: A Story of Art, Activism, and Transformation.
- UBC Theses and Dissertations.
- I. The 20th Century and Works Covering More Than One of Divisions II–V;
Mittellage Hitler, himself, made his views on "Deutschtum" very clear. It is obvious that he clearly believed that a Germanisation process based on linguistic integration would be catastrophic. In Mein Kampf which became the "Nazi Bible," Hitler scoffed: [E]in fremdrassiges Volk, in deutscher Sprache seine fremden Gedanken ausdriickend, die Hohe und Wurde unseres eigenen Volkstums durch seine eigene Minderwertigkeit kompromittierend.
- Cities, Regions and Flows (Routledge Studies in Human Geography).
- Octopus Purple-Us: a beautifully illustrated book.
- Girl with the Crooked Smile - Stuck In A Moment ... and the Pearls of Wisdom that pulled her through it?
Wie entsetzlich [ Es wird aber doch niemand einfallen, in der rein auBerlichen Tatsache, daB diese verlauste Volkerwanderung aus dem Osten meistens deutsch spricht, den Beweis fur ihre deutsche Abstammung und Volkszugehorigkeit zu erblicken. What then determined a person's claim to his or her "Deutschtum? The "Volksstaat" or people's state reserved the right to determine the race and nationality of every subject. According to Hitler, the "Staatsbiirgerrecht" could only be solemnly bestowed upon a male German subject after he had been racially educated and had had his blood purity as an Aryan confirmed, and had also completed his physical education and his 22 compulsory military service.
For the present study, however, especially informative and rich in well-documented sources is Klaus Wolbert's Die Nackten und die Toten des "Dritten Reiches" His historical and political insights into the nude sculptures of the Third Reich provide a useful introduction to the German brand of fascism. Klaus Wolbert's research shows how the classical body ideal historically becomes altered and appropriated by the National Socialist regime.
The eighteenth-century German classical archaeologist and art historian J. Winckelmann, in contemplating "new" directions for architecture and sculptures, called for the imitation of the Greek standard of beauty. In an era in which intellectuals, the nobility, and emerging upper classes yearned for a return to Hellas, the recently excavated Roman copies of Greek sculptures and art had instilled in him a sense of simple nobility and subdued majesty.
Winckelmann rejected late Baroque and Rococo sculptures as being too sensuous. For him, although beauty was received through the senses, it was only through reason that it became recognised and understood. In tracing the reaction of other eighteenth-century German intellectuals to the Greek ideal of beauty, Klaus Wolbert pointed out that in Laokoon , Lessing also argued that nothing surpasses the beauty of the naked human form. In addition, he noted that although Goethe acknowledged the dignity of human beings as incontestable, he also favoured an autonomous image of humanity.
Schiller, according to Klaus Wolbert, understood the concept of "Schonheit" to be the means by which the sensual man arrived at form and thinking. In the classical aesthetic, beauty and nudity were synonymous Nackten Also writing in that era, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, the naked human body was no longer a condition of the classical ideal. Rather, arms, hands, and the position of the legs, to the exclusion of the organs necessary for the maintenance of the body, e.
Moreover, for him, naked sculptures have no claim to a higher sense of beauty, or for that matter, to a greater sense of moral freedom and purity. The law will allow immigrant children to hold dual nationality till the age of twenty-three at which time they must decide which passport they will keep. According to a BBC's Berlin correspondent, Caroline Wyatt, the new law "should help counter racism and help integration, giving the children of immigrants a real stake in Germany's future. Under Germany's current citizenship law, dating back to , children bom to foreigners in Germany are not eligible to become German citizens.
This status can only be acquired according to the "jus sanguinis" blood law. At the moment, foreigners may apply for a German passport only after living in Germany for over 12 years. However, they must then agree to give up their present citizenship. However, desiring that their social status project a sense of higher purpose, the ruling classes of the last five decades of the nineteenth century began to decorate their institutions with sculptured, symbolic figures of godly ideals in Hellenistic settings Wolbert, Nackten Beginning in the eighteenth century, the rise of the gymnastics movement had reawakened interest in the ancient ideal of beauty.
The "Korperkultur" movement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, like the gymnastics movement, was also based on the naked human body. According to Klaus Wolbert, in , Karl Simon, an author close to the George Circle, argued that the cultural shift to Classicism heralded the start of a "mannliches Zeitalter" of active, naked, male bodies.
Karl Simon saw nakedness as a male affair that presented itself, from an aesthetic point of view, in heroic themes that dealt with weapons, war, battle, and blood. Although the original classical humanist content was ignored, its inherent sense of superiority, powerful genius and heroic nature were still emphasised. Wolbert, however, suggests that although contemporary literature after continued to discuss nude sculptures in terms of the art theories of German Classicism and Idealism, it did so without referring to the original classical ideal and all that that entailed Nackten The Nazis and their literature, however, clearly considered the great male body to be "dignified.
Both in the city and in the country, however, many industrial workers became physically harmed and deformed in their respective work environments. Their damaged bodies, therefore, failed to meet the high standards of the "new" aesthetic body ideal. Consequently, the "inferior" man soon became associated with ugliness, and the "superior" man with the ideal of beauty. The Nazis twisted the concepts and ideals of the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche , regarding the beautiful, victorious and agreeable human body to suit their purposes.
However, the idea of "inferiority," especially with regard to Slavs and the Jews, was already in the ideology. All these factors would later have devastating consequences for millions of "inferior" people under the Third Reich regime's brand of fascism. Nietzsche's role in the story of both the renewal of the body and the aesthetic of the body, according to Klaus Wolbert, was that of a powerful transformer.
He lashed out at his contemporaries who despised the body. For him, it was imperative that they learn to recognise the importance of the entire casuistry of egoism, and the seemingly trivial details of nourishment, place, climate, and relaxation. Nietzsche's observations served as inspiration for generations of "Kdrperkult-Anhanger," life reformers, light and fresh air activists, vegetarians, physical fitness advocates etc. His body aesthetics, and his views on the "Ubermensch" which, however, eventually drifted into the irrational, all stem from this "new"44 way of thinking.
For Klaus Wolbert, Nietzsche's writings called for total physical vigour and a transfigured body, and registered his abhorrence for the social illnesses of his time: decadence, nihilism, and cultural decline. Yet, in spite of his views on the human condition, and his recognition that man's intellectual ability was firmly bound to the earthly and to reality, 4 4 Other thinkers before him had already voiced their observations on the theme of man's naked animalistic existence. Nietzsche borrowed, for example, Schopenhauer's idea that man was not a winged angel's head without a body.
Happiness of the people took second place to his desire for a genius derived from a higher cultural-spiritual and bodily development. In addition, he rejected the human characteristics that seemed to hint at the weaknesses of the "Great. Like many others before him, Nietzsche could not imagine a beautiful soul in a misshapen body. For him, man's intellect, will, soul, strength, reason, and inspiration, were all functions of his human body.
Through Zarathustra he declared: "Leib bin ich und Seele Ich gehe nicht euren Weg, ihr Verachter des Leibes! Hir seid mir keine Bracken zum TJbermenschen! For Nietzsche, both the body and the mind are essential for the well-being of the whole human being. According to Klaus Wolbert, Nietzsche's interest went beyond the exterior forms of Greek art and sculpture. For him, the inner body was just as important as the external body: "[Nietzsche] wollte das Stromen und Rauschen unter der Haut However, Nietzsche's vision of a superman, one whose most decisive characteristic must be egoism, was an aesthetic fiction.
It was a vision that was too heavily burdened by excessive physical and mental power to be within the reach of mortal human beings Wolbert, Nackten Around and after the turn of the century, Nietzsche's views on the body influenced in varying degrees the work of sculptors such as Johannes Bossard, Max Klinger, Georg Kolbes, Josef Thorak, and Arno Breker.
The writings of the George Circle, a group of writers who ardently believed in their own intellectual superiority and in the inferiority and ugliness of the "masses," also seemed to indicate the presence of Nietzsche's ideas in educated circles. Klaus Wolbert maintained that Nietzsche's discourses of the body do, in fact, contain the seeds of the Nazi aesthetic of the body: Doch dal3 in seinem Werk Gedanken zusammenfafit wurden, die aus der hoffartigen Distanzierung gegenuber dem Sozialismus erst ihre radikale Form erhielten, dafi diese inhumanen Gedanken als Gemeingut elitarer Bildungszirkel sich ausbreiteten und schliefilich auch zum Bewufitsein der Faschisten iiber Mensch und Kunst beitrugen, kann nicht im Ernst geleugnet werden.
Es wird nicht behauptet, dafi bei Nietzsche selbst dieser Geist den Faschismus bereits beinhaltet hatte, dessen Genese hatte keine geistigen, sondern konkrete sozio-okonomische Griinde, aber in solchem Geist hat er sich geaufiert. Of course, the Nazis did not really tolerate "ugliness. These body culture groups practised an alternative, improved life style through the adoption of health therapies that offered greater harmony in life, body, soul, and existence. Allotment gardens, artist colonies, nature healing, hiking, youth movements, vegetarianism, air, light, and sun worship, and the flourishing of nudist culture pointed to the growing desire to go back to nature.
Corsets and potbellies were also understood as negative signs of city life and of "deformed" human bodies. Beginning around the turn of the century, and gaining greater momentum in the twenties, other groups practised total body movement activities such as gymnastics, dance, and rhythmic exercises. They promised cures for bodies suffering from the ill effects of modern civilisation through muscle training, breathing, posture and agility exercises. Nudity, however, was optional. The common denominator in all of these groups was an aggressive German national, "vdlkisch," and racist content.
Body culture, in all of its forms, not only provided the union with the elemental, it also marked the turn to the forces of "Blut und Boden," and the racist ideal of "Schdnheit. Male and female workers whose bodies were marked and physically damaged by accidents or illnesses, either due to their jobs or to their living conditions, were seen as inferior, servile, bowed, and "ugly" Wolbert, Nackten Body culture would eventually come to signify more than simply active physical training and strength.
An aesthetic, mythical ideal of beauty, as well as specific physical characteristics were openly sought after. In fact, anything that was culturally valuable was automatically credited to the Aryan race. As Hitler himself claimed: Was wir heute an menschlicher Kultur, an Ergebnissen von Kunst, Wissenschaft und Technik vor uns sehen, ist nahezu ausschliefilich schopferisches Produkt des Ariers Er ist der Prometheus der Menschheit, aus dessen lichter Stirne der gdttliche Funke des Genius zu alien Zeiten hervorsprang, immer von neuen jenes Feuer entziindend, das als Erkenntnis die Nacht der schweigenden Geheimnisse aufhellte und den Menschen so den Weg zum Beherrscher der anderen Wesen dieser Erde emporsteigen lieB.
Man schalte inn aus - und tiefe Dunkelheit wird vielleicht schon nach wenigen Jahrtausenden sich abermals auf die Erde senken, die menschliche Kultur wurde vergehen und die Welt verdden. Kampf 4 6 In the first decades of the twentieth century, German magazines like Die Schonheit. Nicht die Eitelkeit muB herangezogen werden, auf schone Kleider, die sich nicht jeder kaufen kann, sondem die Eitelkeit auf einen schonen, wohlgeformten Korper, den jeder mithelfen kann zu bilden. Das Madchen soli seinen Ritter kennenlernen.
Auch dies ist im Interesse der Nation, daB sich die schonsten Korper finden und so mithelfen, dem Volkstum neue Schonheit zu schenken" Kampf For Hitler, the adjective "northern" also included the peoples of America and Europe. However, some inhabitants of supposedly "northern" countries could more accurately be described as swarthy, "pyknisch" types. Therefore, in seeking to strictly define who was truly a German, the Nazis needed to be far more specific, indeed "scientific," in defining an Aryan.
This was very important for the exclusionary racial policies of Hitler and his followers who saw themselves as members of a superior Aryan race. For him, therefore, the northern idea of nudity was the foundation of racial breeding and the myth of race: "Bei der Nordischen Rasse gait der nackte Leib als vornehmstes Erziehungsmittel und diente als Ansporn beim Streben nach denkbar hochstem Rassenideal" Suren, Mensch und Sonne The outdoor activities offered by Hans Suren's "Korperschule" and "Schwunggymnastik" program promised not only to toughen the bodies of his followers, including "working people," but also to give them back their strength and beauty.
His aim was also to instil in them a fighting spirit and readiness for battle. It was Suren's intention, therefore, that "Nacktheit" become, as it were, a substitute for alcohol, cigarettes, and the other sensuous pleasures of the body that allegedly drained away the energy of the "Volk. So wie die Breker-Figuren sind wir nicht. Eher sehen wir die langste Zeit unseres Lebens aus, wie die sogenannten entarteten Kiinstler den Menschen sahen" "Stellungnahmen" To her, Breker's statues, which celebrate intellectual superiority, seemed to emit something threatening and violent.
In her opinion, artists in the Third Reich created undamaged, imperious statues against which to contrast the downgraded, humiliated, and broken people in the "old" German state. The ice skater seemed convinced that there was something inhuman about glorifying the undamaged human: "Der Mensch mit all seinen Schwachen und auch Beschadigungen ist doch viel wirklicher als sein glattes, makelloses Ideal, dem etwas Monstroses anhaftet Der Fetisch von der Jugendlichkeit durchtrainierter, idealistischer Korper dient in einer Welt voller Beschadigungen als Zuflucht.
We might draw here a parallel to Boll, whose aesthetic of the human is present in all aspects of his life and work, and who also recognised and insisted in acknowledging the beauty and value that exists even in damaged bodies. In Der Mythus des Jahrhunderts: Eine Wertung der seelisch-geistigen Gestaltenkampfe unserer Zeit Munich, , Rosenberg tediously explored the racial purity of Germans.
Rosenberg's anti-Semitism and desire fed Hitler's own violent prejudices of "Nordic" conquests. He was executed as a war criminal in Niirnberg in For him: "Die Nordische Freikdrperkultur kann und wird nur die Elite des deutschen Volkes aufhehmen" Suren called on men and women from all sectors of society to be partners in a new Germanic era: "Schadet nicht eurem nordischen Blut und eurer rassischen Art!
Seid unbeugsam im Willen, doch seelenfein in Ritterlichkeit und Edelmut! Ihr konnt es, wenn ihr wollt - ihr Manner und Madchen -, denn ihr seid Nordischer Rasse. Der Arier vollbringt alles was er will! In full agreement with the contemporary "Blut und Boden" ideology, Hans Suren exhorted both men and women to keep in mind Richard Walther Darre's three-pronged definition of "Schonheit" when they chose a marriage partner: "Blut," "Gesundheit," and "Tauglichkeit" Mensch und Sonne ff. The Nazis used this definition to evaluate and select those who would be suitable for populating the "new" German Empire that they wanted to create.
In essence, it was a "perception" that was physical, moral and obliquely political. This definition of beauty also ensured that a woman would be both mentally and physically capable of being a wife, and mother of perfect, healthy Aryans. She would be the source of soldiers for Hitler's coming wars of expansion. In a pseudo-lyrical way, the contemporary Nazi writer, Hans F.
In the Shadow of Death | Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Giinther, summed up the image of the ideal German as a Nazi, and as a member of the Aryan, northern races, as follows: Nicht nur der begabteste, auch der schonste Mensch ist der Mensch nordischer Rasse. Da steht die schlanke Gestalt des Marines aufgerichtet zu siegreichem Ausdruck des Knochen- und Muskelbaus, zu herrlichen AusmaB der breiten, kraftigen Schultern, der weiten Brust und der schmalgefestigten Huften.
Da bliiht der Wuchs des Weibes auf mit schmalen gerundeten Schultern und breiter geschwungenen Huften, abef immer in Schlankheit zu holdester Anmut. Beim Manne das harter geschnittene Gesicht, beim Weibe das zarte Gesicht, bei beiden die leuchtend-durchblutete Haut, die blonden Haare, die hellen siegreichen Augen, bei beiden die vollendete Bewegung eines vollendeten Leibes! Ritter However, this ideal of beauty and perfection which was more often than not more Utopian than real, gave rise to ironic jingles.
It therefore 5 1 Hitler spells out what differentiates the Aryan from Jew: "Der Selbsterhaltungstrieb hat bei ihn [dem Arier] die edelste Form erreicht, indem er das eigene Ich dem Leben der Gesamtheit willig unterordnet und, wenn die Stunde es erfordert, auch zum Opfer bringt" Kampf However, according to Hitler the reverse is true of the Jew: "Der Aufopferungswille im jiidischen Volke geht iiber den nackten Selbsterhaltungstrieb des einzelnen nicht hinaus" Kampf It is ironic that in his scientific publication in Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie the Vienna-born scientist Konrad Lorenz chose to illustrate the superior Aryan body with Arno Breker's statue of Dionysus The statue's exaggerated proportions gave him no cause for concern.
Instead, they enhanced his "scientific" findings. Lorenz writes: Abb. Sander Gilman, in his book Making the Body Beautiful , under the caption "The scale of the female body,"includes a remarkable photograph of eight numbered and racially identified naked women with an inscription which in part reads: "Die Unterschiede in dem Korperbau dem Wuchs verschiedener Rassen.
Nach Photographien. The other six, however, appear to be photographs of "real" women, three from three different African countries, and one each from Samoa, Australia, Borneo. It was Hitler's ambition to create the perfect German Aryan body. However, he too, would have to resort to statues to fulfil his dreams of a beautiful master race. The nudist movement was banned in March and the "Freikorperkultur," like all other associations and clubs, was brought under the complete control of the NSDAP.
The nude culture club, with fewer than members, now became known as the "Bund fur deutsche Leibeszucht" and was brought into step with the organised orientation of all aspects of the Nazi state. Clearly, the Third Reich wanted no eccentrics. Members now pledged loyalty to the Party ideology, and swore to contribute in the creation of a great, strong and healthy Germany. Sahr, "Daseinsberechtigung" 78 5 3 Sander Gilman references the illustration as follows: "The scale of the female body.
Leipzig: Th. Grieben, Chicago: private collection " Gilman Beautiful xiv. In the Third Reich, therefore, beauty became a political tool with which to exclude and destroy the anomalous: "Die Schonheit, welche urspriinglich als eine humanistisch positive Bestimmung in der idealen Nacktheit zur sinnlichen Anschauung kam, hatte nun allein die Funktion, das durch sie als haBlich relativierte reale Leben zu negieren" Wolbert, Nackten Purity became the catchword that would spell life or death for millions when its character was perverted into this deadly ideology.
The Nurnberg Racial Laws were designed to protect German blood and honour. The works of artists like Kathe Kollwitz, Ernst Barlach, and Emil Nolde were used as counter images to the unbroken, smooth, undamaged, and therefore "beautiful" appearance of the Nazi depictions of "synthetic"56 Aryan bodies. The idealised inner lifelessness of Nazi female statues displayed no semblance of decadent eroticism and individuality.
Eroticism was only to be aimed at procreation, not at the sheer pleasure of it. Konrad Lorenz's remarks concerning the aesthetic "Beziehungsschemata" of the female body in this regard, are also notable: Sehen wir von den Merkmalen ab, die im Schdnheitsideal beider Geschlechter iibereinstimmen Skelettlange, gerade, lange Beine, Schadelbasislange usw. Lorenz, "Die angeborenen Formen" The role of women in the Third Reich was therefore clearly reflected in every aspect of German society. Writing almost four decades later, Susan Sontag's comment on this aspect of the fascist ideal appear to confirm Konrad's views of the role women played in the Third Reich.
According to Sontag, Hitler's regime sought to create "a society in which women are merely breeders and helpers, excluded from all ceremonial functions, and represent a threat to the integrity and strength of men" Sontag, "Fascinating" Udo Pini,57 in his book Leibeskult und Liebeskitsch: Erotik. Those who refused were forced to disband. In this way, Hitler had complete control over all institutions and discourses, and was therefore able to orchestrate the training and indoctrination of all of his "loyal" subjects.
Das "verkameradschaftlichte" und aufgenordete deutsche Frauenbild sollte dem sinnenfreudigen, ausschweifenden Weiberbild der Weimarer Republik widersprechen, das mit seiner entsittlichenden Liberalitat und seinen chaotisierenden Emanzipationsbemiihungen der Gesellschaft den Keim des moralischen Zerfalls eingepflanzt habe. Mythos In addition, for Hilmar Hoffmann, the National Socialist propaganda machine exploited what it saw as negative examples of women depicted in degenerate and decadent art by contrasting them with its own positive examples of the pure German wife and mother.
In other words, Nazi art works were ideologically determined.