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Using a small tube, I inject into different entry points on the face. I make two entry points on each side of the face : the first is at the level of the cheekbones so the tube fans 5 - 6 rays towards the naso-labial furrows. I then make retrograde injections with Art Filler Fine Lines This technique generates strong vectors that create a lifting effect and prompt dermic rejuvenation. This polyrevitalisation solution also contains a cocktail of 53 ingredients which boosts the activity of fibroblasts that become lazy with age.

I finish the procedure through a last entry point slightly above the mandibular angle on the jaw, spanning 4 - 5 rays to the marionette lines and naso-labial folds. What results do you get? An immediate lifting effect and blooming complexion that improves over time. What is innovative about this procedure is that in addition to starting a skin rejuvenation process, it maintains it over time by bringing essential nutrients that deliver long-term results.

Two sessions spaced 3 months apart are needed for best results. The results obtained are very natural : the texture and quality of the skin are visibly improved without changing volumes. The complexion is smoother, firmer and more radiant. Is Bio Nutri Lift only effective for the face? No, this process also works well to revitalize and fill out the backs of the hands, which have a tendency to thin and become skeletonized with age. Rossano Ferretti has the reputation of being one of the most expensive hairdressers in the world and has had the honour of taking care of numerous famous heads of hair including Kate Middleton and Angelina Jolie, amongst others.

In the Monaco salon, Rossano Ferretti himself will only be on site some of the time, of course, but there will be a permanent team of professionals there, who have all been trained in his method. After completing his professional hairdressing qualifications in Lille, he went to New York and worked in the modelling world before going to Bangkok, where he befriended fashion designers and artistic directors. Having just turned 30 and also having spent two years in the army, this young and successful stylist is one to watch.

Ce sera un peu de bonheur en plus! The clinic Villabianca is a real opportunity! Clinic Villabianca associates and proposes proficiencies in different medical fields like aesthetic dermatology, aesthetic surgery, nutrition and anti-aging checkup, as well as dental surgery and rheumatology. Time will pass by with less impact on you thus you will live better. A little more happiness! Here is a tube that will naturally find its place in our sports bag. Morpho Fitness Serum Activator Slimming is even called to become a partner of choice in our lives. For many and very good reasons : it amplifi es the energy expenditure, before and after a physical activity, and optimizes the transformation of fatty acids into energy as well as the benefi ts of a slimming massage manual or with apparatus.

In other words, with him, we put all the chances on our side to have a dream silhouette this summer. Breaking news from Planet Beauty! Orlane have developed a totally regenerating face treatment which resets the clock, creating the ideal conditions for the complexion to appear youthful and lovely. Skin cells are boosted, thanks to the exclusive Youth Reset formula, which eliminates the main sources of ageing from deep within the cells.

Capture the attention and captivate the crowds, no doubt, our friends the stars know how to do. We probed some Hollywood specimens and they talk about it These complexed stars that assume My mouth is not symmetrical, so much so that my mother always advised me to make my lips thicker by outlining them with lipstick. What else? Oh yes, once I thought that I was squinting and becoming cross-eyed. Getting over your insecurities helps you remember that no-one is perfect. In any case, perfection in a man or a woman is something a bit scary. But then I read in a book that the eyes are the window to the soul so now I reassure myself that with my huge ones, people who look at me must be able to see what a nice person I am!

My breasts! I was so ashamed that I stuffed my bra with cotton wool. I had no hair until I was four years old. And to make matters worse, I got all my teeth when I was I was suffering from a form of illness which prevented my teeth from growing normally and as I was very tall and pale-skinned, plus I wore glasses, well you can imagine the scenario!

Nous ne sommes jamais satisfaites de ce que nous avons. I would have liked to have had a fair complexion; but I was born with dark skin and I used to spend a fortune on cosmetic products to make myself paler. We are never satisfi ed with what we have. When I was little, I also had a habit of twirling a lock of hair around my fi ngers with the result that I now have a twosquare-centimetre bald patch. I still feel like everyone can see it! Then I lost a few kilos, changed my hairstyle and decided to spend less time worrying about it! Je ne connais pas un acteur ou une actrice qui ne le soit pas.

A 4 ou 5 ans, je me trouvais trop grosse. For example, when I was four or fi ve years old, I thought I was too fat. Then I became a teenager who could not bear to look at myself in the mirror and I had to do therapy to help me accept the way I looked. These days, I think I have made my weaknesses into strengths. When you go through things like this, you learn to laugh at yourself and even at your faults which, for me, is a sign of intelligence.

In fact, when I was a model, I was even considering plastic surgery. It took me years to come to terms with my appearance. Also, my hair is so curly and unruly. It was only after LA Story that I was considered sexy. People often talk about my smile but this smile also gave me a hard time. When I was younger I thought I looked like I had a coat hanger in my mouth and I had a brace fi tted. Do you remember that line from the fi lm Zelig? So I concentrated on humour as a seduction tool. For years I was insecure about my breasts which were too large and out of proportion with the rest of my body.

When I had a breast reduction, it was really liberating! Auparavant, pour acheter un jean, je devais en essayer une centaine avant de trouver le bon. Before, when I was buying jeans, I used to have to try on about pairs before I found the right ones. Things got much better, though, once I talked about it in an interview and a few days later I received thousands of letters telling me to stop worrying about it. Just like a lot of women, I have had to struggle hard to get rid of the excess kilos, specially as when I was pregnant with Mia, I did put on a lot of weight.

Then I decided to go to a nutritionist. Now I resort to fresh fruit and veg! When I was a baby, I caught a virus and had to have a tracheotomy. The perfect choice to discover an international, mediterranean inspired cuisine and creative cocktails, by the sea. When the weather is nice, escape to the terrace! Information and reservations lintempo. All Rights Reserved. Sophie Maslard The fields seem to sway to the rhythm of an inaudible music, overseen by the friendly eyes of the two house buffaloes, waiting patiently for the next harvest time.

The beautifully turnedout gardeners, complete with straw hats, are busying themselves with the vegetable garden. Out of the corner of your eye, you can see the scarecrows, quite realistic as they are dressed in the same outfits as their gardener colleagues and seem to wave as you pass. There are 25 on stilts in the manner of a Khmer village and 20 pool houses, made of wood and traditional, Cambodian plaited palm leaves.

All the houses have extra-large bedrooms, a living area, a big, beautiful bathroom and the stilted rooms have spacious private terraces. There is nothing superfluous or haphazard here, so you can relax into this purest of luxuries, where the greatest attention has been given to every detail : there is wood everywhere, from the walls to the ceilings; the furniture has been custom-designed with true craftsmanship; the bathtubs are made of natural stone and the linen is made of different embroidered cottons.

There are fine fabrics and materials dyed in shades of beige, green and earthy colours, in total harmony with the purity of the surrounding nature. The spa has seven treatment rooms and is accessed via a magnificent stone door, which could easily be mistaken for the entrance to a forgotten temple. The Tibetan massage is also divine. Then, when thoughts turn to food, there are two restaurants serving a flavoursome, aromatic cuisine made from ingredients grown on site. This is the ideal destination to recharge your batteries and your brain.

Marathon culinaire en tuk tuk dans les rues de Siem Reap. Nombreux ateliers et vente de produits sur place. Cuisine traditionnelle. The Mebon temple in the centre of the Baray is being renovated and should be available to visit from The floating houses of the Great Lake Tonle Sap. Traditional Khmer circus and dance show. Tuk-tuk culinary tour of Siem Reap street food, complete with insect-tasting. Kandal Village for the Siem Reap arts and crafts market. The Artisans Angkor organisation trains young people in Cambodian arts and craftsmanship. There are several boutiques and workshops are available.

Perfectly prepared food using seasonal and, if possible, local ingredients. Dans la salle de bains, une baignoire en pierre naturelle. Since , the festival has taken place in the springtime and the name was changed. How would you describe the season? The whole edition is wonderful! I have been developing close relationships between Monaco and other music and dance schools across the region for many years. This has been essential in offering our young music students the chance to hear other very talented artists and for them to take part in the festival.

This is why we have created a music and dance school day as part of the programme. We decided to help this amateur orchestra who, without funding, manage to achieve amazing results. It encourages us all that these individuals, whose situation can be dramatically precarious, are able to find something more important than financial gain in the spirit of playing music.

We have been helping them as much as we can since their first appearance here: a luthier stringed instrument maker has been trained by our music academy; the choirmaster of Monte-Carlo opera was sent over there to form a choir; we send instruments to them and also have them repaired; training has just started for a harp player, after HRH The Princess of Hanover donated a harp an instrument beyond their budget ; and also direct links and friendships have formed between certain musicians from the Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra and their Congolese counterparts.

Therefore, we will all come together for the concert by the Monte-Carlo Philharmonic and the Kinshasa Symphony Orchestra and move towards the next training level. This is obvious, since otherwise we would just be repeating ourselves and the programme would only consist of things we have already heard. Creation is nothing exceptional as it is something we do every day, whether it be in the sciences, the organisation of society or in our thought processes.

Art, too, is always on the move and to ignore that would be a mistake, shutting off the public, feeding them things they already know and preventing the chance for discovery, especially as Monaco has seen some amazing moments in the past thanks to new works. The Monaco Music Forum day will be a chance to hear some new music. There will be some spectacular moments, such as dancebased works, pole dancing, orchestral and piano pieces, as well as fire-eating.

When we think, for example, about the 19th century, we only remember very few composers, compared to the numbers that existed. We have made choices which time has dictated. Now we come face-to-face with our own choices. It is our gift. The public knows that we are always careful in terms of quality.

There will be moments I cannot talk about because it would spoil the surprise. Pour tous les budgets. Virginie Broquet illustrates life as it is, capturing and immortalising each moment. Julie Garway La rencontre a lieu chez elle, sur les hauteurs de Nice. Mais son terrain de jeu favori est bien plus vaste. For 20 years, her insatiable curiosity has led her across the globe, passing from one continent to another, as easily as some might move from one room to the next, as she sketches landscapes, street scenes, buildings and people.

And she has also designed a collection of scarves named Un Peu de Soi, using a selection of her best designs, including the legendary Formula One Monaco Grand Prix. She has even designed carnival floats! She also keeps some of her ideas a secret before bringing them to life, as always in between trips to the four corners of the world. He stood out as a gifted child with an IQ of and very quickly showed a serious talent for art and business. He would love to install a metre Totor against a building. Bolongaro is a workaholic who is never short of ideas.

He never travels by plane and regularly crosses the ocean between France and the US, where he uses the time to make sketches, which become the basis for sculptures. Which is how his aliens, robots and, of course, Totor, are conceived! She looks ahead towards the future, which she hopes will allow him to realize important projects.

Depuis mai dernier, elle est directrice de la Communication du Gouvernement Princier. I have a pragmatic and very young mind, I wanted to be independent. I dreamed of becoming a journalist but the profession was now changing and a raid in Nice Television showed me that there was not my way. The man tells her about challenges and adventures, she accepted the position of responsible media and communication professional club.

Leaving the Principality for a job abroad, it was without. But that proposal came at a time when I wanted to give a new impetus to my career. Many positive aspects that open the field of possibilities. Among the changes it wants to see happen figure, among other things, a restructuring of the communication and information as two independent entities. The past moments with family and friends around a table are, for me, irreplaceable! Rencontre avec une femme de passion. Le saphir du Cachemire est devenu pratiquement introuvable, il fait partie des plus beaux du monde.

Very early on in her life, Chantal Beauvois was attracted by the world of art, painting and, in particular, jewellery and her interest was such that she made it her profession. She had a classic education, gaining a diploma from the National Institute of Gemmology, a degree in History and History of Art and then, when she entered the job market, she developed a strong taste for independence. She is a member of the Monaco Chamber of Professional Experts and is certified as an authorised representative for insurance purposes.

Chantal Beauvois has also worked with various different auctioneers and sales houses, collaborating with the Tajan auction house alongside Jacques Tajan, organising prestigious jewellery auctions in the Principality. She can often be found running between two planes, as she carries out valuations in all four corners of the world. Chantal Beauvois tells stories of collectors who are ready to spend a veritable fortune to acquire the piece they desire. She speaks with affection of her base in the Principality of Monaco, underlining how important it is for the tiny state to hold prestigious auctions, whether of cars, furniture, modern and classic art, luxury leather goods and, of course, jewellery.

Chantal Beauvois may live in a world of precision, where everything is an exact science but in this world there is also plenty of room for wonderment and imagination. A trained clinical psychologist, she helped her father in the family business before taking over the reins. Because the CEO of Asepta Laboratories has not always held this seat in the company founded by her father. She was firstly a clinical psychologist, a profession that she exercised for odd years, following the ups and downs of life which took her on various paths. Not a problem!

She first went to study at IAE Paris and then, having finished her business diploma, she came to Monaco. What keeps me going?

Nuovi Arrivi

For now, none of her three children talk about joining the family business. Enfin les. The headboards of the beds feature the Infanta, whose image is also in the corridors, alongside the very serious-looking chevaliers from The Surrender of Breda masterpiece. The concept is definitely designerorientated but in no way ostentatious in the public areas, rooms and suites, thanks to the use of refined designer brands : there are fabrics by Rubelli, the chairs are by Vitra, there are Flos 94 lamps and Italian furniture created by Molteni.

In the rooms, top marks should be given to the use of huge glass window partitions with curtains, of course which separate the living area from the bathroom, serving to give the impression of more space. We loved the neutral shades and the original features, as well as a clever touch in the bathrooms, as the large, eggshellcoloured floor tiles have the huge advantage of being non-slip, a feature rarely seen.

As for meal times, the hotel is extremely proud of its gourmet restaurant. Dos Cielos Madrid, which is located in the former stables, done up in a very modern style with brick walls and a partially transparent floor. In the main building, there is the traditional restaurant, Le Montmartre, serving delicious Mediterranean cuisine.

We must not forget to mention the rooftop of the hotel, where the pool is an enormous attribute in summer. The qualified team really looks after you in this universe dedicated to body and facial therapies. The wellness area has a traditional hammam pool with counter-current jetstream and relaxation room with a magnificent Himalayan salt wall.

Or an Anakasumi ritual from Sothys, with double exfoliation followed by a body massage and foot reflexology with cherry and lotus flowers? This bespoke experience is the height of luxury. We land safely and perhaps miraculously, as the runway is only metres long. Only a handful of pilots are qualifi ed to land here and must undergo special training. And there only seems to be a handful of people here on this precious Caribbean pearl of an island, the natural, wild environment of which is intact, with beautiful lagoons and all-but-deserted beaches.

The hotel has a casual chic design, with a lot of wood fittings, combining a fashionable French feel with Caribbean influences. As one would expect from Sybille Margerie, every detail is carefully thought-out, without being ostentatious. Here, the magnificence of nature is the real master, as it stretches out in front of us, the ocean always visible, the beaches dotted with shady palm trees and tiny verdant islands in the distance.

As is common in the Caribbean, local wood is omnipresent and can be seen in its natural state or whitewashed, adorned with coloured fabrics, which vary according to the room: for example, all the super-sized rooms facing the Morne du Vitet mountain are designed with natural, neutral materials but are decorated with ultramarine or deep reds.

The decoration has received as much care and attention as the guests do The rooms are enhanced by teal-coloured cushions with golden details, elegantly complemented with drapes of cardinal red and bright yellow. Nearly all the rooms have a sea view : some are duplexes and some are on the beach with private plunge pools or terraces, each one more elegant and comfortable than the last.

This is a private haven of well-being bathed in sunlight where the decoration has received as much care and attention as the guests do. There are fabulous La Mer facial products and regenerating body massages. It is unbelievably pleasing to let yourself be pampered by the experienced therapists in a room where the ceiling is illuminated by little sparkling lights. Your sensual symphony reaches its crescendo with a visit to the Aux Amis beach restaurant opposite the lagoon. Here we cross into gourmet territory, with a creative menu designed by the Michelinstarred chef, Guy Martin, who combines French, Caribbean and international flavours.

There are so many exquisite experiences to sample in this harmonious haven of happiness, so you will have to decide whether to enjoy some water sports, laze by the pool, take out a catamaran or go on a cultural tour of St Barts with a local guide who will reveal the secrets of the spirit of this island jewel in the middle of the Lesser Antilles. Caroline Corvaisier Here, claims of luxury, calm and pleasure are not merely empty words. The Mamounia is the hideout of beautiful people, well-acquainted with the delights of the Red City.

The palatial hotel has been completely redecorated by Jacques Garcia in a contemporary, oriental style but retaining its Moorish spirit. The star designer has replaced the Art Deco look with a more muted, Arabic ambiance, using warm, glowing colours and calling upon the expertise of local craftsmen, so you will find red and opal glass lanterns, finely sculpted white plaster, velvet-upholstered armchairs, painted ceilings, old mirrors and stained-glass windows in Majorelle blue, crimson and white.

The rooms and suites are fit for Scheherazade, decorated with mosaics, marble and wooden ceilings, creating a veritable One Thousand And One Nights atmosphere, with a view onto the gardens and, in the distance, the Atlas Mountains. The eight-hectare gardens are majestic, as you walk through alleyways lined with olive trees, palms, rose bushes, jacarandas, orange trees, pines and bougainvillea, as well as one pathway where there are 80 cacti. There are more than 80 different Moroccan and oriental treatments available, such as the argan oil massage or the amber honey exfoliating body scrub.

A new way of seeing things. It has reigned over the South Beach with great dignity for over ten years. A discreet arrival through the big, bronze door of the Art Deco building takes you into universe that is an interpretation of the s with an Asian twist. In the huge lobby, you have the feeling you could step out into a forgotten Shanghai with atmospheric streets full of tea houses, opium dens and precious labyrinths. The floor is covered in sumptuous black tiles whose shine bears testament to their authenticity.

Walls in grey blocks and precious wood create a heady sensation of splendor. The bar counter covered in heavy antique slabs is testimony of a glorious past, enriched each day by fresh red roses. You can imagine the Lady from Shanghai walking into this sensuous setting which opens onto a courtyard with an enormous pool, with four statues set in the four corners standing guard over the four corners of the world, like in the Forbidden City. Water walkways shimmer all the way down to the beach. Pure luxury stretches into the bedrooms in one of the two buildings that make up the hotel. A view which is often classed among the most spectacular, anywhere!

Un plat extraordinaire mais hors de prix! I remember eating them in pastry and they were crystallised with vegetables. An amazing dish but incredibly expensive! The tuber melanosporum which is harvested in January, February and March, has a rich and lasting taste. The summer truffle is more fragile and has a delicate, ephemeral taste which is lost when cooked. The luscious Alba truffle is the most expensive and becomes mature in October, November and December.

I might also add some as a finishing touch to a sauce or slip a slice or two under the skin of a chicken. The white Alba truffle is perfect when grated raw over pasta or eggs and is also ideal for making a sumptuous risotto. However, these same chefs could just as easily explain truffle recipes which are super-easy to make. Guy Savoy, for example, suggests placing slices of black truffle on a slice of buttered wholemeal toast and sprinkling over some sea salt.

Maison Rostang 20, rue Rennequin Paris. There are captions, lattice work and bow tie motifs. There is femininity, sensuality, glamour and just a touch of impertinence. She was given carte blanche in the interior design of this gourmet restaurant and its lovely outdoor terrace, lounge bar and cabaret stage.

And she proves it once again with this restaurant, where you can have a drink, a meal and party all night long. All the products, including the cold meats, cheeses and seafood, are sustainably farmed, whilst the interior decoration also draws on natural materials solid oak wooden floor boards, Burgundy stone and antique tiling. The menu is like a journey through the regions of France, containing the best local products from each area.

Un joli voyage culinaire. His name is Andreas Moller and he is now heading up the Flora Danica seconded by the chef, Guillaume Leray and the Copenhague, the two restaurants of the Maison du Danemark. At only 34 years old, Andreas Moller already has a long career behind him and here he is able to express his expertise and skill. The restaurant is open from the morning until late evening, serving light dishes quinoa, curly kale and tofu with cranberry and sesame jam or raw scallops with soba noodles and smoked anchovies , as well as sharing plates shoulder of Allaiton lamb or salt-baked sea bass.

We owe this restaurant to Caroline and Sophie Rostang. It is somewhere you can sit down for breakfast, a business lunch, grab a quick meal or have dinner. Tel: 01 44 88 92 78 DR Outside, greenery rules as the luscious plants in the Mediterranean gardens create the setting for guests to have a drink or two.

The V Restaurant, both easy on the eye and pleasing for the palate, deserves its reputation as a chic and charming place to eat on the Riviera. Le V , avenue des Diables Bleus Eze. A few minutes from Eze Village and a quarter of an hour away from Monaco, the V Restaurant promises guests an enchanting interlude.

The gentle atmosphere of this oasis of calm is perfectly in keeping with the food, which is inventive whilst still respecting DR Votre formation? Nathalie Pacioselli : Je fais tout. Nathalie Pacioselli : Je ne sais pas trop. Carine Dalmasso : Info! Plus tant macho que cela?

Votre ambition? Nathalie Pacioselli : Toujours faire mieux. Carine Dalmasso : Je ne me fixe aucune limite. Nathalie Pacoselli du domaine Saint-Jean. Carine Dalmasso du domaine de la Source. When did your love of wine and wine-making begin? Nathalie Pacioselli : I got the bug from my husband who loves his land. He passed on his enthusiasm to me and today, I take great pleasure in telling our story.

My parents grew fruit and vegetables before starting growing vines. My father planted his first vines in and Domaine de la Source was founded in What training did you have? Nathalie Pacioselli : It goes back to my childhood. He educated my brother and I with values of respect and hard work and he encouraged us to study. After gaining a Masters in Human Resources at the University of Paris XII, I met my husband Jean-Patrick, who was an engineer in the building trade; he was in charge of international overseas construction sites.

But at the time we had no land and no experience in the business. We studied for a professional certificate in agricultural management, specializing in viticulture and wine-making. In August , after having rented a small plot of land, I joined the Winemakers Union and produced my first vintage: bottles of white AOC Bellet wine. We opted for organic farming from the outset and the domain is now certified.

Carine Dalmasso : Close to the land and vineyards, I learnt on the job. Even today, I take training courses whenever I have the time and opportunity. What are the advantages in managing a domain in Bellet? Besides, it has characteristics like no other, with native grapes such as Braquet and Folle Noir. In Bellet, we cultivate difference and quality! Carine Dalmasso : Bellet enjoys a good reputation, thanks to these endemic varieties.

Depuis , le domaine est en bio sur les trois couleurs. I think winemakers like to see more women getting into this world. Carine Dalmasso : The world of wine is very macho We must fight to win our place among men and be recognized. Nathalie Pacioselli : To always do better. It was our tenth winemaking year this year. Our production never exceeds 5, bottles. I prefer quality over quantity! On the contrary, I sometimes try to slow down a little and delegate. What are your future projects? Peter was discovered in fragments at S. Denis, another was given to the church at Creteil, where it passed as S.

Louis, and four were given to the missionaries for their Calvary at Mt. The latter were in perfect preservation, and the colour had not disappeared. The rest were replaced in the chapel, and are the fourth and fifth on each side facing the altar; all the others are new. The pavement is modern incised stone, with incrustations of colour, representing geometrical patterns, animals, and flowers. In the apse are subjects—the Four rivers of Paradise , and the Seven Sacraments in the form of rivers. The altar is an exact copy of the original one.

On one side of the apse is a very beautiful piscina. Part of the baldachino is ancient, and the rest has been restored from old drawings. The choir was filled with carved stalls of the time of Henri II. At the four corners of the altar pavement, Henri III. On the retro -altar was a silver-gilt model of the chapel, three or four feet high, executed in by Pijard, goldsmith, and guardian of the relics.

This contained some of the treasures, and was considered a very fine work of art, costing some 13, livres. There is an excellent drawing of the original altar in Viollet-le-Duc's dictionary. Canon Morand tells us, in his history of the chapel, that the ciborium , which is usually placed in the tabernacle, was here suspended in front of the altar—probably the retro -altar, as in the engraving of the High Altar in the Canon's book, there is no representation of it. The Canon then goes on to record the want of reverence of the congregation, how they just half kneel when the bell rings; how they must needs sit, and even gossip, during the short quarter of an hour occupied by a low mass; how they take snuff and bear themselves generally, and then go out and stand about for the greater part of the day at their business.

Louis ordained, in his foundation charters, that the offerings received by the priests at the altar should be devoted to the reparation of the glass, and that if it should be insufficient, the necessary funds should be taken from the Royal Treasury deposited at the Temple. The restoration of the windows is now complete, this being the work of MM. Steinheil and Lusson.

These artists have done their work so well, and matched the colours so perfectly, that it is difficult to distinguish the new from the old. The rose-window is of the 15th century, the others of the 13th century. The subjects are from the Old and New Testament, and from the life of S.

Some of these latter are original, and, as it is probable that the artists assisted at the ceremonies held in the chapel, it is also probable that the pictures may be true portraits of the personages represented. The subjects of the rose-window are all taken from the Apocalypse. Although the Benedictine abbey church of S. Denis is some miles from Paris, it is so mixed up with the history of the capital that it ought not to be omitted in a series of "Paris Churches.

The only thing required to make it perfectly beautiful is new stained glass in the windows of the clerestory to replace that put up during the early years of this century, a horrible example of the execrable taste of the period. He had been left shut up in the church, when in the dead of night he was startled by a dazzling light; and then he beheld the Saviour, His Apostles, multitudes of Angels, and S. Denis and his companions. Our Lord sprinkled the church with holy water, and S. Denis and his companions served Him; and then He said to the leper: " Go and tell le bon roy Dagobort what thou hast seen.

Then a wondrous miracle was performed; the Saviour touching him with his finger, made the leper clean. Then he went to the King, and they all believed. Not only was S. Denis specially favoured by this miraculous dedication, but it was privileged by Charlemagne in a charter, as the chief and mistress of all the churches in the kingdom; and its abbot as the Primate of all the prelates of France. This great man was allowed to have six deacons vested in dalmatics whenever he officiated, an honour conferred upon him by Pope Stephen III. People, high and low, from all the ends of the earth, flocked to the famous abbey as we now rush to the World's Fairs; and the great ones of the earth, princes, nobles, and ambassadors, considered that they had seen nought of the civilised world if they had not paid their respects to the relics at S.

Some went for love, some out of sheer curiosity to see the riches of the treasury: divers crosses, reliquaries, statues, vases, chalices, and other vessels for the altars; S. Denis' mitre, chalice, and rings; the famous head of solid silver gilt, containing his skull, and presented to the abbey by Marguerite de France in ; a wonderful golden cup enriched with precious stones which had belonged to King Solomon, and a rock crystal vase from the Temple of the wise man—both the gift of Charles the Bald.


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He, being abbot, made it his custom to attend "the duties of his station at the Abbaye, on the solemn festivals, passing the day in pious conversation with the monks and in religious observances. Then further, amongst the curiosities, were the nail of a griffin upon a silver-gilt animal; a unicorn's horn six feet high, sent by Aaron King of Persia to Charlemagne; the hunting horn of Roland, nephew of Charlemagne; and the lantern which was used at the betrayal of our Lord in the Garden, called the Lantern of Judas.

The latter was of copper, embellished by rock crystal, through which the light shone. This was also the gift of Charles the Bald. The mirror of the prince of poets, Virgil, which was of jet; the sword of the genereuse Amazone, Jeanne la Pucelle. Of the beauty of the croziers and pastoral crosses, the mitres and episcopal rings, Dom Millet's description leaves no doubt; and of the magnificence of the abbots, and the splendour of their monastery, we have more than ample evidence. As an old epigram puts it:. The Huguenots destroyed many of the church ornaments, ruined chapels, and worse still, "ces impies la pillerent S.

Denis et dissiperent entierement, sans y laisser aucune chose, sinon ce qu'ils ne voulutent point. Ils ne pouuoient faire pis, sinon mettre le feu par tout le Monastere, comme ils firent en tant d'autres par la France. In a History of the Royal Abbaye of Saint Denis , published in London in , we have some curious details connected with the church. Denis, which is retained without any variation to this day. The same author speaks of the "miraculous silver keys of S. Denis which they apply to the faces of those persons who have been so unfortunate as to be bitten by mad dogs, and who receive a certain and immediate relief by only touching them.

Pasteur's discovery has caused. The legend of S. Denis, the patron of France, is exceedingly picturesque. By some ecclesiastical authorities he is said to have lived in the 1st century, by others in the 2nd or 4th, but by most he is one and the same person as Dionysius the Areopagite. Hilduin, abbot of S. Denis at the beginning of the 9th century, seems to have had no doubt upon the subject, and in art the Saint and the disciple of S. Paul have always been looked upon as the self-same personage, although tradition records the existence of another S.

Denis, a bishop of Paris, in the 3rd century. Dionysius was an Athenian philosopher named Theosophus. Travelling in Egypt to study astrology with a companion named Apollophanes, they were surprised by a strange darkness that came over the heavens, and were naturally much troubled thereby. Returning to Athens, Dionysius heard S. Paul preach, and thereupon being converted to Christianity, he understood that the darkness which he had seen at Heliopolis was none other than that which fell upon the earth for the space of three hours when the Blessed Redeemer was crucified.

Baptised and ordained priest, Dionysius subsequently became bishop of Athens; and in some of the writings attributed to him he relates that he travelled to Jerusalem to see the Blessed Virgin, whom he found continually surrounded by a dazzling light, and attended by a company of Angels. He also gives an account of her death at which he was present with certain of the Apostles. After this, he returned to Athens and was subsequently present at S. Paul's martyrdom in Rome. Thence he was sent by S. Clement to preach the Gospel, together with a priest named Rusticus, and a deacon Eleutherius.

Arrived at Paris, an exceeding great city full of people and provided with all the good things of the earth, they found it so attractive that it seemed to them another Athens, and so they sojourned there, teaching the people, who were learned in all things but the way of truth. Denis then sent missionaries into other parts of Gaul, and into Germany. But these successes were not pleasing unto Satan, and so he stirred up the nobles against the good bishop, who was accused before the Emperor Trajan.

Some say it was Domitian, but in either case the result was the despatch of one Frescennius, a pro-consul, from Rome, with orders to throw Denis and his companions into prison. This was done, and finding that they would not retract, they were put to death upon the Hill of Mercury who was so much honoured by the Gauls , and which was subsequently called Montmartre Mons Martyrum. Then a stupendous miracle took place. Denis not desiring, or not being permitted, to become food for wolves, took up his decapitated head in his hands, and walked for the space of two miles, Angels singing by the way.

Accompanied by this celestial body-guard, the Saint marched over the plains beyond the city, and signified, in some way unrecorded, that he desired burial where now stands the church dedicated to his memory. This was accomplished by a pious woman named Catulla, who had ministered unto the three blessed martyrs in their prison, and who now laid their mutilated remains in her own field. Paris formerly, even as late as the last century, contained many spots sacred to the memory of S. Denis and his three companions. At Notre-Dame-des-Champs a crypt used to be shown where they preached to their first disciples.

Denis first invoked the name of the Most High on that spot. Denis-de-la-Chartre was the prison where the martyrs were visited by our Lord, and where He administered His Blessed Body and Blood to them. Denis-du-Pas was the ground upon which they suffered their first tortures; and upon Montmartre the church of S.

Pierre records the spot upon which they were decapitated. The way across the plain from Montmartre to the place of burial was marked by a succession of crosses, and the field where the Saint's remains were laid subsequently became the precincts of the famous abbey.

The first church is said to have been erected before the invasion of the Franks, but this had fallen into ruins in the 5th century, and it was through the piety of S. This Saint, like all good Parisians, held S. Denis in great esteem; and it was during a visit paid to his shrine that her taper, maliciously blown out by the arch-enemy, was successfully relighted through the fervour of her prayers. Gregoire de Tours relates many wondrous miracles which took place in the new church for the benefit of the faithful and the chastisement of the wicked.

But the magnificence with which Dagobert rebuilt and endowed S. Denis completely eclipsed the work of the maid of Nanterre; and so effectually was the king looked upon as the founder of the abbey that, up to the dissolution of the monasteries, the monks celebrated his festival upon the 19th of January with great solemnity and splendour. It was about the year that Dagobert undertook the rebuilding of the church, which is said to have been decorated with precious marbles, magnificent bronze doors, and gold and silver vessels enriched with precious stones.

These latter, and the shrine of the Saint, as well as the great cross at the entrance of the choir, were the work of the famous artificer in metals, S. Eloy, who was also the maker of the shrines of SS. These, and, in fact, all this great smith's works as far as is known have perished; but his memory is still preserved by pictures and sculptures representing some of the legendary incidents of his life. In the Firenze Academy is a picture by Botticelli, and at the church of Or San Michele is a statue and a bas-relief, both of which represent one of the great events of the Saint's life.

A horse having been brought to him to be shod, the animal proved restive, and the Saint being exercised in his mind as to how he should keep the beast still, bethought him of an excellent plan. He calmly cut off the leg, and placing it upon his anvil, fastened on the shoe; this done, he replaced the leg upon the horse, to the amazement of the beast and the edification of his owner. Another picture, painted for the Company of the Goldsmiths, represents S. Denis by Pope Stephen II. From that year until the 12th century, little is known of the history of the abbey.

Like all churches and monasteries in the north of France, it was probably destroyed, and its lands laid waste by the invasions of the Northmen and the disastrous civil wars which characterised the end of the Carlovingian dynasty, for nothing remains of the magnificence of the churches of Dagobert and of Charlemagne but a few columns and marble capitals in the crypt. The third and present church was commenced by the great Abbot Suger, and is considered by many French architects to be the earliest example of Pointed architecture.

Suger erected the tower, the portals, the nave, and the choir in rapid succession, and subsequently the chevet and chapels; he filled the windows with the most exquisite jewel-like stained glass, and loaded the shrines and altars with precious stones. Some of the sacred vessels formerly belonging to the church are now in the Salle d'Apollon of the Louvre, and testify to the exquisite artistic taste as well as to the religious enthusiasm of the good abbot.

The dedication of this church took place twice, in and , but it was only to remain intact some 70 years. The chapels of the nave upon the north side were built in the 14th century, and a few unimportant additions were made in the succeeding century. Of the magnificent circular chapel of the Valois erected for Henri II. It is generally supposed that the destruction of churches and the despoiling of monasteries in France were the work of the enemies of religion in the form of the "people. To Francis I.

Cyr, he suppressed the abbacy of S. Denis, and relieved the monastery of the abbot's revenues for an endowment. This was the beginning of the downfall, and in , the Benedictines were dispersed after an occupation of twelve centuries. In the memoirs of the organist attached to the abbey at the time, there is a touching account of the last mass celebrated by the prior upon the day of departure.

This commission was appointed by the National Assembly after the passing of the law for the appropriation of the property of the clergy by la chose publique. De Larochefoucauld was the president of this "Commission des Monuments," assisted by many artists and connoisseurs. They first of all chose certain places as receptacles for the works of art, and then decided what to keep and what to destroy. A descriptive catalogue was drawn up by Alexandre Lenoir, [14] who was appointed curator in Unfortunately, much was destroyed, as, for instance, at the abbey of Royaumont, where two Benedictines, Poirier and Puthod, were sent by the commission to superintend matters.

The mausoleum of the princes of S. Les sieurs Puthod and Poirier carried off the remains of seven princes and six monuments, which arrived just in time to be packed off to the museum of the Petits-Augustins. The conventual buildings were all destroyed in the reign of Louis XV. Eustache, by being secularized in the most revolting manner. But if the Revolutionists destroyed and carried away monuments, the Imperial architects did worse, for they began a restoration in their own hideous taste and "style"; and it was not until a few years ago that the old church was restored to its pristine beauty.

Perhaps few churches have seen more changes than the silent walls of S. Denis have witnessed. The burial place of most of the kings of France, it was also upon its High Altar that Louis le Gros deposited the oriflamme , the famous standard of France, [16] while some seven centuries later, its tombs were only preserved from utter ruin by the wit of Alexandre Lenoir. Even the church itself was threatened with destruction, and was only saved by an architect seriously suggesting that it should be turned into a market, the side chapels forming shops.

Napoleon saved what remained, and began restoring it as a resting-place for the defunct members of his dynasty. The Concordat guaranteed it a chapter, and religious services were restored. Still, through the talent and learning of Viollet-le-Duc, it is one of the finest of 13th century churches, and now that the tombs have all been replaced in their former positions, one of the most interesting. The subject of the central tympanum and voussure is The Last Judgment. Christ is pronouncing the last sentence, surrounded by the dead who are rising from their graves. His Blessed Mother is interceding for sinners, and Abraham is receiving the elect into his bosom.

The Apostles, and the four-and-twenty elders, holding musical instruments, and vases for the reception of the prayers of the just as a sweet-smelling incense, are there, looking on at the damned tossed into hell. Upon the stylobate of the portal we read the parable of the Wise and foolish Virgins. The southern doorway is decorated with the Martyrdom of S. Denis, and the appearance of our Blessed Lord to the holy martyrs while in prison.

Unfortunately, much of these bas-reliefs is modern. Some statues on one of the transept doorways are curious examples of how a fraud may be perpetuated. The capitals of the columns and the foliage ornament of these portals are vastly superior in style to the figures. On each side of the western rose-window are some bands of black and white marble, after the manner of the churches of Pisa and Genoa, souvenirs , probably, of Suger's travels in Italy.

Indeed, he tells us in the account of his administration that he took much trouble in preserving a mosaic which he had brought home and placed in the tympanum of one of the doors. This was unfortunately replaced, in , by a bas-relief of the meanest possible workmanship. The interior consists of a nave and two aisles, with a chevet of seven chapels at the east end, considerably raised above the level of the nave.

Access to these chapels is gained by a flight of steps on each side of the High Altar, and under them is the royal crypt. Blue swallow-tailed coats and white trousers scarcely form a costume which is either effective or appropriate as designs for church windows. The wood carving of the stalls is of the 15th century, and was brought from the abbey of S.

Portions of the old glass were preserved by Lenoir in the museum of the Petits-Augustins during the stormy period, and were afterwards replaced in the windows of the apse. They consist mainly of fragments of a tree of Jesse, and may be found in the chapel of the Virgin. There are in all eleven lozenge-shaped medallions representing scenes in the life of Moses, and mystical subjects from the Apocalypse, bearing inscriptions by Suger. Upon the medallion of the Annunciation, the good abbot himself is portrayed prostrate before the Blessed Virgin. In one or two of the other chapels there are a few fragments of the legend of S.

Of the early kings of France Dagobert was the first to be buried at S. Denis, and his memorial tomb much restored still stands on the right of the High Altar. Clovis and Clotilde were buried in the crypt of the first church erected upon the site of S. Childebert was laid in the church of the Abbey of S. Vincent founded by him , afterwards called S.

WILLIAM WOOD

Chlodoald was buried at S. Cloud; S. Radegonde, wife of Clotaire I. Besides Dagobert I. Denis; and although it is thought that other Merovingian princes also received burial there, many repose at Chelles, S. Waast d'Arras, S. Bertin, S. Laurent, S. Denis; but it must be borne in mind that almost all the tombs of the earlier sovereigns are modern, either wholly or in part. In the 13th century the strange custom came into fashion of dividing the bodies of royal personages, and burying the parts in different places.

The Benedictine monks of S. Denis protested against this division of valuable property, asserting their right to possess the entire remains of the kings; but the Dominicans and the Cordeliers contested these claims, and subsequently gained permission for their own churches to share in the spoil. Naturally, when each defunct sovereign was divided into three portions—the body, the heart, and the intestines—great opportunities were afforded to architects and sculptors; and we thus find three marble monuments with recumbent figures erected for the remains of Charles V.

Denis containing his body, while Rouen and Maubuisson respectively possessed his heart and his et ceteras. The urn was the work of Pierre Bontems, and is now in the same chapel as the tomb, which was the joint work of Philibert Delorme and Bontems.

Aïe Aïe Aïe !

The number of monuments erected at S. None of the monuments of the early kings are anterior to the 13th century; consequently, even the original portions of the effigies which remain cannot be looked upon as in the slightest degree portrait statues. On the other hand, the magnificent tombs in bronze, and the brasses which adorned them, erected to the memory of Philippe Auguste, S.

Louis, and his father, and which were destroyed centuries ago, were most probably as valuable as contemporary portraits as they were for their workmanship; likewise the 13th century effigies which remain are remarkable for the beauty of their workmanship. Louis IV. The last tomb erected was that of Henri II. They were laid together in one great crypt, and when disturbed by the Revolutionists for the sake of the lead of their coffins "of the coffins of our old tyrants let us make bullets to hurl at our enemies" , there were fifty-four bodies arranged upon iron trestles side by side, Henri IV.

The monuments now occupy the same position that they did before the Revolution; and if we stand upon the raised platform of the apse behind the High Altar we can gaze down upon what may be called the history of France, from the artistic point of view, during four or five centuries. On the left, the 13th century tomb of Dagobert stands erect; beyond it, the Renaissance mausoleum of Francis I. On the right, the enamelled brasses of the children of S.

Louis and the tomb of Henri II. The resting-places of the abbots were simply marked by inscriptions or flat slabs. Pierre Chambellan, of whom Joinville writes, "Messire Pierre Chambellan fut le plus loial homme et le plus droicturier que je veisse oncques en la maision du roi Louis, whose epitaph designates him as "moult saige et moult loial chevaliers.

Louis in the disastrous crusade which terminated his reign. No doubt his tomb was of metal, destroyed with many others long before the Revolution, as for example, that of the Comte d'Eu, in gilt copper, enriched with enamels, which succumbed to the greed of the Huguenots. Close to the tomb of Charles V. Near Duguesclin Charles V. Denis in , but having, sick of the world, retired to the Abbey of S. Victor towards the end of his life, he desired to be buried there rather than amidst the splendours of the royal tombs.

He was the only civilian who was offered this much-coveted privilege. The warrior held the town of Pontoise against the English, and died during the siege, 20th July, Another vaillant capitaine de gendarmes , the chevalier Louis de Pontoise, fell by the side of Louis XI. Louis XIV. Denis to his great commanders.

The service was to be at the King's expense, which looks as if the honour were sometimes a costly one to the relatives; and no pomp or ceremony was to be omitted—such were the instructions of his most glorious majesty. Louis seems to have been a sort of complete letter writer; the note in which he eulogises Turenne might serve as a model for those masters of style amongst us who delight in long sentences and a scarcity of full-stops; but, unlike the moderns, "la grande monarque" never gets involved, he only causes a slight shortness of breath to his readers.

Si n'y faictes fautes; car tel est nostre plaisir. Et plus bas, Colbert. The projected Bourbon chapel was never built, and the Revolution found the monument of Turenne in the same chapel, that of S. Eustache, whence it was trundled out as late as April, , and transported to the Petits-Augustins; for up to that time Turenne, not being a royal person, had been left in peace.

The demolition of the tombs seems to have gone on fitfully from to , as a little diversion between more exciting events. After the emigration of the nobility in ; the flight of the King to Varennes, and his false swearing to uphold the constitution in ; and his treachery in carrying on a correspondence with the enemies at the frontier; the popular anger waxed strong, and led to the storming of the Tuileries on the 10th August, [23] which event was to be celebrated the next year by the demolition of the tombs of S.

Louis XVI. Why should they be allowed to rest peacefully, what remained of them? Besides, lead was wanted for ammunition; and, just as the church bells were in requisition for guns, and gold and silver vessels for coinage, so the leaden coffins and roofs of churches could be melted up into cannon balls. Imagine the stampede of Parisians along that paved road that led from Paris to S. Only the other day, when the trams were instituted, were those great rough stones taken up.

At Versailles you may still see the like, the paved part of the road very much curved, with mud paths on each side—side walks for the people, while the centre pavement was reserved for the quality. They radiate from the palace, and enabled the "Roi Soleil" to visit his satellites at Bellevue, the Trianon, Meudon, and S. Germain, without danger of his lumbering coach sticking in the mire, to which he and his belonged.

Many must have been the journeys from the capital to S. Denis, which the decree of the Convention sanctioned—journeys accompanied by crowbars and pickaxes for the better destruction of the tombs. It was a ghastly idea, but in no wise an exaggerated revenge for the kingly brutalities perpetrated upon the living bodies of Ravaillac, Damiens, and such like canaille.

The report of this commission is so curious that I will quote it in full. One member suggested that the nation being in peril, and wanting guns to carry on its defence, a commission should proceed to Franciade, otherwise S. The former Benedictine Dom Poirier was nominated commissioner for the Institut, and ordered to be present at the performance. Some days after, the Moniteur triumphantly records the commencement of the business.

The work went on merrily. Quick-lime helped the business as far as the kings were concerned, but to the assistants it was of no use; and so they had recourse to the burning of strong smelling powders, and the firing of guns, in order to purify the air. Here is one of Dom Poirier's notes:—.

The body of Henri IV. The names of the princes and princesses were engraved upon little brass plates attached to the covers of the coffins; and a few years ago three or four of these brasses were found in the shop of a coppersmith, that of Louis XIV. How are the mighty fallen! Louis, had almost disappeared.

A cross was sculptured upon the lid of the stone coffin; in it was found a sceptre of rotten wood, and a skull-cap of satin surrounded by a band of gold woven stuff, forming a diadem. The body had been enveloped in a winding sheet of gold tissue, some pieces of which were in a good state of preservation. Nous pourrions citer quelques autres exemples. Enfin on sait que saint Bernard fut enseveli dans un sac de cuir" v.

What became of these things, many of them of no value but for a museum, is not known. Such was the result of this disgusting entertainment, which was principally a search for valuables to keep up the struggle for life. Empty coffers, starving multitudes, an enemy crying at the frontier; such was the legacy left by the wanton waste of a profligate court, and a debased race of kings.

The terrible revenge which followed did them little harm; could they have been made to suffer in their life-time, it would have been better than mauling about their dead bodies and rummaging in their tombs; but unfortunately the last of the race was the least guilty, although he had much heartlessness and treachery to answer for; and had he felt the storm which had been threatening for some time, the hurricane might have passed over. But selfishness is always blind; and so the flood carried the poor thing away; and the skeletons, the lead, the gold and the silver, were all swept into their respective lime-strewn pits and melting pots.

Here is the epilogue. The metal of the monuments, with the exception of two enamelled brass slabs which came from Royaumont, was all melted up. In the Moniteur of 14th August, , may be read a list of the tombs destroyed, furnished by the town of S. The monument of Charles le Chauve must have been magnificent. The effigy of the emperor reposed on a slab supported by four lions. Two Angels censed the defunct; and four bishops sat at the corners. Louis, and who saw it soon after it was set up. Charles had been a great patron of the abbey and had given it the Holy Nail and a thorn from the Holy Crown, besides part of the course of the Seine and the domain of Ruel.

The tomb of Arnaud de Guilhem, seigneur de Barbazan, was canopied, the warrior being represented in full armour. The king's effigy, praying, was upon the platform, with little Angels at the corners also kneeling and holding shields. Charles VIII. His tomb was said to be the finest in the choir. The queen was much afflicted, and thought she would die of grief, "demeurant deux jours et deux nuicts sans reposer ny prendre aucun aliment. Philippe de Commynes says the chamberlains "le feirent ensevelir fort richement, et sur l'heure luy commencea le service, qui jamais ne failloit ne jour ne nuict.

Many marble tombs were also destroyed, some canopied, some resting upon columns, others recumbent, the fragments of which were built up into a pedestal for a figure of Liberty in the Place d'armes opposite the church, a barbarous proceeding, surely; but forget not that the slabs and broken tombs in our old burial grounds are treated much in the same fashion, and piled up into pyramids to ornament the gardens. The transportation of what was saved from the wreck to Paris was no mean work.

The Convention had no cash to spend upon art; with its fourteen armies defending the frontiers, it had enough expense without paying for the carriage of monuments and such like. And so Lenoir conceived the idea of stopping the military as they returned with empty waggons. Arrived in Paris the difficulties did not end.

Statues were chopped about to enable them to fill certain spaces in the museum of the Petits-Augustins, recumbent figures found themselves standing upright; fragments of one tomb were taken to decorate another. But taking it all in all, the museum arranged by Lenoir must have been very imposing. Louis XII. But no sooner was all arranged, indeed before the huge Henri II. Denis and the other churches whence they came.

So swiftly was the order carried out, that the poor old sovereigns became still more mutilated; some were stowed away in the cellars, others were re-erected upon principles of the greatest economy. Then strange things occurred. The effigies were matched indiscriminately, and every king was placed by the side of a queen, whether his own or another's.

The following is a list of the monuments returned to S. By far the most beautiful tomb is that of Louis XII. Denis in ; whereas Ponzio did not arrive in France until about This way of attributing all that is good in art to Italy was formerly very common. Even in our own time all branches of French art were looked upon by our fathers as frivolous and trivial. Italian Renaissance was trivial enough, but French Renaissance utterly meretricious. To the insane worshippers of the "Gothic style," it alone was pure. The sumptuous grandiosities of Louis XIV. Even Watteau, though admitted to be graceful, was "meretricious"; Berlioz amongst musicians was only "noisy and claptrap;" and sculpture and architecture were criticised in like manner.

And yet the designs upon the tomb of Louis XII. The Italians led the way, but the French proved themselves very apt pupils. It is not my intention to describe the tomb of Louis XII. Descriptions without illustrations are mostly dry and dreary. Nor have I tried to illustrate the details of ornament in the churches or their contents—in a book of this size it would be impossible; my aim has rather been to give the general effect of their styles; of their everyday appearance; of the life which goes on in and around them; and of the position, especially in the case of S.

Denis, of their tombs and furniture. A large photograph and a magnifying glass will show the beauty of the sculpture of the tombs far better than any drawing of mine; for such subjects photography is unique. But for artistic effect, for general impressions of buildings it mostly fails, and all artists will agree with me that, for some reason or other, photographs of buildings seem generally to have been taken from the worst point of view, and are nearly always wanting in impressiveness.

Jean Juste had a brother Antoine, and they seem together to have been the authors of the beautiful tomb of the children of Charles VIII. In , one Juste de Just, tailleur en marbre , living at Tours received livres 10 sous from the king for a Hercules and a Leda. This Juste was probably the same as Jean. The bas-reliefs round the base of Louis XII. Within are the king and queen, entirely nude, lying upon a mattress in the last agony of death; while above, upon the platform, they are praying before a cushioned faldstool, for their own departed souls.

Such is the motive of this and the other two tombs of the same character, those of Henri II. The former of these is the work of Germain Pilon, and was originally placed under the dome of Philibert Delorme's magnificent chapel erected for the Valois family. It is of marble with bronze figures. The king and queen pray upon the housetop; at each end are openings through which are to be seen the figures of the defunct in the sleep of death. The terrible side of death, which is prominent in the expression on the faces of Louis XII.

At the four corners are bronze figures of the Cardinal Virtues; and the kneeling figures of the sovereigns upon the canopy are also in bronze. The tomb has always been justly esteemed as a magnificent work, and even Bernini admired it. When the tomb was reconstructed it was found that many of the marbles had antique sculptures upon the back, showing that they had been taken from works of Classic origin. It was erected about by Philibert Delorme with the assistance of several sculptors.

Pierre Bontems was the author of the bas-reliefs upon the stylobate and some of the kneeling figures upon the canopy; Germain Pilon sculptured the statues of children under the canopy, allegorically representing Fortune, and Ambroise Perret, the Four Evangelists; while the details of ornament were the work of Jacques Chantrel, Bastien Galles, Pierre Bigoigne, and Jean de Bourges.

The recumbent figures have been attributed to Jean Goujon, from the exceptional beauty of the workmanship, but without any positive proof. The tomb is of white marble, with a little black and grey introduced for some of the mouldings; the bas-reliefs represent the king's campaigns in Italy.

In the bas-reliefs of the Louis XII. The faces of the recumbent statues are beautifully modelled; that of the queen bearing an expression of the sanctity with which she was accredited. Denis is rich in columns erected as memorials, often bearing urns upon the top containing some worthy heart. The pedestal is triangular, of white marble; so, too, are the three little Genii who guard the corners. One weeps for the defunct; the other two seem to take the matter philosophically.

The shaft of the column is dotted over with flames, said to be symbolic of the pillar of fire which marched before the Hebrews; may they not rather mean the flames of purgatory? This column was an act of fraternal homage on the part of Charles IX. The column of Henri III. Cloud by the secretary of Henri III.

The column of the Cardinal Louis de Bourbon formerly bore the effigy of the great man, if honours and emoluments can make a man great. And yet some people profess to be scandalised at the excesses of the unprivileged classes! The cardinal was, however, a great patron of art; at Sens and at Laon, monuments testify to this and all his other magnificences. His body was buried in the cathedral of Laon; the Benedictines of S. Denis only having succeeded in obtaining his heart. The column, like many other beautiful works of art, is by an unknown artist.

It is of red marble with a white alabaster base and capital, which is exquisitely sculptured with little figures of children bathed in foliage. The history of some of the recumbent statues of the kings is curious. Thus, at the museum, Charles V. Louis and Marguerite de Provence; and so named, when they were trotted back to S. Denis, they received the homage of the faithful. To make matters worse, a copy of S.

Louis' statue was sent to Tunis for the church which was built in memory of the saint, and the head became the authentic type for his portraits. The same may be said of the false Marguerite; she wears a costume more than a hundred years too late. The elaborately enamelled brass slabs of the children of S. Louis, Jean and Blanche, came from Royaument.

The design is rude, but the colouring good; the figures are in relief upon a ground incrusted in enamel; the heads and hands, the lions at the feet, and the Angels swinging censers are of polished brass; while the feet and the draperies are in coloured enamel. To see these brasses, permission must be obtained from the architect of the church, as they are upon one side of the High Altar, a part which is not generally shown to ordinary visitors. The motto upon the tomb of Jean is as follows:.

The body of Turenne did not have much peace after it was routed out of its tomb. Not being royal, it was put aside in a chapel until the Convention should decide its fate; when thinking so great a man a worthy object as a specimen of natural history, and deeming it profitable for students of various "ologies," it was put into a glass case by the side of stuffed birds, bottled snakes, criminal curiosities, and monstrosities. Then it was transferred to the Petits-Augustins, where it found a niche to repose in; but when Consuls reigned supreme, it was marched with great pomp, with drums and guns and all the paraphernalia of a military funeral, to the church of the Invalides, where it was placed in its old house or the remains of it rebuilt—the S.

Denis tomb. The epitaphs of some of the Kings remain, or have been restored:—. After the restoration of the tombs a tablet was set up to the memory of Jeanne-d'Arc, bearing the representation of some armour of the 16th century, and the following epitaph:—. The tomb of Dagobert is an enormous canopied structure, originally of the 13th century, but so much restored that it is practically modern. Dagobert died in , and was embalmed and buried in the church of his foundation; but of the style of this first tomb we have no knowledge whatever. Of the existing tomb, the principal part is the legendary history of the king taken from the " Gesta Dagoberti ," told in three alto-reliefs.

Below these, the king sleeps upon his left side in a rather uncomfortable fashion; standing on one side is his wife Nantilde, or Nantechilde; on the other, one of his sons, Clovis II. At the apex of the arch is Our Lord giving the benediction, with SS. Martin and Denis on each side. These two saints, with S. Maurice, had the kindness to hear the prayers of Dagobert, when he was held in bondage by devils, during a voyage in a boat, on the waters of the great gulf fixed between Abraham and Hades.

The sculptures, although, as regards the drapery, sufficiently graceful, are very curious and quaint, especially the boat and its contents. The three saints coming to the rescue, Dagobert pressing the hand of the foremost, the discomforted demons, and the soul of the king standing upon a napkin held by S. Denis and S. Martin, are all vigorous to a degree, if somewhat rude; but the Angels round the voussure carrying censers, are charming. In the account of the legend given by Guillaume de Nangis, quoted by Alexandra Lenoir, we seem to have another reading of the opening part of the story of Job.

It was all done because of Monseigneur S. It is composed of a stone slab of the form of the early stone coffins. The design is marked out by thin bands of metal between which are incrustations of very small pieces of porphyry, serpentine, and white marble. This, like several of the early tombs, was originally in the abbey of S. The central part of the crypt was formerly the depository for the relics—a sort of sanctuary dedicated to S.

Another part of the crypt became the burial place of the Bourbon family. All the princes were buried in vaults underneath their tombs. This curious arrangement became a custom by pure accident. Henri IV. La place est de neuf toises de long sur environ deux toises et demi dans sa plus grande largeur. This accounts for the apparent want of an entrance to the centre of the crypt; as all visitors to the church are aware, you look through little apertures to the place where a few post-revolution burials have taken place.

I commend all these particulars, which exemplify the horrors of burial above ground, with the rifling of tombs and coffins perpetrated by the officers of the Convention, to the opposers of cremation. Had all these poor royalties been converted into ashes, no such doings could have taken place. The entrance to the Bourbon vaults still exists, close to the altar of S. Maurice, to the right of the High Altar looking eastwards; but visitors enter by some steps farther east, by the side of the ascent to the apse.

It is a miserably gloomy hole, with a few coffins upon trestles, shedding their violet coverings. Can any sort of burial equal in horror this of open vaults? The statues of the early kings were erected by S. Ordered by him as commemorative effigies of his ancestors, it does not seem to have been within the wit of the 13th century sculptors to vary the physiognomy of the early sovereigns.

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There is a curious divergence in the opinions passed upon Louis III. The chronicle of S. Carloman, at his eighteen years, has the appearance of a man of forty, and many years older than his brother. The statue of Charlemagne's brother Carloman has had a queer history. It was marched to the Petits-Augustins with the rest, and there christened Charles le Chauve, but when sent back to S.

Denis it was rebaptised Henri I. Hugues Capet was buried at S. Denis close to his father, the great Hugues; his last words addressed to his son Robert prove him to have been possessed of piety, a proper notion of justice, and a large amount of common sense. Benedict, S. Martin, S. Aignan, and SS. Cornelius and Cyprian, and above all S.

Denis was her first thought. She gave the great statue of S. Robert must have profited by the good advice given him by his father, for we find the monk Helgaud giving him a tremendous panegyric in the account of his death. Suger mentions the finding of the remains of Carloman when they were about to bury Louis VI.

Of the burial of Louis VII. What became of the monument is not known. At the Revolution it consisted of a sarcophagus which had been renovated in by the Cardinal de Furstemberg, abbot of Barbeau [43] and prince bishop of Strasburg. When Charles IX. The body was nearly entire; but the sceptre, some silver seals and ornaments, were partially destroyed. Bartholomew pilfered the rings from his ancestor without a word of protest—on the contrary, his relations and friends "du sang" aided and abetted him. But then, of course, a few centuries had elapsed in the latter case, and poor Louis was reduced to a state of dry bones; it was robbing a skeleton, not a body.

Why does it happen that children who die young seem to be so superior to those who survive? O douleur! Louis gave to the church, and the crown and sceptre show that the young prince had been crowned by his father at Reims during the latter's life—probably in order to share the duties of kingship. Although three abbeys were the happy possessors of the remains of Blanche of Castille Maubuisson, Lys, and Saint-Corentin-lez-Mantes , no tomb exists of the sweet mother of S. In various tombs, armorial bearings, and the like aliments de l'orgueil , were transported from Maubuisson to Pontoise; some were broken, some burnt; golden vessels and silver saints were thrust into the melting-pot; and Blanche of Castille, with the help of a prince perhaps, or a warrior, became transformed into an instrument of war.

But the museum of the Petits-Augustins wanted an effigy of the mother of Monsieur Saint Louis; and so they set up a black marble image of Catherine de Courtenay, empress of Constantinople and wife of Charles of Valois, who had lately, and all alone, journeyed from Maubuisson; and, thinking it a joke to turn a black empress into a white queen, they wrote upon the slab, in 13th century characters, that it was the true monument of Madame la royne Blanche mere de Monsieur Saint Loys.

After twenty years Madame Catherine-Blanche became divorced from her other half, and the white queen faded away in favour of the black empress. One of the most beautiful tombs is that of Philippe, the brother of S. Louis, which was formerly at Royaumont. The prince lies upon a sarcophagus, round which are niches filled with little figures of monks, bishops, and angels, full of character and expression. There is a curious engraving by Boulogne representing this procession.

The church is in the distance; a string of monks are zigzagging across the plain, and in the foreground we see this crowned head and others bearing the reliquary; behind are bishops; the whole in the grandiose style of the 17th and 18th centuries—drapery flying in the wind, bishops and monks prancing, and all the faces turned to the spectator. Louis had always held the abbey in most respectful esteem. He visited it before he started upon his various expeditions; and in , when he had conferred the order of chivalry upon his son Philippe and sixty other young noblemen, he rode to S.

Denis on horseback to implore the blessing of God, accompanied by a large concourse of courtiers and princes.