So today more than ever our society needs intelligent and creative people. Therefore, under the current circumstances the problem of creativity is the most important issue in the field of school psychology. While William James Ameri, School, community and home, convergent and non-creative thinking teach and learn that only a solution and call the same and the predetermined mind.
In order to deal with such a practical way, be appointed managers for different levels of management that are not only innovative and creative, but also the measures and procedures necessary to pave the way for the manifestation of the talent and creativity of students provide. But we are more creative than the people that are in need of new ideas, we have our focus on developing creative and happy man leave, reativity is essential in the current era of happiness.
Because today's complex World, so people put in a pinch transformation that happiness probably best Cure for depression is on the rise. Eysenck , quoted Bagheri et al. According to him, people who Score high on measures of their joy, Generally, people are happy and optimistic and healthy and that you are satisfied with your life and know the value of peace and understanding in the world, And on the contrary, those who scored low in terms of personality, pessimistic, sad and disappointed and are in conflict with the world Sheikholeslami et al.
Happiness broad concept and is a cognitive and emotional components. Emotional component means joy balance the balance between pleasant and unpleasant affect and cognitive component means life satisfaction individual assessment of life according to his own standards is Diener, quoted Mozaffari, But the main point in addressing this positive structures Psychologist relevant factors affecting the structure or the host.
What factors could have a positive impact on people's happiness, or what the terms of creativity, need a follow-up study is all-consuming. The related factors or effectively structure spiritual intelligence is remarkable. As our True Self we shine our light by utilising our gifts for the betterment of the world. All we have to do is show up in every situation and allow our inner light to bring love into it.
Even in social situations, it assesses others and finds a host of reasons to feel superior. It sees the inherent worth in everyone, regardless of their position and treats them with courtesy. This approach leads to harmony in interpersonal relationships and a sense of Oneness within a team.
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The Sacred Story The sacred story…. Sarah Alexander. Facebook Comments. Related Articles. Thus, the first issue focuses on the capitalist system given that it leverages the majority of people lives. So far, it is seemingly the most efficient economic arrangement that humankind has ever invented, despite its ongoing shortcomings and financial downturns. Further, it is the capitalist system that challenges entrepreneurs, executives, workers, and organizations to perform better every single day just as they were perfect machines. To a large degree, this logic is absolutely perverse, particularly when the outcomes are below the line regardless of the functional disruptions, collective failures, environmental threats, and management misperceptions, inter alia.
It is also noticeable that many professionals become obsolete overnight due to the technological breakthroughs. In addition, today's work life usually puts great pressure on people and the career laddering becomes the center of their existences. Although businesses are economic institutions, they are not only economic ones. Nonetheless, one can see this sort of business enterprises and its outputs in the current landscape without any difficult and, as such, it is problematic in varying degrees.
For example, some authors pose that "The temptation for individuals is to measure their worth in terms of their income and possessions. The market system today also places pressure on individuals and groups to make business decisions solely on the basis of profit. In a related vein, Balch and Armstrong recognize that the high performance organizations e. They also create a performance culture that drives and encourages individuals to think outside the box, question assumptions, dare to innovate, and celebrate the value of taking risk to achieve goals.
Nonetheless, "The problem arises when productive iconoclasm is overextended Such a concerning is appropriate regardless of business ethics has been gaining room through the last decades and its importance for corporations MEIRA, Nonetheless, Freitas argue that organizations feel comfortable by assuming a role of somewhat defenders of the countries from economic crisis which ordinarily affect rich and poor nations, as well as supposedly by adapting the domestic economies to the requirements of globalization process.
In fact, the neo-liberalism discourse sells companies as being key-players able to be rid of crises and role models to other social institutions and, as such, they are being accepted by society. But such a discourse usually does not take into account the effects emanated from rising prices, product standards manipulation, cheating strategies, and reduced workforce, among other detrimental measures enacted by organizations in order to keep or even enhance their profitability, especially in countries like Brazil where not only economic driven organizations seem to be a wishful thinking.
Taken together, one may surmise that the darker side of the capitalist system will continue to represent a real nightmare in the life of many people unless the prevalent mindset changes. On the other hand, researchers have identified a kind of organizational anomaly - as a by-product of this general frame - that has been labeled as organizational terrorism.
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Caldwell and Canuto - Carranco define it "as the actions of any organization member which are taken to further a self-serving personal agenda that undermines the long-term welfare and growth of the organization and denies the rights of organization members" p. These authors also argue that the obligations of leadership and responsibilities of governance cannot accept management style values supported by those who behave like organizational terrorists and seek to impose their own will on organizations.
It is also worth reminding that the statistics about the number of workers worldwide who are searching for jobs currently e. Even for those workers that have one, the landscape seems to be unpleasant. On the whole, this is a very disturbing fact, particularly when one considers that work satisfaction remains as a genuine human beings aspiration. Not surprisingly, this investigation also revealed that the essence of inequality stands on corporate hierarchies.
Further, McKnight remarks that a business model where organizations are portrayed as cold or impersonal machines thwart the notion of humanness. McKnight also recognizes that we have needs in three areas, namely: body, mind, and spirit. Therefore, whether people are the masterpiece of God's creation in this planet, it does not make sense to scoff their needs.
Taken together, this scenario has enabled the proliferation of sick organizations, dispirited leaderships, as well as poor business goals. Regrettably, one may not envision substantial shift at least in the near future. All things being equal, I believe that one will have to humanize the prevailing economic system in order to bring some light and balance on it.
More specifically, as workers, consumers, family members, and citizens of the world, it is paramount that we stop living as whether there will be no tomorrow. He contends that we have behaved like adolescents who are not fully matured emotionally. To him, people must be responsible for anyone's life and for their impact in the world-that is, people around us, nature, as well as people who we do not necessarily know.
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Renesch proposes many initiatives such as starting honoring our differences both domestically and globally; engaging in dialogue to see what we all want, jointly and separately; stopping disrespecting "less civilized" cultures because we supposedly think we know better, or we think we have the technology to "improve" things from our perspective; diminishing our arrogance, our know-it-all attitude and engage with the world, with nature and each other with a bit more humility; beginning speaking out publicly, that is, to stand up and be counted when we think things are not going the way we think they should; and stopping remaining silent when our inner voices are telling us that something is not quite right because it is like denying our spirit.
According to Renesch , "Humanizing capitalism means to make it 'people friendly'" p. In effect, Gavin and Mason claim that the search for improvement in productivity alone, which constitutes almost the sole concern of many organizations is not enough. Not surprisingly, dispirited workplaces have been associated with low morale, high turnover, burnout, frequent stress-related illness, and rising absenteeism THOMPSON, On the face of it, I propose that organizations will likely have to face some dilemmas in some moment of their journeys whether they intend to echo a brighter face.
As Figure 1 tries to show, it essentially depicts two opposite views, yet some variations may be identified. More specifically, I propose that organizations have basically two distinct paths to pursue in this new millennium, that is, either they can be a source of pain or they can be a source of progress. The former possibility predicts that people might continue to feel fear, frustration, discrimination, resentment, uncared, unhappiness, and disloyalty as a causal effect of firms that stay focusing on just material values and see profit as a means to promote the well-being of a few people, particularly shareholders.
By contrast, the latter alternative posits that people feel trust, loyalty, success, pleasure, happiness, and care for. Further, it is also expected that diversity practices be welcome and their beneficial results may be noted throughout the organization. Viewed in this way, organizations would focus on both material values and non-material ones and profit would represent a path to lead to the general well-being.
Again, Figure 1 does not cover all potential variables and nuances; however, the most important is the dilemmas that it tries to evoke. Moreover, it is predicted that through the left side of Figure 1 would remain some harmful effects such as the depletion of planet natural resources, environmental degradation, growing impoverishment, increasing unemployment rates, ongoing financial crises, and the likelihood of a large number of unexpected climate events.
Meanwhile, the right side suggests a more rational and self-sustainable path given that crucial aspects likely would be on the centerpiece of organizational decisions such as preserving the planet, keeping people's health and well-being. Put differently, the left side maintains the current business-model whereby organizations have given almost entire primacy to material paradigm , whereas the right side requires other business model.
Nonetheless, there are clear cues indicating that one has never talked and published about spirituality more than one does now. Further, some authors advocate that it has already reached such a level that we are living an authentic spirituality revolution e. In fact, there has been published a plenty of books including self-help literature covering at least some aspects of this subject , papers, and even scientific journals, do not mention well-known annual conferences dedicated to this topic.
Taken as a whole, this growing interest suggests that people are willing to develop their spirits by facing their shadows, discovering new capabilities, behaving more ethically, and being better human beings, among other things. Overall, the resurgence of spirituality theme embraces myriad of aspects and issues. On the whole, it appears that the spirituality theme is now more than a fashion. In addition, it is suggested that this new paradigm embraces more than a set of propositions, insights or perceptions because "the different views of reality represented by spirituality and science can come together to form a single, holistic worldview" HOWARD and WELBOURN, , p.
Furthermore, this view holds that religion and spirituality are not at odds and, accordingly, it is likely that religious traditions and tenets can incorporate spiritual knowledge without the stimulus of a blind faith or inconsistent arguments. As such, religion might be suffused by the concept of a new paradigm.
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Despite the topic of spirituality is regarded as a taboo in many organizations see EXLINE and BRIGHT, , this paradigm has taken to the need of reviewing certain beliefs, values, perceptions, and views about how we live in this world. Rather, it must be pointed out that spirituality is one of the core components of positive psychology. In essence, PP focuses on human-beings' virtues, strengths, and goodness or, in other words, domains or features derived from spiritual nature which rests inside us. According to Cameron, Dutton and Quinn , POS, in turn, is concerned with organizational dynamics that encompass words and outcomes associated with excellence, thriving, flourishing, abundance, resilience or virtuousness.
Overall, it suggests that spiritual paradigm, including its theoretical contribution toward the workplaces, embraces the theoretical developments in those fields given that the spiritual issue is one of the most vital aspects - perhaps the greatest - of the human essence. Researchers believe that spirituality is in its infancy in terms of conceptual development e.
According to Pargament and Mahoney , since the 20th century psychologists have somewhat neglected spirituality. Rather, they have regarded it as pathological or treated spirituality as a process largely dependent of psychological and social spheres. Nonetheless, the reappearance of this topic, especially in the last decade, denotes that something very important was being sidelined see, e. In fact, spiritual knowledge can enable us to face the twists and turns of life by means a psychologically healthy state. In fact, the corporate life might be substantially enhanced when people take into account the need of those improvements in their daily tasks.
Moreover, this view suggests that envy, callousness, selfishness, betrayal, mercilessness, insensitivity, gossip, disservice, and negligence emanate from people's moral weaknesses. In effect, this assumption is somewhat embedded on Jesus Christ's teachings, more specifically the one which advises us to " Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect " see MATTHEW, p. In more succinct terms, Shore cited in Emmons, , p.
To some degree, such a personal shift reinforces Emmons' opinion whereby he regards spirituality as a personal transformation. Meanwhile, some authors put spirituality in a more transcendent level. For example, Stoltz-Loike suggests that "Spirituality is the cognition that we can be influenced by factors that extend beyond the tangible concerns that we have in our daily existence.
It reflects the human yearning to touch something greater than ourselves" p. In a related vein, Pargament and Mahoney posit that the sense of spirituality can be experienced through the feeling of the transcendent in the everyday occurrences of life. Taken together, one can infer that spirituality is strongly related to our earthly experiences and daily situations. Obviously, these changes have spilled over organizations to the point that researchers have suggested that there is growing evidence that an organizational fourth wave has taken place through the concept of SBOs e.
In fact, nowadays organizations have been compelled to align their corporate values with their employees and work hard to solve society conundrums as well. Put another way, organizations are starting to understand that they do not exist in a vacuum or different stance. Further, there is no doubt that they play an important role in this world and everything they do impact somewhat our lives. Under the lens of spiritual paradigm, they are seen as performing more accountable, conscious, and equitable roles. Exploring this logic, Vasconcelos regards that the spiritual paradigm has gradually become from an apparent fad management to a respectful theme.
He notes that it is increasingly attracting intellectual curiosity and personal search for understanding this phenomenon. Furthermore, researchers from different religious and non-religious streams have currently identified and explored a myriad of constructs and dimensions related to spirituality on corporate life. Similarly, managers and workers have found in it a mechanism of reawakening of something more powerful that is innate in them. In addition, Vasconcelos suggests that this mechanism may help them to utterly express their inner strengths. Organizations, in turn, have concluded that nurturing spirituality in the workplace is very beneficial in many aspects.
Indeed, spirituality and religion are subjects usually closely intertwined on human beings' odysseys. In this light, the study of these topics on organizational environments is pertinent, especially when one takes into account that organizations are entities that do not exist by themselves. In fact, organizations are a wholeheartedly human creation and, as such, they have undergone ongoing interventions to meet human needs. Nonetheless, since the s organizations have reflected a not so brighter face regarding the plethora of downsizings, layoffs, and financial crisis that have taken people to look for more lasting things like the spiritual principles.
Thus, the spiritual paradigm may apparently help transform the nature of the management task by means of a deeper understanding. However, it is not feasible to enhance our spirituality whether we do not look at the dark side of life - actually, this can be regarded as a starting point - which affects the individual, the organization and the systemic paradigm and their "realities of imperfection, failure, and sin" and related aspects such as "greed, exploitation, environmental degradation, insensitiveness, lack of empathy, abuses of power, and failures of stewardship", as proposed by McGee and Delbecq , p.
Therefore, in order to reduce the consequences of such imperfections is vital "the realization of the nobility possible in the work of business, especially the work or organizational leadership Lastly, it is suggested that organizational spirituality can transform radically "the dysfunctional precepts and actualities of modern, bureaucratic organizations" STEINGARD, , p. In contrast, Grzeda and Assogbavi understand that a more compelling argument is needed in order to associate unique outcomes with organizational spirituality.
Either way, they alternatively propose a healing framework in which spirituality in the workplace would advance until the achievement of a transformed mission toward healing and repairing. Thus far, there is no a clear definition of what really means a SBO. Surprisingly, there has been scant investigation focused on the organizational level e.
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Regardless of the difficulties, Guillory proposes that spirituality in the workplace involves the integration of humanistic principles, practices, and behaviors with sound business functioning. Therefore, a SBO could enable an employee-friendly work environment, service orientation, creativity and innovation, personal and collective transformation, environmental sensitivity, and high performance.
Pandey and Gupta argue that a SBO adopts a caring attitude towards existence, as well as it is engaged in meaningful work in whatever area it is operating. Thus, its managerial decisions are inspired by the awareness in social, natural environment, and the larger society. In addition,. Spiritual consciousness emphasizes on equilibrium with market requirements, social needs and natural environment.
In these organizations human beings are viewed as multi-potential, meaning seeking entities. Organizations moving from market consciousness to social and spiritual consciousness achieve better integration of ideals of efficiency, equity and equilibrium. Therefore, as proposed by Vasconcelos b , at the simplest level, the concept of SBO should embrace at least some salient features, namely: 1 it should meet the needs and demands of society through ongoing corporate social responsibility actions e.
As a result, a SBO would tend to achieve suitable outcomes in its business operation and be admired by society as a whole. On the face of it, one can deduce that SBO enlarges its social role by recognizing moral principles as a compass and simultaneously working ethically to meet societal needs. Within this perspective, it seems that SBO strives for a mission statement that embraces only noble obligations, that is, to be held accountable for worthy initiatives.
In this sense, Marcic ponders that SBO adopts this path because it is just the right thing to do. In my view, this reasoning is absolutely perfect. After all, mankind needs companies that contribute to their health and well-being, as well as to be committed to preserving the planet. Based on the arguments aforementioned, I offer the research proposition as follows:. Proposition 1 : regarding its characteristics, concerns, and outcomes a SBO likely will be more capable of being recognized and awarded by society. Regarding that spirituality is posited as a very important component of all management systems MITROFF, , one may surmise that almost any institution is potentially capable of encapsulate the spiritual paradigm, except criminal and terrorist organizations, as well as corrupt governments.
Further, researchers conceptualize that the SBO should exhibit flatter structures and a considerable openness to change. In a related vein, Lawler argues that organizations that search for spiritual or noble purposes are generally successful in terms of establishing goals toward motivating and retaining their employees. It is noteworthy to highlight that a SBO pits against the idea of producing "dangerous or shoddy products, abused employees, disowned the bad consequences of one's products and services for the larger society, and so forth" MITROFF, , p.
Rather, SBOs may monitor themselves by formulating and answering harsh questions in a continuous fashion see, e.
The spiritual workplace is usually portrayed as capable of providing an employee-friendly work environment in which one finds acknowledgement, support and development to the spirit of its employees e. On the other hand, Benefiel claims that SBOs tend to perform better and, as a consequence, enrich their stakeholders. Nonetheless, she emphasizes that such an outcome is derived from sustainable profit, the reputation for quality and integrity in their products and services, reduced employee turnover, the ability of building long-term trusting relationships with customers and suppliers, as well as by giving back to the communities in which SBOs are located.
Further, according to Zohar and Marshall , companies fueled by the spiritual paradigm establish their goals and strategies taking into account a wider context of meaning and value.
As a result, one may also elicit the following propositions:. Proposition 2 : regarding its characteristics, concerns and outcomes a SBO likely will be recognized by the quality of its products and services. Proposition 3 : the workforce of an organization that fits into a SBO frame likely will exhibit low level of absenteeism, turnover, job dissatisfaction, and unhappiness in the workplace.
Exploring other aspects, Vasconcelos b argues that well-known spiritualized characters like Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, and Moses, among others, are thus recognized for the sake of their ideas, feats, behaviors, and acts. Similarly, he proposes that the concept of SBOs takes into account the same things variables.
Thus, one could certainly identify their organizational identity i. This author also proposes that the most effective way to find whether an organization follows an organizational spirituality orientation is by probing, for example, what it does to keep itself alive, how it behaves and how it is seen by society.
Through the analysis of these aspects one could 1 obtain appropriate answers to sensitive questions, 2 elicit the real organization purposes 3 and find its level of spiritual orientation, if any. Similarly, Karakas calls attention to the fact that some corporations like Body Shop and Tom's Maine incorporate the spiritual paradigm into their strategies of corporate social responsibility.
Thus far, one may infer that the concept of SBO is theoretically richer i. In this sense, some studies examined, for instance, the overlaps or theoretical linkages between the societal marketing concept and spirituality in the workplace theory. Rather, Vasconcelos, a found evidence of theoretical overlapping in some constructs, namely: employees, work, workplace, quality of life, ethics, corporate citizenship, and social responsibility. Apparently, the concept of SBOs shows important characteristics that could transform companies into wiser and helpful entities.
On the face of it, I suggest that. Proposition 4 : a SBO likely will broaden the scope of their corporate social responsibility policies in order to be more beneficial and fair toward customers, stakeholders, employees, and society as a whole. Thus far, the arguments that have been presented describe that the concept of SBO embraces positive changes. As such, this kind of organization may be potentially conducive to improving people lives and the planet's health and equilibrium.
In this sense, evidence shows that our planet is sick and organizations have substantially contributed to it. Nonetheless, "Companies that build spirit treat with dignity and respect, as people, not simply as economic agents or as factors of production" PFEFFER, , p. In effect, if they had already provided these benefits, arguably we could have reached a considerable advancement within our organizations and work dimension.
Either way, the extant literature allows us to conjecture that through SBOs employees could be nurtured with professional development, meaningful careers, quality of working life, respect, valuing, diversity and inclusion orientation, and so forth. After all, empirical evidence indicates that the benefits of labor-friendly organizational practices outweigh the costs in such a way that it leads to the conclusion that what is regarded good for employees turns to be also good for shareholders e.
Therefore, from the above discussion one may also elicit the following propositions:. Proposition 5 : regarding its characteristics, concerns, and outcomes a SBO likely will be committed to implementing outstanding organizational policies toward valuing and respecting all groups of its workforce. Proposition 6 : regarding its characteristics, concerns, and outcomes a SBO likely will be strongly engaged in putting into practice both inclusive policies and affirmative actions.
Rather, they surmise that it "can inspire its members to be more than they are - to reveal strengths of character that are dormant or to create new ones that allow them to rise to the occasions deemed important by the organization" PARK and PETERSON, , p. Interestingly, research has showed that employees who work for this sort of organization are less fearful, more ethical and more committed FRY, , p. For this reason, I suggest that:.
Proposition 7 : regarding its characteristics, concerns, and outcomes a SBO likely will be strongly committed to ethical conduct and moral tenets. Similarly, Johnson , p. Importantly, it is advocated that. In an organization high on spirituality awareness, values and mission statements are not forgotten documents but are engaged through a continuing process of reflection. The ongoing engagement with missions and values, supported by the organization's spiritual efforts, can impel organizations to re-conceptualize their orientation to their mission GEH and TAN, , p.
At this juncture, one can surmise that the spiritual paradigm impels organizations as well. In fact, evidence shows that several companies worldwide have done praiseworthy things and, in doing so, they appear to be encompassing a spiritual frame e. Nevertheless, it must be recognized that it sounds to be a huge and very complex challenge to transform a traditional organizational into a spiritual one. After all, it implies to change the current mindset, held-values and its leaderships way of seeing the whole picture. As Gull and Doh rightly posit, the organization "must fundamentally change its view of itself and its place in the world" p.
To follow through that aim, therefore, organizational leadership should be engaged to this task. In addition, many efforts likely would be needed to be put into practice in a daily basis. However, Pava noted that there is no specific formula to integrate business and spirituality, yet all human activities mirror some level of spirituality. Further, he believes that, in a more basic level, the major effort to make organization more spiritual is to make organization more humane. In a related vein, Stead and Stead call attention to the sensitive issue of sustainability, that is, a multifaceted concept with deep spiritual roots.
These authors argue that to build triple bottom line strategies organizations need to develop spiritual capabilities i. Overall, as highlighted by Ashforth and Pratt , there is no doubt that the idea of spirituality alone is not enough to sustain an organization. In this sense, the conundrums and problems derived from the omnipresence, influence, and power of organizations likely will not be fixed overnight.
Very often organizations play a blurred role and yield mixed outputs, even when they allegedly exhibit societal concerns. It is clear that firms have developed themselves since industrial revolution time. But there is no denying that since the mid s and early s a sizeable number of mergers, acquisitions, and lean structures programs have taken place everywhere causing unfavorable perceptions and opinions about organizations. Stated differently, it appears that organizations have been problematic in many areas and dimensions, despite some advancement see, e.
Nonetheless, from a spiritually-based standpoint, corporations should strive to show that they are worthy organizations and are inspired by a higher sense of purpose, as suggested, for instance, by Garcia-Zamor Further, it is posited that they should be committed to reaching and providing three purposes or goals, namely, service to society, economic health, and ethical values BAKKE, To some extent, I believe that an organization may show that it is prone to the assimilation of the spiritual paradigm discourse by embracing such commitments and concerns.
Nonetheless, Mitroff goes further by suggesting that organizations will have to deal with new roles, job descriptions, and governing structures in order to express, maintain, and develop their spirituality. Admittedly, this process requires that ample strategic issues especially moral and ethical ones be formulated and, if well-done, it will forcefully culminate in pinpointing several organizations' shadows. Taken as a whole, this process could allow that a quality organization springs up and it would be a very promising upshot. And this accomplishment can be seen through a set of policies, practices, and programs intertwined with business objectives and an underlying system of values focused on building long-term and positive relationships between the corporations and their stakeholders.
Other relevant aspect raised by Biberman is that organizations may envision opportunities to start their spiritual journey exactly the same as individuals do.