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Name of resource. Problem URL. Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. Lugubrious nights : an eighteenth-century Spanish romance. Physical description 76 p. Online Available online. Full view. Green Library. C3 N Unknown.

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He gained notoriety for putting these fantasies into practice.


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He claimed to be a proponent of absolute freedom, unrestrained by morality, religion, or law. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name. Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and an insane asylum for about 32 years of his life: 11 years in Paris 10 of which were spent in the Bastille , a month in the Conciergerie,. It arose as a defined ideological worldview during the s, and its last stage ended around , with the rise of Jewish nationalism. The Haskalah pursued two complementary aims.

It sought to preserve the Jews as a separate, unique collective and worked for a cultural and moral renewal, especially a revival of Hebrew for secular purposes, pioneering the mo. This is a list of intellectuals from the Age of Enlightenment. James Beattie — Scottish Poet, moralist, and philosopher. Balthasar Bekker — Dutch A key figure in the early.

Equivalently, deism can also be defined as the view which asserts God's existence as the cause of all things, and admits its perfection and usually the existence of natural law and Providence but rejects divine revelation or direct intervention of God in the universe by miracles. It also rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator or absolute principle of the universe. Typically, deists had been raised.

He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism and the first modern proponent of anarchism. Based on the success of both, Godwin featured prominently in the radical circles of London in the s. He wrote prolifically in the genres of novels, history and demography throughout his life. In the conservative reaction to British radicalism, Godwin was attacked, in part because of his marriage to the pioneering feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft in and his candid biography of her after her death from childbirth.

Their daughter, later known as Mary Shelley, would go on to write Frankenstein and marry the p. She began her career as a playwright in the early s.


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  5. As political tension rose in France, Olympe de Gouges became increasingly politically engaged. She became an outspoken advocate against the slave trade in the French colonies in At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. Today she is perhaps best known as an early women's rights advocate who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen , she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality.

    She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror — for attacking the regime of the Revolutionary government and for her association with the Girondists. Biography Her son,. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20, letters and more than 2, books and pamphlets. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day.

    James Madison Jr. March 16, [b] — June 28, was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from to Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War.

    He became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation.

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    Madison's Virginia Plan served as the basis for the Constitutional Convent. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law,[8] which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.

    He was a devout and pious Anglican and is noted for his writings in theology. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalising the work of Evangelista Torricelli.

    Pascal also wrote in defence of the scientific method. In , while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and 50 prototypes,[4] he built 20 finished machines called Pascal's calculators and later Pascalines over the following 10 years,[5] establishing him as one of the first two inventors of the mechanical calculator.

    One of the most notable intellectual figures of the Dutch Golden Age,[18] Descartes is also widely regarded as one of the founders of modern philosophy. Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes' influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system see below was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the. Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence rationalism and empiricism over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

    The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it. Generally, however, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. It views humans as solely responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. They promoted the advancement of science and secular thought and supported tolerance, rationality, and open-mindedness of the Enlightenment. Beyond the known collaborators — at least in name — many articles are not signed and certain auth.

    Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution,[1] the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others.

    Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language. Early life and family Lomonosov was born in the village of Mishaninskaya later renamed Lomonosovo in his honor in Archangelgorod Governorate, on an island not far from Kholmogory, in the far north of Russia. He rose in power to a position of "de facto" regent of the country, where he tried to carry out widespread reforms. His affair with Queen Caroline Matilda "Caroline Mathilde" caused a scandal, especially after the birth of a daughter, Princess Louise Augusta, and was the catalyst for the intrigues and power play that caused his downfall and dramatic death.

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    Upbringing and early career Born at Halle an der Saale and baptized at St. Moritz on 7 August , Struensee was the third child of six born to Pietist theologian and minister Adam Struensee baptized in Neuruppin on 8 September — Rendsburg, 20 June , Pfarrer "curate" in Halle an der Saale in , "Dr. He is well remembered for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments , which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology.

    Beccaria is considered the father of modern criminal law and the father of criminal justice. Subsequently, he graduated in law from. Claude Adrien was trained for a financial career, apprenticed to his maternal uncle in Caen,[4] but he occupied his spare time with poetry. Aged twenty-three, at the queen's request, he was appointed as a farmer-general, a tax-collecting post worth , crowns a year.

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    Thus provided for, he proceeded to enjoy life to the utmost, with the help of his wealth and liberality, his literary and artistic tastes - he attended, for example, the progressive Club de l'Entresol. As he grew older, he began to seek more lasting distinction. The first page of the edition. Kant's opening paragraph of the essay is a much-cited definition of a lack of Enlightenment as people's inability to think for themselves due not to their lack of intellect, but lack of courage.

    Kant's essay also addressed th. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, Freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions. His works are credited with developing the scientific method and remained influential through the scientific revolution.

    Bacon has been called the father of empiricism. Most importantly, he argued science could be achieved by use of a sceptical and methodical approach whereby scientists aim to avoid misleading themselves. Although his practical ideas about such a method, the Baconian method, did not have a long-lasting influence, the general idea of the importance and possibility of a sceptical methodology makes Bacon the father of the scientific method.

    This method was a new rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, the practical details of which are still central in de.