Read PDF The American Balfour Declaration: The Origins Of U.S. Support For Zionism 1917-1922

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In contrast to the PAD, the Zionist Organization now realised that it was in their best interests to work with the government. In June, Churchill asked Chaim Weizmann leader of the Zionist movement to ensure that Jews across the world accepted the limits to Jewish influence in Palestine and Weizmann dutifully complied. Unfortunately for Samuel, the elections for a Legislative Council did not go according to plan.

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  6. Still determined to reject anything other than full autonomy, the fifth Palestinian Arab Congress declared an Arab boycott of the elections in August and Samuel was forced to extend the deadline for voting until the following May. Samuel could have easily seized this opportunity to establish a Legislative Council composed mainly of Jews, but chose not to. The Failure of the Arab Agency Scheme. In October, the Duke of Devonshire informed Samuel that the government was willing to support the creation of an Arab Agency. Samuel himself went to great lengths to bring the two communities together, and he did so with a previously unrecognised impartial eye.

    So while the British Government certainly deserves its fair share of the blame, Samuel himself is due some measure of historical vindication. This is a nice essay. For him to ignore the rights of the Arabs when agreeing to the Jewish wish for a State of their own would have led to an early failure to whatever negotiations took place.


    I think that as with most international issues like this, if the sponsor behind talks i. Resolution of the Ottoman Empire and its territories is the greater influence over the Balfour Declaration being brought into creation. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.


    Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Like this: Like Loading Pingback: 2. Excellent paper. Its historical summary let us know some details of this imbroglio. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Broadly speaking, there were two wartime considerations that exercised Balfour. One was a passage to India, which currently was blocked by Ottoman holdings in the region and which a Jewish homeland in Palestine under British sponsorship might secure.

    The second consideration was foreign support: he wanted to keep Russia in the war and draw the US into it. If we could make a declaration favourable to such an ideal, we should be able to carry on extremely useful propaganda both in Russia and America. The first is about the extent of global Jewish support for Zionism. Historians find it hard to determine Jewish attitudes to the Zionist movement at the time. So, the facts are not altogether clear, but it appears that in Jewish nationalism was not a popular cause among Jews. Nor was he alone in thinking this.

    But why?

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    7. This view was a commonplace in the British corridors of power. A case in point was Colonel Sir Mark Sykes, who was chief adviser to the Foreign Office on all Middle Eastern questions and who played a major role in converting the War Cabinet secretariat to the Zionist cause. We shall come to this question in due course. Not that the Act referred to Jews explicitly; it dealt with aliens — foreigners — in general. So, for example, a book by W. Wilkins, secretary of the newly-founded Association for Preventing the Immigration of Destitute Aliens, had the same title. Jews had been migrating to Britain, without let or hindrance, ever since Oliver Cromwell readmitted them in Throughout the nineteenth century, the Jewish population in Britain grew steadily, partly due to the number of Jews — notably from Poland — who immigrated year by year.

      Balfour Declaration |

      On 13 March, Czar Alexander II was assassinated by a group of revolutionaries; a Jew was among those implicated; and the entire Jewish population of the Russian empire paid the price. Expulsions, pogroms and legal disabilities made life intolerable for Jews, who emigrated en masse. Between and over 2,, Eastern European Jews left their homes and migrated to other parts of the world, mainly the US. The bill, in its final form, did include certain exemptions.

      His speeches show that he was well aware of the conditions of life for Jews in Eastern Europe. For his argument would seem to exclude precisely those Jews who came to these shores in most need of his protection.

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      To recap: There were two kinds of motives that appear to have led Balfour to lend his name to the November declaration. To this I now turn. He said:.

      Who does belong? Balfour had a particular view of what it means to be part of the British nation — or of what it means for the nation to remain itself — which suggests that race, in some shape or form, played a part in his idea of nationhood. Consider this curious argument that he made during the debate on the second reading of the Aliens Bill: If there were a substitution of Poles for Britons, for example, though the Briton of the future might have the same laws, the same institutions and constitution, and the same historical traditions learned in the elementary schools, though all these things might be in the possession of the new nationality, that new nationality would not be the same, and would not be the nationality we should desire to be our heirs through the ages yet to come.