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The chronology, again, causes a special difficulty. Much labour has been spent upon it since the discovery of the Philosophumena ; but most of the details have remained very uncertain. The concise remarks on the sub- ject in what follows rest on independent labours. Finally, we 1 It is very remarkable that Irenxus has given us no hint in his great work of a Monarchian controversy in the Church.

We may, however, suppose, with great probability, that at one time or other a conflict took place in all centres of Christianity in the Empire. But a connected history cannot be given. The Secession of Dynamistic Monarchianism or Adoptianism. The so-called Alogi in Asia Minor. Hippolytus had recorded that its mem- bers rejected the Gospel and the Apocalypse of John, ' attri- buting these books to Cerinthus, and had not recogpiised the Logos of God to whom the Holy Spirit had borne witness in the Gospel. Kallistus, p. KanonsL, p.

Hermathena, , p. The statement of the Pnedest that a Bishop named Philo refuted the Alogi is worthless. Epiphanius is perhaps right in represent- ing that they were also rejected I. I, 15 : "Apologia pro apocalypsi et evangelio Johannis apostoli et evange- listae. Of this writing a few fragments have been preserved Gwynn, Hermathena VI. VL 3, p. Kanons, IL, p. The Christological problem seems not to have occupied a fore- most place in the discussion, but rather, the elimination of all docetic leaven, and the attitude to prophecy.

The non-descript, the Alogi, were a party of the radical, anti-montanist, opposi- tion in Asia Minor, existing within the Church — so radical that they refused to recognise the Montanist communities as Christian. They wished to have all prophecy kept out of the Church; in this sense they were decided contemners of the Spirit Iren. This attitude led them to an historical criticism of the two Johannine books, the one of which con- tained Christ's announcement of the Paraclete, a passage which Montanus had made the most of for his own ends, while the other imparted prophetic revelations.

The date of its composition can still be pretty accurately determined from Epiphan. It was written about A. Lipsius has obtained another result, but only by an emendation of the text which is unnecessary see Quellen der altesten Ketzergeschichte, p. Hippolytus treats his un- named opponents as contemporaries; but a closer examination shows that he only knew them from their writings — of which there were several see ch.

A certain criterion of the age of these writings, and therefore of the party itself, is given by the fact that, at the time when the latter flourished, the only Church at Thyatira was, from their own testimony, Montanist, while the above-mentioned authority was already able to tell of a rising catholic Church, and of other Christian communities in that place. The date when this movement in Asia Minor flourished can be dis- covered more definitely, however, by a combination, proved by Zahn to be justified, of tlie statements of Hippolytus and Irenxus III.

According to tliis, the party existed in Asia Minor, A. L Church ch. They ridiculed the seven angek and seven trumpets, and the four angels by the Euphrates; and on Rev. Moreover, the objections to the Gospel must also have included the charge ch. In this connection they attacked the expression "Logos" for the Son of God;' indeed, they scented Gnosticism in it, contrasted John I. In view of this fact it is extremely surprising to notice how mildly the party was criticised and treated by Irenaeus as well as by Hippolytus.

The former distinguishes them sharply from the declared heretics. He places them on a line with the Schismatics, who gave up communion with the Church on account of the hypo- 1 Epiph. In their conception the Gospel of John precluded the human birth and development of Jesus. He approves oftheir decided opposition to all pseudo-prophetic nonsense, and he only complains that in their zeal against the bad they had also fought against the good, and had sought to eject all prophecy. In short, he feels that between them and the Montanists, whom likewise he did not look on as heretics, ' he held the middle position maintained by the Church.

And so with Hippolytus. The latter, apart from features which he could not but blame, confirms the con- formity to the Church, claimed by the party itself ch. But what was their teaching as to Christ? If Lipsius ' were correct in his opinion that the Alogi only saw in Jesus a man naturally procreated, that they only pretended to hold by the current doctrine, then the attitude to them of Irenaeus and Hippolytus would be incomprehensible. But our authority gives no support to such a view.

The equipment of Christ at his baptism was to them, in view of Mark, ch. Since they did not believe in an age of the Paraclete, nor entertain material- istic hopes about the future state, they could not reconcile themselves to the Johannine writings; and their attachment to the conception of Christ in the Synoptics led them to reject the Gospel of the Logos. An explicitly Church party could not have ventured to promulgate such views, if they had been confronted by a Canon already closed, and giving a fixed place to these Johannine books. The uncompromising criticism, both internal and external — as in the hypothesis of the Cerinthian authorship — to which these were subjected, proves that, when the party arose, no Catholic Canon existed as yet in Asia Minor, and that, accordingly, the movement was almost as ancient as that of the Montanists, which it followed very closely.

The rise of such an opposition in the very region in which the Gospel undoubtedly first came to light; the application to the fourth of a standard derived from the Synoptic Gospels; the denial without scruple, of its apostolic origin; are facts which it seems to me have, at the present day, not been duly appreciated. Meanwhile, the first express opposition with which we are acquainted to the Logos Christology was raised within the Church, by a party which, yet, must be conceived by us to have been in many respects specifically secularised. For the radical opposition to Montanism, and the open, and at the same time jesting, criticism on the Apocalypse, ' can only be so re- garded.

Yet the preference of the Logos Christology to others is itself indeed, as Celsus teaches, a symptom of secularisation and innovation in the creed. The Alogi attacked it on this ground when they took it as promoting Gnosticism Docetism. But they also tried to refute the Logos Doctrine and the Logos Gospel on historical grounds, by a reference to the Synoptic Gospels. They and their oppo- nents could retort on each other the charge of introducing innovations; but we cannot mistake the fact that the larger proportion of innovations is to be looked for on the side of the Alogi.

How long the latter held their ground; how, when, and by whom they were expelled from the Church in Asia Minor, we do not know. Of Cennthus we know far too little to be justified in sharing in the holy horror of the Church Fathers. But even if the above hypothesis is false, and it is in fact very probable that it is, yet the very fact that it could be set up by Churchmen is instructive enough; for it shows us, what we do not know from any other source, that the Johannine writings met with, and had to overcome, opposition in their birth-place.

But, like Theodotus, to be mentioned presently, he rejected the view of the Alogi as regards John's Gospel. The Roman Adoptians. Arteraonis, ; Hagemann, Die romische Kirche in den drei ersten Jahrh. NyRaekke, Bd. Authorities for the older Theodotus are; i the Syntagma of Hippolytus according to Epiph. This work was directed against Roman Dynamistic Monarchians under the leader- ship of a certain Artemas, who are to be distinguished from the Theodotiaos.

Eusebius has confined his extracts from tlie Little Labyrinth to such as deal with the Theodotians. These extracts and Philos. X, are used by Theodoret H. A writing of Theodotus seems to have been made use of in the Syntagma of Hippolytus. As regards the younger Theodotus, his name has been handed down by the Little Labyrinth, the Philosoph. The Syntagma tells of a party of Melchizedekians, which is traced in the Philosoph.

Very mysterious in contents and origin is the piece, edited for the first time from Parisian MSS. The only controversial writing known to us against Artemas Artemon is the Little Labyrinth. Unfortunately Eusebius has not excerpted the passages aimed at him.

Artemas is, again, omitted in the Syntagma and in the Philosoph. For this reason Epiphanius, Pseudo-Tertull. He is, however, mentioned prominently in the edict of the last Synod of Antioch held to oppose Paul of Samosata so also in the Ep. Alexandri in Theodoret II. I, esp. Theodoret H. All we know for certain of his history is that he was excommunicated by the Roman Bishop, Victor, on account of the Christology which he taught in Rome Euseb.

After the piety of his Hfe had been thoroughly tested, the Holy Ghost descended upon him in baptism; by this means he became Christ and received his equipment SuvxfjLeig for his special vocation; and he demonstrated the righteousness, in virtue of which he excelled all men, and was, of necessity, their authority. Yet the descent of the Spirit upon Jesus was not sufficient to justify the contention that he was now "God". The Syntagma is further able to teU that Theodotus had denied Christ during the persecution in his naiive city before he came to Rome.

See on this point my article on Monarchianism, p. Jesus as having become God through the resurrection; others disputed even this. Epiphanius has, fortunately, preserved for us fragments of the biblical theological investigations of Theodotus, by the help of the Syntagma. These show that there was no longer any dispute as to the extent of the N. Canon; the Gospel of John is recognised, and in this respect also Theodotus is Catho- lic.

The investigations are interesting, however, because they are worked out by the same prosaic methods of exegesis, adopted in the above discussed works of the Alogi. TTie statement that Theodotus denied the birth by the virgin is simply a calumny, first alleged by Epiphanius. The account of the Philos. In that case we would only have to substitute the " Son of God " for " Christ ", and to suppose that Hippolytus chose the latter term in order to be able to characterise the teaching of Theodotus as Gnostic Cerinthian.

On the possibility that the Theo- dotians, however, really named the Holy Spirit "Christ", see later on. They deduced from Mat. The treatment of the verses in Deut. On Luke I. It is certain that he was excommunicated by Victor, accordingly before A. We do not know how large his following was in the city.

We cannot put it at a high figure, since in that case the Bishop would not have ventured on ex- communication. It must, however, have been large enough to allow of the experiment of forming an independent Church. This was attempted in the time of the Roman Bishop Zephyrine — by the most important of the disciples of Theodotus, viz. It is extremely probable that both of these men were also Greeks. A native, Natalius the confessor, was induced, so we are told by the Little Labyrinth, to become Bishop of the party, at a salary of denarii a montii. The attempt failed.

The oppressed Bishop soon deserted and returned into the bosom of the great Church. The above undertaking is interesting in itself, since it proves how great had already become the gulf between the Church and these Monarchians in Rome, about A. And since Hippolytus urges against him that John I. See the Cod. The offence charged against the Theodotians was three- fold: the grammatical arid formal exegesis of Holy Scripture, the trenchant textual criticism, and the thorough-going study of Logic, Mathematics, and the empirical sciences.

It would seem at a first glance as if these men were no longer as a rule inter- ested in theology. But the opposite was the case. But the method of this work, — and wc can infer it to have been also that of the Alogi and the older Theodotus — conflicted with the dominant theological method. Instead of Plato and figure they could obtain from it that would prove their godless teaching.

And if any one brought before them a passage from Holy Scripture, they asked whether a conjunctive or disjunctive figure could be made of it. They set aside the Holy Scriptures of God, and employ themselves, instead, with geometry, being men who are earthly, and talk of what is earthly, and know not what comes from above. Some of them, therefore, study the geometry of Euclid with the greatest devotion ; Aristotle and Theophrastus are admired; Galen is even worshipped by some.

He who will can convince himself that this is no calumny. For, if one should collect the manuscripts of any one of them and compare them, he would find them differ in many passages. At least, the manuscripts of Asclepiodotus do not agree with those of Theodotus. Again, with these the manuscripts of Hermo- philus do not agree; and those of Apollonides even differ from each other. For if we compare the manuscripts first restored by them him r witli the later re-corrected copies, variations are found in many places.

How unique and valuable is this information! In the condition of the theology of the Church at that time, it could not be supposed that religious conviction was especially strong or ardent in men who depreciated the religious philosophy of the Greeks. For whence, if not from this source, or from Apocalyptics, did men then derive a distinctively pious enthusi- asm? They were fated to remain officers without an army; for with grammar, textual criticism, and logic one could only throw discredit, in the communities, on the form of Christological doctrine which held the highest place and had been rendered venerable by long tradition.

These scholars, therefore, although they regarded themselves as Catholic, stood outside the Church. That philosophy, indeed, in the third century, triumphed throughout the empire over its rivals, and therefore the exclusive alliance concluded with it by Christian tradition was one which, when it took place, coidd be said to have been inevitable. Suppose, how- ever, that the theology of Sabellius or of Paul had established itself in the Church in the 3rd century, then a gulf would have been created between the Church and Hellenism that would have made it impossible for the religion of the Church to become that of the empire.

Neo-platonic tradition was the final product of antiquity it disposed, but as a living force, of the intellectual and moral capital of the past ' As "genuine" scholars — and this is a very characteristic feature— they took very great care that each should have the credit of his own amendments on the text.

Contrast the significance gained by the schools of Alexandria and Anti- och 1 The latter, which rose about 60 years later, took up again the work of this Roman school. It, too, came to stand outside the great Church ; but it brought about one of the most import- ant crises in the dogmatics of the Church, because in its philoso- phico-thcological starting-point it was at one with orthodoxy. The methodical and exegetical examination of the Holy Scriptures confirmed the Theodotians in their conception of Christ as the man in whom in an especial manner the Spirit of God had operated, and had made them opponents of the Logos Christology.

Now Hippolytus has extracted from the exe- getical works of the younger Theodotus one passage, the dis- cussion of Hebr. The money- changer taught, it was said Epiph. The origin of the former was completely concealed, because it was heavenly, but Jesus was born of Mary. To this Epiphanius adds that the party presented its oblations in the name of M. It is apparent that the Theodotians cannot have taught this simply as it stands.

The explanation is not far to seek. There was a wide-spread opinion in the whole ancient Church, that Melchizedek was a manifestation of the true Son of God; and to this view many speculations attached themselves, here and there in connection with a subord- inationist Christology. Immediately after the sentence given above Epiphanius has 55, c. And the Apostle having been sent by him revealed to us that Melchizedek is great and remains a priest for ever, and behold how great he is ; and because the less is blessed by the greater, therefore he says that he as being greater blessed Abraham the patriarch ; of whom we are initiated that we may obtain from him the blessing.

The Egyptian hermit, Marcus, wrote, about A. Gnecic III. These Theo- dotians maintained, as is also shown by their exegesis on i Cor. And if, in comparison with this Son of God, the chosen and anointed servant of God, Jesus, appears inferior at first, pre- cisely in so far as he is man, yet their position was no more unfavourable in this respect than that of Hermas.


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For Hermas also taught that Jesus, being only the adopted Son of God, was really not to be compared to the Holy Spirit, the Eternal Son ; or, rather, he is related to the latter, to use a Theodotian expression, as the copy to the original. Yet there is undoubt- edly a great distinction between the Theodotians and Hermas. The thcologico-philosophical impress which, as distinguished from Sim. If that is so then the Philosophumena is right when it relates that the Theodotians had also given the name of Christ to tlie pre-cxistent Son of God, the Holy Ghost. Yet it is not certain whether we should regard the above quoted chapter of Epiphanius at all as reporting the Theodotian interpretation of I Cor.

Thus, the Theodotians sought, in a similar way to Origen, to rid themselves by speculation of what was merely historical, setting, like him, the eternal Son of God above the Crucified One. We have evidence of the correctness of this opinion in the observation that these speculations on Melchi- zedek were continued precisely in the school of Origen. We find them, and that with the same tendency to depreciate the historical Son of God, in Hieracas and the confederacy of Hieracite monks ; ' as also in the monks who held the views of Origen in Egypt in the fourth and fifth centuries.

We have accordingly found that these theologians retained the ancient Roman Christology represented by Hermas; but that they edited it theologically and consequently changed its intention. In view of the peculiar character of the book, this would not be difficult. We may ask, however, whether the teach- ing of the Theodotians is really to be characterised as Monarchian, seeing that they assigned a special, and as it seems, an inde- pendent role to the Holy Spirit apart from God. Meanwhile, we can no longer determine how these theologians reconciled the separate substance hypostasis of the Holy Ghost, with the unity of the Person of God.

But so much is certain, that in their Christology the Spirit was considered by them only as a power, and that, on the other hand, their rejection of the Logos Christology was not due to any repugnance to the idea of a second divine being. But then the difTerence between them and their opponents does not belong to the sphere of the doctrine of God; they are rather substantially at one on this subject with a theologian like Hippo- lytus.

If that is so, however, their opponents were undoubtedly superior to them, while they themselves fell short of the traditional estimate of Christ. In other words, if there was an eternal Son of God, or any one of that nature, and if He appeared under the old covenant, then the traditional estimate of Jesus could not be maintained, once he was separated from that Son. We see here why the old Christological conceptions passed away so quickly, comparatively speaking, and gave place so soon in the Churches to the complete and essential elevation of Jesus to the rank of deity, whenever theological reflection awoke to life.

It was, above all, the distinctive method of viewing the Old Testament and its theophanies that led to this. In certain respects the attempt of the Theodotians presents itself as an innovation. In this sense, in consequence of the new interest which the representatives of the above doctrine took in the old for- mula, it is to be regarded as novel. For we can hardly attri- bute to pre-catholic Christians like Hermas, a special interest in the essential humanity of Jesus.

They certainly believed that they gave full expression in their formulas to the highest pos- sible estimate of the Redeemer ; they had no other idea. These theologians, on the other hand, defended a lower conception of Christ against a higher. Thus we may judge them on their own ground ; for they let the idea of a heavenly Son of God 1 Hermas did not do this, in so far as in the language of religion he speaks only of a Son of God Simil.

They indeed supported it by Scriptural proof, and in this certainly surpassed their opponents, but the proof did not cover the gaps in their dogmatic procedure. But if we consider the circumstances in which they appeared, and the excessive ex- pectations that were pretty generally attached to the possession of faith — above all, the prospect of the future deification of every believer — we cannot avoid the impression, that a doctrine could not but be held to be destructive, which did not even elevate Christ to divine honours, or, at most, assigned him an apotheosis, like that imagined by the heathens for their emperors or an Antinous.

Apocalyptic enthusiasm passed grad- ually into Neo-platonic mysticism. In this transition these scho- lars took no share. They rather sought to separate a part of the old conceptions, and to defend that with the scientific means of their opponents.

Recensioner

Once more, 20 to 30 years later, the attempt was made in Rome by a certain Artemas to rejuvenate the old Christology. We are extremely ill informed as to this last phase of Roman Adoptianism ; for the extracts taken by Eusebius from the Little Labyrinth, the work written against Artemas and his party, apply almost exclusively to the Theodotians. We learn, however, that the party appealed to the historical justifi- cation of their teaching in Rome, maintaining that Bishop Zephyrine had first falsified the true doctrine which they de- fended.

The author of the Little Labyrinth reminds them Theodotus had been already excommunicated by Victor, of this fact they themselves cannot have been ignorant. Wl moreover, we observe the evident anxiety of the writer to pose Theodotus upon them as their spiritual father, we a to the conclusion that the party did not identify themse with the Theodotians. What they regarded as the poin difference we do not know.

No notice is taken of him ever the letters of Cyprian. We read there Euseb. Jahn, p. Compare ch. There were accordingly only two hypostases, and the Redeemer is the flesh caro , to which the pre-existent Holy Spirit, the eternal Son of God, the Christ, descended. But we learn casually that even in the beginning of the 5th century a certain Marcus was expelled from Rome for holding the heresy of Photinus, and that he obtained a following in Dalmatia.

Incomparably more instructive, however, is the account given by Augustine Con- fess. There were some who maintained: "quod in eo ex virgine creando efficax dei sapientia et virtus exstiterit, et in nativitate eius divinse prudentiae et potestatis opus intelle- gatur, sitque in eo efBcientia potius quam natura sapientise.

We can see from the writings of Origen that there were also many in the East who rejected the Logos Christology. Those were undoubtedly most numerous who identified the Father and the Son ; but there were not wanting such as, while they made a distinction, attributed to the Son a human nature only, ' and 1 Augustine, I. Quia itaque vera scripta sunt sc. Alypius autem deum came indutum ita putabat credi a Catbolicis, ut praeter deum et carnem non esset in Christo anima, mentemque hominis non existimabat in eo praedicari. Sed postea haereticorum ApolUnaristarum hunc errorem esse cognos- cens, catholicse fidei collxtatus et contemperatus est.

Ego autem aliquanto posterius didicisse me fateor, in eo quod " verbum caro factum est " quomodo catliolica Veritas a Photini falsitate dirimatur. It was certainly not so, etc. ApoUinaris in Mai Nov. He himself, besides, had also inserted the Adoptian Christology into his complicated doctrine of Christ; for he had attached the greatest value to the tenet that Jesus should be held a real man who had been chosen by God, who in virtue of his free will, had steadfastly attested his excellence, and who, at last, had become perfectly fused with the Logos in disposition, will, and finally also in nature see Vol.

He attempted to convince the Adop- tians of their error, more correctly, of their questionable one- sidedness, ' but he had seldom any other occasion to contend with them. On Origen and the Monarchians, see Hagenianu, I. Perhaps we should here include the action against Beryll of Bostra. This Arabian Bishop taught Monarchianism. His doctrine aroused a violent opposition. The Bishops of the province were deeply agitated and instituted many examinations and discussions.

But they appear not to have come to any result. Origen was called in, and, as we are informed by Eusebius, who had himself examined the acts of the Synods, he succeeded in a disputation in amicably convincing the Bishop of his error. We have to depend, for the teaching of Beryll, on one sentence in Eusebius, which has received very different interpretations.

However, this is not enough to class the Bishop with certainty among the Patripassians, since Eusebius' own Christological view, by which that of Beryll was here gauged, was very vague.

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See also Socrates H. This word was not yet so used, so far as I know in the 3rd century. In our passage and Pseudo-IIippol. See on Beryll, who has become a favourite of the historians of dogma, apart from the extended historical works, Ullmann, de BeryUo, ; Theod. That the Bishop rather taught Dynamistic Monarchianism is supported, first, by the circumstance that this form of doctrine had, as we can prove, long persisted in Arabia and Syria; and, secondly, by the observation that Origen, in the fragment of his commentary on the Ep.

He opposed the already dominant doctrine of the essential natural deity of Christ, and set up once more the old view of the human Person of the Redeemer. By the Epiphany we have to understand the future appearing; but thorough-going Millenarians in the East, in the country districts, hardly recognised the doctrine of the Logos. Especially the circumstance that, according to the Creed and the Gospel, the Holy Ghost took part in the conception of Jesus, constantly prompted the most curious phrases regarding the personal divinity of Christ, and the assumptio carnis of the Logos, sec, e,g.

We do not know the circumstances in which Paul felt him- self impelled to attack the form of doctrine taught by Alex- andrian philosophy. Yet it is noticeable that it was not a province of the Roman Empire, but Antioch, then belonging to Palmyra, which was the scene of this movement. When we observe that Paul held a high political office in the kingdom of Zenobia, that close relations are said to have existed between him and the Queen, and that his fall implied the triumph of the Roman party in Antioch, then we may assume that a political conflict lay behind the theological, and that Paul's opponents belonged to the Roman party in Syria.

It was not easy to get at the distinguished Metropolitan and ex- perienced theologian, who was indeed portrayed by his enemies as an unspiritual ecclesiastical prince, vain preacher, ambitious man of the world, and wily Sophist. The provincial Synod, over which he presided, did not serve the purpose.

But already, in the affair of Novatian, which had threatened to split up the East, the experiment had been tried A. It was re- peated.


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  8. A great Synod — we do not know who called it — met in Antioch A. The aged Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, excused his absence in a letter in which he did not take Paul's side. The first Synod came to an end without result, because, it is alleged, the accused had cunningly concealed his false doctrines.

    Firmilian himself gave up the idea of a con- demnation "because Paul promised to change his opinions. The number of the members of Synod is stated differently at 70, 80, and ; and the argument against Paul was led by Malchion, a sophist of Antioch and head of a high school, as also a presbyter of the Church.

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    He alone among them all was in a position to unmask that "wily and deceitful man. This decision was of course founded on political grounds. These still existed in the 6th century, but we now possess them only in a fragmentary form: in Euseb. Mono- phys. Mai has published Vet. Nova Coll. Vincentius mentions writings by Paul Commonit. The teaching of Paul was characterised by the Fathers as a renewal of that of Artemas, but sometimes also as Neo-Jewish, Ebionitic, afterwards as Nestorian Monothelite, etc. It was as follows. God was simply to be regarded as one person.

    Hahn Biblioth. One or two notes also in Cramer's Catena on S. John, pp. Useful detaik are given by Innocentius I. In the later opponentsof the heretics from Philaster, and in resolutions of Synods from the 5th century, we find nothing new. The Libellus Synodicus we must leave out of account. Jesus was like God in the unchangeableness of his love and his will, and be- came one with God, being not only without sin himself, but vanquishing, in conflict and labour, the sins of our ancestor. As he himself, however, advanced in the manifestation of goodness and continued in it, the Father furnished him with power and miracles, in which he made known his steadfast conformity to the will of God.

    So he became the Redeemer and Saviour of the human race, and at the same time entered into an eternally indissoluble union with God, because his love can never cease. Similar details are to be found in Theodoras of Mops. It is God Himself who is thus united with the latter. Ariam IV. They said that there was a distinction here like that in the O. Paul's expositions of nature and will in the Persons, of the essence and power of love, of the divinity of Christ, only to be per- ceived in the work of His ministry, because exclusively con- tained in unity of will with God, are almost unparalleled in the whole dogmatic literature of the Oriental Churches in the first three centuries.

    For, when such passages do occur in Origen, they at once disappear again in metaphysics, and we do not know the arguments of the Alogi and the Theodotians. As he kept his dogmatic theology free from Platonism, his difference with his opponents began in his conception of God. The second and third fragments may be by Thcodorus of Mops. He here represented the interests of theism as against the chaotic naturalism of Plato- nism. And in appreciating the character of Jesus he refused to recognise its uniqueness and divinity in his "nature"; these he found only in his disposition and the direction of his will.

    But as Christ had been predestin- ated by God in a unique manner, so in conformity to the prom- ises the Spirit and the grace of God rested on him exception- ally; and thus his work in his vocation and his life, with and in God, had been unique. This view left room for a human life, and if Paul has, ultimately, used the formula, that Christ had become God, his appeal to Philipp. His opponents, indeed, charged him with sophistically and deceitfully concealing his true opinion behind phrases with an orthodox sound. It is possible, in view of the fact, e. He was not understood, or rather he was misunderstood.

    Many theologians at the present day regard the theology of Hermas as positively Nicene, al- though it is hardly a whit more orthodox than that of Paul. If such a misunderstanding is possible to the scholars of to-day — and Hermas was certainly no dissembler, — why can Firmilian not have looked on Paul as orthodox for a time? He taught that there was an eternal Son of God, and that he dwelt in Jesus; he proclaimed the divinity of Christ, held there were two persons God and Jesus , and with the Alexandrians rejected Sabellianism.

    On this very point, indeed, a sort of concession seems to have been made to him at the Synod. SeeSozomen H. He is said to have argued as follows: — If Christ is not, as he taught, essentially human, then he is ifioovviog with the Father. This can have been an objection made by Paul. The Aristotelian conception of the oiftrix would correspond to his turn of thought, and so would the circumstance, that the possibility of a subordinate, natural, divinity on the part of the Son is left out of the question.

    The Synod again can very well have rejected ofioGV rtog in the inter- ests of anti-sabellianism. We let them know you do not have to die with the dead. Yes, in Africa, we seem to celebrate those who do not want to come out of mourning. We want to say, ah, since her husband died, she has not been well. So, we are fighting those age-old practices that set the society back. Yes, some will not move away. So, we say, take off the perpetual mourning gown and wear a gown of progress and victory.

    We are also addressing the problem of indiscipline in homes. Widows praise God at Motion Africa event in PH without fathers and lack of mentoring influences in such homes. We have not yet set up formal structures, but we have been teaching them informally. I grew up as the daughter of a widow. I grew up with a mother who mourned all her life, even at The real challenge of widowhood is not the loss of the husband but the collapse of the entire life of a woman and surrender of destiny.

    There are other aspects of life apart from marriage. Most men remarry but women stay put; even those that had bad marriages. Those that had good marriages say they do not want to meet a bad man; those with bad marriage say they do not want to meet same bad man. It is rather better to open up, get a man ready to be a father to your children and star a new life. We agree however that man one wife is still the best family way. God is a super mathematician. For every male, there is a female. One wife is enough peace for every man, but a widow can still find a man that would take her as a worthy wife with her children.

    There is one prominent woman in Port Harcourt, wife of a top political personality, who invests in widows and has had many testimonies of narrow escapes and breakthroughs. She is not living off the husband or politics because of prayers and goodwill from widows. She has her own successes. I am a living testimony of what. God can do if you help widows. I have escaped several bouts of disasters and I think God sees my heart.

    Its still the best form of social investment. Examples abound of difficult situations we have confronted in the ministry of rescuing widows. I have rented apartments for widows. I grew up with a motherwidow and many times we cried out over lack. Thank God I met Jesus early and got a definition of my life. It was not fun. Right now, we have a widow on our hands who says she stays in a batcher. Trust me, if money enters into my hand any moment from now, we will get an apartment for her. Her baby has already been adopted by us for help.

    There are some orphans who were thrown out of a makeshift house batcher. We said to hell and rented an apartment for them. Today, the first male child works with Shell. We are not keen on their coming back to link back. Coping with the needs of widows is difficult because meeting your own needs is not easy. My determination is to build a rehabilitation centre My determination is to build a rehabilitation centre to take children of widows away from the streets. I already have a parcel of land at Omademe area of the state, even if it is just to build 10 rooms.

    It will help to monitor their progress. I have been in court with them. Worse, my landlord has locked us out for days. That is why we came here today to seek succur. That is why we pray ceaselessly for Mrs Joy Azaka and her husband. Our prayer is for God to repay all those who help us. I do advise my children all the time and they have run to Christ. Their relations trouble them a lot. As a minister in a church, I help people just like the way Joy Azaka does. In fact, the worst part is that they took our share of the land.

    The brother that is now in charge has seized all lands. Even when I went to ask for land to plant cassava for support, they said I was not entitled to any, unless I would come and face the kinsmen. Since then, I avoided their place but I used to contribute to their activities in the past.

    Now, they said no farmland for me. I also saw it as a trap and therefore allowed it to pass away. I am coping by His calling. My children are not happy but they are very young. I cannot lead them into a battle. I have already let go. God will take control. Rely on God. What Joy Azaka is doing is fantastic. Now, Joy Azaka has started same thing here.

    You can see women carrying away rice and clothing; some have been assisted to start businesses. I pray that God increase the grace on her. Year after year, long lists of corrupt politicians are bandied without any of them being convicted, let alone going to and jail. But several years after the indicted governors left office, the long arm of the law is yet to catch up with them. A few that were taken to.

    It appears that the courts are now waking up from their slumber and the EFCC is also approaching the cases with the amount of seriousness they deserve. In a space of two weeks, two former governors have been sent to the gulag. Although we are quick at reading political meanings in everything, the developments are commendable. We must begin from somewhere. He was convicted on charges of criminal breach of trust and misappropriation of over N1. Dariye was the governor of the state between and and was charged by the EFCC in , on 23 counts of money laundering involving alleged diversion of Pla-.

    But his trial resumed in after nine years delay. Tw o w e e k s a g o , J o l l y N y a m e , was dragged to jail where he has been sentenced to spend 14 years for fraud-related offences. It was the same judge Adebukola Banjoko that did the sentencing. Dariye was said to have pleaded with the prosecution lawyer, Rotimi Jacobs, to have mercy on him.

    You are a Christian, your name is Jacob. Please, extend the dragnet! It is a good prayer, but when you see youths lazying about and they are lurking around in the neighbourhood, it calls for concern. The episode tells us a lot about highmindedness of the youth of today. They want to own everything at their young age without working for it. Perhaps, it is the corrupting influence from those at the leadership position in the country.

    Many of these youths are idle after passing out of school. They hear about those who came about their stupendous wealth through questionable and unverifiable means. And with the kind of 21st Century knowledge they have, they begin to imagine vain things. In Nigeria, we have lost our values.

    Nowadays, parents no longer ask their children how they came about their sudden wealth. They no longer ask their single daughters how they came about big cars and life of affluence they live. Too bad! Perhaps, it is a good attribute, because if we should remember vividly the things that happen to us, particularly the ill treatments by successive administrations, the country would have gone up in flames.

    The heavy casualties were the people of South East residing in Lagos. The anger was skewed against them because of the involvement of Arthur Nzeribe. Following the time of the annulment, there was apprehension everywhere and many people thought that war was imminent. For this unfounded fear, a good number of the Igbo people residing in Lagos fled the city. Unfortunately, many lost their lives in series of road mishaps while some others met their untimely death in their villages.

    Some evil kinsmen used the opportunity to wipe out some of the returnee families fearing that they had come back to lay claim to some piece of land somewhere. It was an agonising moment that. Many women were openly raped at Oshodi by these street urchins and they inflicted mortal injuries on many innocent people. Today, Abiola is being honoured, what about those families that were wiped out by accident on account of the crisis sparked by the annulment?

    What about those who are still traumatised in several ways as a result of the ugly experiences they passed through following the annulment? If the Federal Government means well in this gush of magnanimity it is showing to the late Abiola and a few others, it should make a public proclamation, apologising to all those who suffered pain in one form or the other. The victim was a cousin to one of the three suspects.

    The narrative is that they had gone to a native doctor for a charm to enable them make quick money and the man told them to bring a fresh human heart. So, they lured the victim out of his house and they spent some time at a bar until it became dark when they descended on the poor boy, ripping open his heart region with a dagger while he was still alive. They harvested the heart and ran to the native doctor, who according to them prepared beans porridge with the fresh heart. Most times, when we read this type. By the same token, the taste of the assurances by the Independent National Electoral Commission INEC to give Nigerians credible polls in will be in the results that would be declared.

    For some time now, INEC has continued to assure Nigerians that it would truly play its unbiased role in the conduct of the general election. Analysts have also alerted the Commission to check out for possible threats to credible polls this time around. Such threats includr insecurity, paucity of funds, lack of legal framework, voteselling and buying and hate speech. Nigerians are anxiously waiting on the. INEC to ensure that their votes will count. This is against the background of the allegation that some people may have concluded arrangements to rig the elections and that INEC had given in to this clandestine arrangement by registering under-aged children as eligible voters.

    The onus now lie on the commission to prove critics wrong. Amidst a most stunning ambiance, the 23rd World Cup kicked off at the 81, capacity Luzhniki Stadium, Moscow with host Russia trashing Saudi Arabia in a fierce soccer battle. From a 13 team event, with which it started in , it grew to become a team affair during the edition in France. Today, the World Cup commands a global TV audience in excess of one billion. Beyond remarkable changes in terms of rules governing the game, the World Cup has equally recorded enormous growth in financial terms.

    For instance, World Cup sponsorship increased from two thousand dollars in to 16 thousand dollars in The cities of New York, San Francisco and Boston equally made combined revenue of one billion and forty-five million dollars in the course of the competition. In terms of job creation, over 1, part-time jobs were created in the city ofCalifornia aloneduringthepreparation and duration of the tournament. The World Cup hosted by Germany was also a massive economic success.

    For instance, German tourism sector reportedly recorded a revenue increase in excess of over million dollars over the month of the World Cup alone. Similarly, about 3 billion additional dollars, was further injected into the German economy, in merchandise such as jerseys and other stuffs regarding the Cup. Equally, over , new jobs were created before, during and after the competition. Without a doubt, football has become a money spinning sport acrosstheglobe. Theorganisationand managementoffootballinEurope,for instance, is a multi million dollars venture with all the teams running other sports related businesses.

    Indeed, all sorts of professionals-doctors, physiotherapists,psychologists,grass men, scouts, etc-are employed by the various teams in their drive for soccer. Therefore, football, in Europe, hasgonebeyondthemererecreationalactivitythatitisinNigeria. Asaresult of the excellent manner it is managed in Europe, youths across the continent have found in football a means through which they could use their talents to escape poverty. Thanks to football, players such as Christiano Ronaldo, Lionel Messi, Wayne Rooney, Cesc Fabregas, among others, have become multi millionaires before they clocked age of However, some critics have labeled the World Cup as a misplaced event that showcases unnecessary opulence in the face of abject poverty across the globe.

    There are multiple revenue streams that exist for organizers, including gate receipts, merchandise sales, sponsorships and licensing agreements, but by far the biggest income flow comes from television rights. However,thegoverningbodies behind sporting events are taking an increasing share of these spoils, makingitharderforeventhemostefficient local organizers to make money.

    But the costs of achieving those noble goals appear to outweigh the economic benefits they produce. Before South Africa World Cup, around , tourists were anticipated to be in the country for the tournament. Intheend,onlytwo-thirdsshowed up. For roughly the same amount, the country could have paid the wages of the entire working age population for a week. In a book titled Soccernomics , Professor Stefan Szymanski and Simon Kuper assessed the economic impact of hosting the World Cup and concluded that it is more of a waste.

    However, after the event, there was slight mark of any such increase. The pair, therefore, concluded that hosting sports event does not really translate into prosperity for the people. Rather, fortunes are spent to maintain the facilities, which sometimes give way to decay.

    However, from whichever way it is viewed, the World Cup and indeed, football in general, remain a major rally point for youths across the globe. One only hopes that FIFA would look inward to address various administrative issues that could undermine the credibility of the game. In the meantime, let us savour the splendor and excitement of the beautiful game by joining the rest of the world a month of scintillating soccer artistry.

    Obama: 101 Best Covers

    He took time out to speak with journalists on the socioeconomic situation in the country. What is your take on the security situation in the country? And I can say that the orientation of people today is that the government is not doing enough because the primary assignment of any president of a country is to secure the lives of his people. This issue of killings here and there, rituals and uncertainty everywhere, and I can tell you that there is hunger in the land and there is no food on the table for the people. Those of us who are leaders have the feelings; virtually every time people want to see you, it is about come and help us, and when you look at them, they truly need the help.

    Children are dropping out of school and those who have graduated have nothing doing. As such, joblessness is the order of the day. This time around people are angry. One the way to this place, from Ikeja, at least in about five places, I saw people exchanging blows. Not that they have decided to fight, but a hungry man is an angry man, and an angry man is a mad man. That is the situation we have found ourselves in this country and we do not have to deceive ourselves, all is not well.

    Few weeks ago the Catholic Church called out its members to protest the killings of priests and worshippers. What does such a thing portend for the country? It is just for the church to call the attention of the federal government to be aware that they are not happy. Joy is from the heart: when the heart is bleeding, the type of smile that you get is a graveyard peace.

    What are you doing about this tyranny? It has come to the point in this country where virtually everybody is angry because even if you are rich, there is no time for you to enjoy your riches. What is the way out of all of this?

    The Constitution, of Ipoti Wealth Creation Reunion

    The way out is for our government to be sensitive. Let them surround themselves with people that will tell them the truth, not those looking for position or money. They should go round the country. We do not have to deceive ourselves, the government can do something. As a leader, for example, I can tell you what happens in this diocese.

    And so a leader cannot tell you that he is handicapped or his hands are tied. I have limitations, but most things can be done with my instrumentality as a leader. So, as a leader of a group you have a lot to do. If the federal government wants to put an end to these killings, it is possible; it is just to ensure that the right people are in the right positions,. Even the bible says he who knows the truth and fails to say it, it is a sin. Those who are killing are not ghosts; they are human beings. The federal government has the capacity to go into this matter, so let us use all media to let them know all is not well in the grassroots.

    I am a grassroots person and can tell you that without mincing words; I am not happy because people are suffering. Even churches are now being affected because the rate of charity that we were doing before, we can no longer do it. The people who could have dropped money for charity are themselves asking for charity. When somebody who has been giving N20, finds it difficult to give N2,, where do we now get the money to care for the people around us? What is your advice to Nigerians as the general elections approach?

    Let everybody go and get their PVC and let everybody pray; let everybody exercise their rights to vote and let everybody vote and shine their eyes. The idea of giving you Ankara or giving you rice to buy your conscience, the time has gone. We have tried it and failed, so let everybody be conscious of who you vote for because the next four years now is very vital. I do not belong to any political party — all the parties are represented in my churches and I dare not take sides. I am just talking as a neutral person and as an unbiased umpire. Already they have started dancing around the people with rice, so let everybody be careful.

    Lagos West is a key stakeholder in Ajayi Crowther University; what measures can be put in place to reduce the burden of high tuition fees on parents? The electricity consumed must be paid for, and if you see the cost of running the institution on a monthly basis! The vice-chancellor of the school is a bishop like me and we relate very closely. He told me every month they need N55 million to pay salaries of workers. If we now say make it N50, for every student, how will they run the school? Instead you will ground the place. I am not saying the fees should be too high as not to accommodate those who do not have, but I do not belong to the school of thought that it should be free.

    Free things are not always the best for everybody. I will not say they should make it free because as an employer of labour, I have every responsibility to pay the people working with me. When the money fails to come in, at the end of the month we will not be able to do what we should do.

    There is a number of professors that must be in an institution for that institution to be accredited by the National Universities Commission NUC and for the results to be acceptable to a number of professional bodies. Now, for the cleaners and most junior workers, if you do not pay them at the end of the month, sometimes they adopt blackmail. Therefore, if we make it free or ridiculously low, the school will soon become a glorified secondary school. It began from the sitting room of the founder, Uwem Andrew-Essien about four years ago and has now grown into a large congregation of worshippers, though there appears to be no immediate plan to turn it into a church.

    So when it marked its fourth anniversary, it came with a thanksgiving and became an. The thanksgiving which held at the famous Emerald Events Centre in Uyo, the state capital, attracted people from all walks of life. As in every thanksgiving service, there were songs, musicals and drama presentations, word ministration, as well as refreshments, apparently using the Jesus model of sharing and eating together while children were given pride of place. According Andrew-Essien, the man behind the vision, the decision to take the fellowship.

    The fellowship started through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit in with 13 members who were determined to see the face of God, every Friday. With over members, the praying ministry has grown from the small number of people that started in but still maintained its identity as a fellowship ministry. The story of the MGF could be likened to that of a man who having been committed in himself to finding favour in the Lord and returned to thank God.

    But the MGF did not only organise an anniversary thanksgiving, it used the opportunity to announce the award of bursary to students of the fellowship with 15 of them as the first beneficiaries. It is important to keep in mind that these symbols convey some powerful images of what the Lord wants to do. God often crafts his messages to us using words to paint the images in our minds. And if we can see these images, we tend to bring them closer with our imagination.

    With further meditations, the images grow bigger and become more compelling. For with God nothing shall be impossible. Have you begun to see yourself as the palmtree after reading the first part of this lesson, last week? Have you given further meditations to the fact that God wants you to flourish just as the palm tree does, in season and out of season. He wants you to continue to be fruitful, yielding good yields and bountiful harvests regardless of prevailing circumstances that might be contrary to your expectations.

    Have you taken refuge and strength from this profound word, which is so timely and relevant for our world as it goes through uncertain pangs of anxiety and fear? Remember that the word of God only profits us to the extent that we believe it, and adjust our interests, passions,. And in the case, where He demands that we fulfil certain conditions before we can enjoy the benefits of some promises, we ought to do just that.

    You notice that it is the righteous who will flourish like the palm tree and grow like the cedar in Lebanon. You only qualify if you are righteous. But what does the symbolism of the cedar represent? The cedar is also known for its longevity. Some of them are believed to have lived upwards of years! The nature of the cedar is that it is always green full of sap — Ps. Like the palm tree, it is one tree that is completely useful all round.

    It is an emblem of strength and permanence. It is always green, full of spiritual substance sap. It symbolizes fruitfulness in all season cold, hot, dry. Meaning of the words — fresh and flourishing! The righteous believer planted in the courts of the Lord is being pictured here as ever youthful, attractive and full of energy and vigour and always productive and useful!

    Now it came to pass on the next day that Moses went into the tabernacle of witness, and behold, the rod of Aaron, of the house of Levi, had sprouted and put forth buds, had produced blossoms and yielded ripe almonds. Your prosperity in will be the evidence that the LORD can be trusted in fulfilling His promises. He is a dependable rock, and there is nothing unreliable about Him. Can you believe and affirm this Declaration with me? In , you will remain fresh in every area of your life — health, finance, business, marriage and life.

    In all that you do, you will flourish! You will know no dryness. Every desert before you shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. You will sing! And you will dance again, says the Lord! Everything that has been an obstacle to you and questioned your planting and growth will come to an end not later than the 31st of December This started some few days and I am personally excited as a football enthusiast.

    Are there people that we should just write off in life and give up on when it comes to success? I know economists will tell you that certain people without some qualities and qualifications will find it difficult to excel in life today but the Bible does not teach that at all. Let me briefly Inspire you from the experience of Joshua and Caleb with the 10 spies of Israel, they were all commanded by the Lord through Moses to spy out the Land they would be given, these spies were chosen from each tribe of Israel and they were to bring intelligence about the Land.

    The story above shows that it is possible for the Underdogs to win the battles of life. Many of us tend to think wrongly of ourselves and write ourselves off even when. You are only an Underdog if you believe so but once you can take a closer look at what you have and Who God is on your side, then the equation changes.

    The world has ways of tagging some people Underdogs and I am very worried that believers have joined them by chorusing the same, even to our fellow believers, simply because we are ignorant of the Greatness. Be mindful of the Truth that there is no Underdog with God. Nigeria can surprise the world during this tournament. Blessings and Be Inspired. I like to believe that your question is really targeted at arbitration, which is the focus of your interview. On that premise, I venture to say that arbitration has come a long way in Nigeria, particularly in the last ten years, largely due to the increasing interest of lawyers who now appreciate the speed with which issues are resolved vis-a-vis what obtains in the normal courts.

    It is, however, still a developing mechanism for dispute resolution in Nigeria. How has ADR and arbitration fared over the years across Africa? Is it very well accepted now as an effective means of resolving disputes across Africa? ADR, which incidentally includes arbitration, is gaining increasing acceptance in many parts of Africa. It is now relatively common to see arbitration clauses in contracts involving corporate bodies in Africa.

    While the cost of resolving disputes by way of arbitration can no longer be said to be cheap, the relative speed with which issues are resolved by arbitral tribunals makes it particularly attractive to the business community who consider time to be money. How strategic is this for the Nigerian arbitration community?

    Be that as it may, there is no gainsaying the fact that the conference is very strategic for the Nigerian arbitration community to the extent that it has created a growing awareness of the importance of arbitration in the dispute resolution processes. I believe that the judiciary, particularly in Lagos State, deserves special commendation in this regard. The What are the most critical challenges trend was set in Lagos State where, I it is facing? Sometimes, it is a made far-reaching recommendations lot more expensive than the normal which culminated in the establishment courts in the resolution of disputes.

    In many This has naturally given rise to a situa- cases, parties have been referred to tion in which smaller business outfits the Multi Door Courthouse for the would rather bear with the delays of speedy resolution of their disputes. It the normal courts instead of digging is gratifying to add that the National deep into their pockets to finance an Industrial Court and the Court of Aparbitration. There is also the disturbing peal have joined this commendable issue of courts appearing to encourage league of courts which encourage the a proliferation of challenges to arbi- development.

    Will you say the judiciary tune. That fact of life highlights the has shown enough commitment to problems the judiciary has faced in. State governors have been known to exercise some form of irritating and rather crude overlordship on the top functionaries of their state judiciary.

    It is hoped that this welcome development will usher in an era of truly independent judiciary in every part of Nigeria. Lack of financial autonomy for the judiciary had been partly blamed for delayed justice in the country. Will this development mark the end of delays? The problem of delayed justice has more to do with factors other than lack of financial autonomy.


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    In my humble opinion, delayed justice is a byproduct of the general malaise in our society where unthinkable things do happen with the unfortunate acquiescence of the wider society. A serious cankerworm like corruption will not necessarily be dealt with by financial autonomy.

    I personally see financial autonomy for the judiciary first, as a veritable tool for the improvement in the welfare of judges and other judicial. Despite the availability of seasoned and competent arbitrators in the country, several multinationals still prefer to take their disputes outside the country to be resolved. Do you consider this worrisome?

    And how do you think this trend can be reversed? It is certainly a worrisome trend but, sadly, I am not really surprised at the trend. The reasons are multifaceted. Very unfortunately, there is a worldwide perception that Nigerians are corrupt and can be easily compromised.

    The sad image has regrettably been encouraged by the nefarious activities of our politicians and many other well placed Nigerians who have made money their own god. It is amazing the level to which some of our people would go in their desire to make money. Premium is placed on integrity in any decent society. That used to be the norm in this country before the military and politicians encouraged the development of a mindset that places premium on materialism. A reversal of this trend requires a complete reorientation in our society.

    I should add that the difficulty usually encountered in the enforcement of arbitral awards is another factor that has jeopardized the development of international arbitration in this country. A welcome development, however, was the directive reportedly issued by the Chief Justice of Nigeria to all heads of courts in the country to lend their weight to the enforcement of arbitral awards in order to attract foreign investments, among other objectives.

    The organisation will, for the first time since its year existence, host an annual conference known as the Institute in Lagos, Nigeria, in September. The conference will attract over 1, Rotarians from all over Africa, the United States and Switzerland. Rotary International has different zones for administration. Rotary in Nigeria has four districts and belong to zone 20A of the Rotary International.

    Every zone has an annual conference of all the senior Rotarians around it. It is like an annual general meeting. It is a conference; it is like an annual convention. Annually, Rotarians go for an international convention. This year, we went to Toronto, Canada. The next thing after that level is the Rotary Institute. The convention is for Rotarians all over the whole world, but the Institute is for Rotarians within that zone, and we happen to fall into Zone 20A, which consists mostly of the countries in Africa. For the first time ever, Rotary International has agreed to have that conference in Nigeria.

    It has never happened before since when Rotary was established. It is a major event and success for Nigeria as a country to be considered to host this Institute. It has been held all over Africa. Last year, it was held in Johannesburg. We have been before to Ghana, Kenya, Seychelles and all over the place.

    We have been fighting for it to be in Nigeria until now. Prime rate THE average rale at which major Singapore banks are currently prepared to lend to their best customers is 9. Middle Prices. Discount Source: National Discount Co. Hongkong THE US dollar yesterday was little changed from morning levels although volume rose slightly after the European opening.

    The US unit moved narrowly, ruling at 2. Sterling edged up to U He told banks at the loan signing that the. This was disclosed by chairman Timothy Bevan on Monday. Page 4. Likewise, local hotels adopt the same attitude in their continuous attempts to increase flagging occupancy rates.

    One of the latest. The seminar, which started yesterday, will cover various topics, includ-. A subtle approach has been adopted by these vendors who are promoting office automation through an exhibition at the World Trade Centre. Busi-Com, or the sth International. The fund is to be set up immediately after a total withdrawal of foreign troops from his country. Such an integrated concept has several advantages for a major natural rubber producer like Malaysia,.

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    Mr Rajendran told the court that the directors had sought and. Refresher course to be held for senior managers SENIOR working executives looking for t short spell in school to brush op their management skills will he offered such an opportunity soon. Special scheme to help schools buy computers THE Ministry of Education will soon introduce a dollar-for-dollar contribution scheme to schools raising funds to buy microcomputers. Dr Tay Eng Soon, Minister of State Education , told the parliamentary sitting yesterday that the Ministry of Finance has already approved the hinds and that.

    Malaysia Manila. Philippines Kowloon. Hong Kong Nadi Bay. Fiji Kapalua Bay Hotel. Hawaii Halekulani. Honolulu Sydney. New York Chicago. Illinois Dallas. Texas Washington DC. Washington Albuquerque. New Mexico San Juan. New Zealand. Page 6. Meanwhile, the moderate political opposition has expressed fears that it might face massive ballot fraud. The federation said exports to China increased 2. Treasurer Paul Keating, In a paper circulated at a meeting of. It will be the 10th round of talks since July.

    That is not to say the problem has abated. Eastera European and. Page 7. A five-member ceasefire commission was designated by President. Mick McGahey, vice-president of the National Union of. The Reagan Administration m Msaday hailed the Commerce. At the annual. It said the six-member team would see Iranian.

    Energy consumption may rise by 4. Congressional critics of a wave of giant. The move came after a wave of weekend bombings In London and Manchester which injured 26 people and which police. E For travellers within. The panels, components and support furnishings are as unique and exclusive as the organisations who use them. Because Haworth upholds your image. Page 8.