The mainstream view is that these accounts are specious and speculative since there are few, if any, independent confirmations to back them up. The theme of greedy robbers stealing a valuable object from the tomb or shrine of an ancient god or ruler, and then being punished by it, is one which repeats in many different forms of literature. A likely source of inspiration for the fabrications was the Wilkie Collins ' novel The Moonstone , which created a coherent narrative from vague and largely disregarded legends which had been attached to other diamonds such as the Koh-i-Noor and the Orloff diamond.
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The theme can be seen in films such as The Mummy as well as stories about the curse of Egyptian king Tutankhamun and in more recent films such as the Indiana Jones films. In keeping with these scripts, according to the legend, Tavernier did not buy the Hope diamond but stole it from a Hindu temple where it had been set as one of two matching eyes of an idol, and the temple priests then laid a curse on whoever might possess the missing stone.
Largely because the other blue diamond "eye" never surfaced, historians dismissed the fantastical story. It is possible that the overblown story of the "curse", possibly fueled by Cartier and others, may have caused some hesitation on the part of the prospective buyers, the McLeans, around When a lawsuit between buyer and seller erupted about the terms of the deal, newspapers kept alive reports of the diamond's "malevolent influence" with reports like this one, which blamed the stone's "curse" on having caused, of all things, the lawsuit itself:. The malevolent influence that has for centuries dogged with discord and disaster the owners of the famous Hope diamond has started again and without waste of time, despite special precautions against ill-luck taken at the time of its last sale, according to John S.
Wise, Jr. Edward B. The Hope Diamond was also blamed for the unhappy fates of other historical figures vaguely linked to its ownership, such as the falls of Madame Athenais de Montespan and French finance minister Nicolas Fouquet during the reign of Louis XIV of France ; the beheadings of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette and the rape and mutilation of the Princesse de Lamballe during the French Revolution ; and the forced abdication of Turkish Sultan Abdul Hamid who had supposedly killed various members of his court for the stone despite the annotation in Habib's auction catalog.
The legend includes deaths of numerous other characters who had been previously unknown: Diamond cutter Wilhelm Fals, killed by his son Hendrik, who stole it and later committed suicide; Francois Beaulieu, who received the stone from Hendrik but starved to death after selling it to Eliason; a Russian prince named Kanitowski, who lent it to French actress Lorens Ladue and promptly shot her dead on the stage, and was himself stabbed to death by revolutionaries; Simon Montharides, hurled over a precipice with his family.
The actress May Yohe made repeated attempts to capitalize on her identity as the former wife of the last Hope to own the diamond, and sometimes blamed the gemstone for her misfortunes. In July , months after Lord Francis divorced her, she told police in Australia that her lover, Putnam Strong, had abandoned her and taken her jewels. In fact, the couple reconciled, married later that year, but divorced in On her third marriage in , she persuaded film producer George Kleine to back a episode serial The Hope Diamond Mystery , which added fictitious characters to the tale, but the project was not successful.
The film added more characters, including a fictionalized Tavernier, and added Marat among the diamond's "victims". She also wore her copy of the Hope, trying to generate more publicity to further her career. Evalyn Walsh McLean added her own narrative to the story behind the blue jewel, including that one of the owners had been Catherine the Great , although there are no confirmations that the Russian ruler ever owned the diamond.
McLean would bring the Diamond out for friends to try on, including Warren G. Harding and Florence Harding. Since the Smithsonian acquired the gemstone, the "curse appears to have gone dormant. In ,  an important discovery was made which enabled a slew of activity to help scientists, historians and gemologists further explore the history of the Hope Diamond, as well as create replicas of the larger pieces, from which it had been cut, believed to have been owned by eighteenth-century French monarchs. A lead cast of the French Blue diamond was discovered in the gemological collections of the National Museum of Natural History in Paris , reported in a bilingual French—English press release,  and the unique finding triggered an investigation by an international team of researchers into the stone's history.
It was an important event since previously investigators had to rely on two-dimensional sketches of the diamond, but now they had a three-dimensional structure with which to apply techniques such as computer-aided drawing analysis. It allowed creation of the first numeric reconstruction of the French Blue including a virtual snapshot video. Special care was taken to reconstruct the major gemstones precisely by using CAD analysis as well as knowledge of historical gemsetting techniques.
Une iconographie variée
As part of the investigation, the "Tavernier Blue" diamond was also reconstructed from the original French edition of Tavernier's Voyages rather than the later London edition that somewhat distorted and modified Tavernier's original figures , and the Smithsonian Institution provided ray-tracing and optical spectroscopic data about the Hope diamond.
These events culminated in an event and a documentary to celebrate the making of these replicas, with celebrations by the French museum including H. The lead cast of the French Blue , itself, has a history. Most likely, the lead cast was made near , since that was the year that similar entries from the catalogue had been made. The model was accompanied by a label stating that the French Blue was in the possession of a person known as "Mr. Hope of London".
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Hope as a good customer for many long years, particularly for blue gems. These findings have helped investigators piece together what may have happened during the rock's anonymous years during the several decades following According to one line of reasoning, the first "Hope" to have the "Hope Diamond"—Henry Phillip Hope—might have possessed the French Blue that he had acquired some time after the robbery in Paris, perhaps around , when the Hopes were believed to have left Holland for London to escape Napoleon's armies.
Hope and Mr. Guillot in London at the same time. According to a late nineteenth century historian named Bapts, a contract was made between Cadet Guillot and a French aristocrat named Lancry de la Loyelle, in , to sell the carat According to this line of reasoning, in Hope sold his assets, and the continental blockade by Napoleon led the Hope's bank into a serious financial crisis by , and the crisis peaked during the winter of —  This put Mr. Hope in a financial bind.
There is a possibility that, given his financial predicament, Hope pawned the French Blue to jewel merchant Eliason to get much-needed cash when the British currency, sterling , was highly depreciated. However, the diamond's owners may have felt pressure to recut the stone quickly to disguise its identity, since if the French government had learned of its existence, it may have sued the owners for repossession. Hope had lost possession or kept it during these years, by it was again in his possession. It was around this time that Eliason died; Hope's financial situation has been restored thanks to efforts by the Barings, who saved the Hope bank in the difficult financial years of The lead cast had important ramifications since it gave enough information to curators at the French museum to commission the first exact replicas of both the Tavernier and French Blue diamonds using a material which simulates diamonds called cubic zirconia , with the help of artisans who work with gems known as lapidaries , led by Scott Sucher.
Artisans recreated the elaborate parure of different-colored gems known as the Golden Fleece of King Louis XV of France , which is arguably the most fabulous work in the history of French jewelry; this happened from — Three years of work were needed to recreate this jewel, and it required exacting and precise skill which revealed not only the skill of today's lapidaries, but the skill of its original eighteenth-century designers.
Additional recreations were made possible by new discoveries. A previously unknown drawing of the Golden Fleece was rediscovered in Switzerland in the s, and two blue diamonds that had ornamented the jewel were found as well, and these recent findings enabled artisans to recreate a copy of the emblem.
The emblem has another great blue diamond, which was later named "the Bazu" in reference to a dealer who reportedly had sold it to Louis XIV in The inventory mentioned that the Bazu was "light sky blue",  which is consistent with the fact that the Golden Fleece of the Color Adornment was made of a variety of great colored gems.
Nevertheless, replicas of both blue diamonds were cut by Scott Sucher using cubic zirconia, one being colored deep blue and the other light blue. Its pigmentation is made out of gold and manganese pigments to simulate as close as possible the original color of the spinel.
The plus remaining replicas of diamonds were cut from cubic zirconia using a baroque cushion cut. Colors were used to recall the original artwork: red for the flames, and yellow for the fleece, and in keeping with the original work, the materials used were initially colorless but were painted in the same fashion used by the artist Jacquemin when the original Golden Fleece was completed in Since the original was most likely made out of gold plated with silver, a choice was made to use a matrix mostly made out of grade silver to keep costs under control without compromising quality.
A number of different artists helped with this project:. All stones were set according to 18th century techniques. Below the carats From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historic Jeffrey Post, Smithsonian curator, .
Cubic zirconia replica of the Tavernier Blue. Minerals portal. The French Blue. Retrieved May 9, The New York Times. December 14, Retrieved July 9, At the Custom House New York Times. Retrieved April 9, Schmid, Associated Press January 8, USA Today. The Guardian. The world's biggest diamond, believed to be twice the size of the Cullinan, has been discovered in the North-West Province of South Africa The Hope Diamond is a large, deep blue diamond, originating perhaps in India.
It is legendary for the curse it supposedly puts on whoever possesses it. Jeffrey Post Smithsonian October 2, The Smithsonian. July 11, Retrieved July 11, France October 30, January 29, Archived from the original on November 10, New evidence unearthed in France's National Museum of Natural History shows beyond reasonable doubt that the Hope Diamond is the same steely-blue stone once sported by the Sun King, they said.
May 6, However, these descriptions are somewhat wide of the mark. Retrieved January 15, Associated Press. October 3, The Hope Diamond, center, is tested at the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum in Washington to try to determine what impurities give it its blue colors. By Ron Edmonds, AP Science Daily. Retrieved October 21, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
July 9, Why Is It Blue? Light interacts with an impurity in the diamond to produce the unusual color. As the diamond grew, a few atoms of the element boron entered the crystal structure.
Numéros en texte intégral
The addition of just one boron atom for every million carbon atoms is enough to cause the deep blue color. Blue diamonds are extremely rare. Only about one in , diamonds is strongly colored, and blue is one of the rarest colors. Asher and C. Gupta, A. Parasher and D. Balasubramanian, Indian National Science Academy, , p. November 14, The report that the famous Hope blue diamond is going to New York is correct. It is in the possession of a member of a New York firm now on his way to America from London. The heirloom was sold by order of the Master in Chancery.
Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved August 29, As far as he can learn, the authentic history of this gem goes back only to February 6, Archived from the original on July 16, Retrieved October 11, November 17, March 12, February 3, The Wall Street Journal. The Miami News. Retrieved September 12, Hollywood Walk of Fame. August 16, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved January 23, The Washington Post. Retrieved April 13, June 29, Retrieved April 16, Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 26, Retrieved August 24, February 2, February 9, Retrieved December 25, August 19, Retrieved March 28, But Post says the tales of misery and mayhem just aren't true.
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Intérêts et limites de la coloration au bleu de toluidine en fibroscopie œsophagienne
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