Manual Interstate Cooperation, Second Edition: Compacts and Administrative Agreements

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Developing viduals. The power of creation build trust are the completion trust among agencies is done by can be confused with ownership of accepted assignments, follow- mutual learning and action in a and the need for control, which through, and commitment to network. The actions that most actually is detrimental to the the cause. If one partner does not perform its home agencies. The individual agencies take their objectives in an interdependent relationship, the other network assignments and implement them using their is bound to fail as well.

However, this limits the ability motivator. The prospects for success are Compact highlighted by bringing on board capable partners, The Emergency Management Assistance Compact is a developing a supportive environment, and structuring national interstate mutual aid compact that facilitates to achieve results NAPA , Congress P. In fashion. Press conferences are held to inform residents response, the Southern Governors Association began of the current disaster situation and to provide addi- development of a mutual aid compact.

Virgin chemical events, medical personnel and resources, islands are members of EMAC. The compact is ad- hazard mitigation, community outreach, search and ministered by NEMA and includes key provisions for rescue, debris clearance, information and planning, reimbursement, liability, and workers compensation public health, hazardous materials, human services NEMA b. The key points EMAC establishes an implementation plan whereby to remember are that any available capability of a member states agree to standard operating procedures member state can be shared with other member states, for requesting and providing assistance.

EMAC respective states.

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They are authorized to execute allows states to assist each other with some certainty of EMAC documents and obligate state resources and the expectations and responsibilities involved, which, in funds. The state designated representative is the pri- turn, increases the likelihood of them doing so at con- mary operations point of contact for EMAC requests. The New York 4 the assisting state s provide resources. Private local resources can be deployed under in southeast Louisiana on August 29, EMAC only if there is an agreement between the state and the private volunteer organization. EMAC does maximize cies, there are times when disasters exceed state and the use of all available resources, coordinate resource local resources and therefore require outside assis- deployments with the National Response Plan struc- tance.

Usually, this assistance comes from federal ture and resources, expedite and streamline delivery of agencies. However, not all disasters are eligible for assistance between member states, protect state sover- federal disaster assistance. EMAC provides another eignty, and provide management and oversight for the way for states to receive interstate aid during a disaster requesting and receiving of interstate aid. EMAC allows or endorse or support self-deployment or self-dispatching for a quick response to disasters using the unique from any source.

EMAC is not the answer to all resource resources and expertise possessed by member states.

It does in response to catastrophic disasters. Mitchell, for example, has the provision of mutual aid.


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The main goal of the content bership. The study utilizes data from content Hurricanes in , especially Hurricane Katrina, analyses of related news reports from the New York required the largest disaster response and recovery Times; FEMA national situation reports; Florida State operation in U.

The program contains several net- ployed 19, civilians and 46, National work analytic routines e. In Mississippi, requests for assis- Rita in was not at an acceptable level GAO tance were met with the deployment of 23, per- ; U. House ; U. Senate Several of sonnel 10, civilians and 13, National the criticisms were based on the highly bureaucratic Guardsmen.

It is apparent from the visual repre- Also apparent from the network is that of information will occur more quickly Comfort and there is more focus on law enforcement compared to Haase ; Kapucu a. Table 2 shows that LE the other functions of emergency management. There Strike Team and EMAC, for example, had the least are several agencies and resources that are not well farness or the highest closeness degrees, meaning that coordinated in the network.

Figure 1 depicts the overall network of all organizations interacting in response to Hurricane Katrina in Betweenness is a measure of the extent to which an Louisiana. Having greater betweenness performance of the network, as they have the most ties centrality for an actor means that more actors are with other actors Wasserman and Faust None of the organizations had a betweenness centrality measures, namely, degree centrality, closeness degree more than zero in our calculation.

Table 1 presents the measures for degree centrality. Organizations that Cliques are subsets of organizations that develop have more ties with others have higher degree central- recurring patterns of interaction in the conduct of ity. According to table 1, therefore, LE Strike Team had disaster operations. They are important in understand- the maximum number of ties with other organizations ing the network.

They are usually developed in an in the network, followed by EMAC. In Mean 1. SSQ According to the table, by Maximum The HazMat The standard deviation of the network is 0. The network three organizations. That shows a weak EMAC coor- centralization index is 0. There in Louisiana. That means an actor in the sented in Figure 2.

The coordination and cohesion in network was not very dependent on other organiza- the Mississippi network can easily be seen. Again, three types of network measures ditionary Medical Support, Florida, and Florida De- are utilized here: degree centrality, closeness centrality, partment of Forestry; 3 Florida Expeditionary and betweenness centrality. Table 3 presents the mea- Medical Support, Florida, and Florida Department of sures for degree centrality.

Joseph Zimmerman

The summary measure of Transportation; and 4 Georgia, Hancock County centralization for the network is In the in Louisiana. Despite positive tool required in complex interstate actions. Euc Norm The coordination and cohesion of the Minimum 0. EMAC played a Maximum 3. The pattern Betweenness nBetweenness of relationships in both states was that of loosely OH 3. EMAC was used as the primary tions for other parts of the homeland security mission network for providing assistance to the impacted of state governments and the federal Department of states.

Stillman II and Local Governments. Raadschelders, for their timely review and University Press. The quality of this article is Bardach, Eugene.

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Assistance Compact: An Overview. Report no. We also thank Tolga Arslan, a research analyst in the RS Birkland, Thomas A. Everett, and Linton of interstate compacts in response to disasters. Harvard, MA: sec. Horizontal Federalism: 2. Public Works procedures for requesting and providing assis- Management and Policy 10 3 : — Natural Hazards 39 2 : — Personal communication, compensation; treatment of liability and immu- November Collaboration vs. C-Three tions; and sharing agreements, as required.

Cooperation, Coordination, and 3. In this second edition of Interstate Cooperation, Joseph F. Zimmerman demonstrates that many public goals can be achieved by either a compact or an agreement.

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Interstate administrative agreements, moreover, may be verbal or written, and have increased sharply in number because their flexibility allows changes to be made quickly without legislative authorization. Zimmerman aims to stimulate additional research on these forms of interstate cooperation in order to help formulate additional innovative solutions to our major interstate problems.

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Account Options Sign in. Joseph F. Cooperative interstate relations are essential for maintaining the economic and political union established by the United States Constitution. Zimmerman No preview available - Bibliographic information. Political Science.