Thus, to have a good time, glossed divertirse, is. Second, English compounds whose first element is a preposition offsides outcast, overcome are listed as separate headwords, chiefly ,. Conversely, derived words, that is, words that contain one or more affixes e.
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Appearing together with the compound words per- tinent to any given grammatical category are illustrative phrases, a category de- fined so as to include idioms, collocations, proverbs, and, especially, sentences required to clarify usage in some way, as when the usage of gustarle a uno as a gloss of to like is illustrated by the phrase he likes dogs, with the translation le.
Para la. Los significados dentro de una entrada aparecen ordenados de manera que el frecuente figure primero. Por ejemplo, el equivalente de acceso en casi todas sus acepciones es access, excepto cuando se refiere a un ataque de tos o rabia, en cuyo caso se traduce como fit. El uso del punto y coma indica acepciones distintas. De tal forma, hombre rana aparece como — rana, en la entrada de hombre. Hay ciertas excepciones a esta regla, sin embargo. No obstante, las palabras derivadas, i. Spanish orthography very closely mirrors Spanish pronunciation, much more so than is the case in English.
This explains why, in bilingual dictionaries such as this, each English entry must be accompanied by a phonetic representation, while Spanish pro- nunciation may be presented in synoptic form. This synopsis is only meant as an introduction, however. In spite of the clarity. For these reasons, readers who wish to perfect their pronunciation of Spanish are strongly advised to seek the help of a competent teacher.
To say that orthography mirrors pronunciation means that there is a close cor- relation between letters and sounds. Thus, most Spanish letters correspond to a single sound, or to a single family of closely related sounds, as is the case for all vowels, and the consonants f, l, m, n, p, t, and s. In a few cases a single letter represents two very different sounds, as c, which is pronounced as k before a, o, and u, but th as in thin, or as s in America before e or i.
The overarching differences between Spanish and English pronunciation are tense- ness of articulation and syllabification within the breath group. Due to the tenseness of their articulation, for example, all Spanish vowels have a clear nondiphthongal character, unlike English long vowels, which tend to be bipartite e.
Syllabification is a problem for English speakers because in Spanish, syllables are formed without respect to word boundaries, such that el hado 'fate' and helado 'ice cream' are both pronounced as e-la-do, and the phrase tus otras hermanas 'your other sisters' is syllabified as tu-so-tra-ser-ma-nas. In fast speech, vowels may combine, as in lo ofendiste 'you offended him', pronounced lo-fen-dis-te. Finally, when Spanish con- sonants occur in clusters, very often the articulation of the second influences that of the first, as when un peso 'one peso'is pronounced um-pe-so, and en que 'in which'.
As a part of a diphthong, it sounds like the y of English yes, year. Examples: bien, baile, reina. Notably, a is similar to the always pronounced this way, even when not stressed. This contrasts with the English tendency to reduce unstressed vowels to schwa [a] , as in America, pro- nounced in English as [a-me-ri-ka].
Examples: cura, agudo, uno. When u occurs in diphthongs such as those of cuida, cuento, deuda, it has the sound of w as in way.
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At the beginning of a breath group or when preceded by the m sound which may be spelled n , they are both pro- nounced like English b. Examples: bomba, en vez de, vine, invierno. In other environments, especially between vowels, both letters are pronounced as a very. This sound has no equivalent in English. Examples: haba, uva, la vaca, la banda. However, this sound is not ac-. Examples: casa, cosa, cuna, quinto, queso, crudo, aclamar.
Note that, as mentioned above, the vowel u is not pronounced in quinto and queso. In contrast, when appearing before the vowels e and i, c is pronounced as s in. Spanish America and the southwest of Spain, and as th as in thin in other parts of Spain see s for more information. However, it represents a single sound, which is similar to the English ch in church and cheek.
Examples: chato, chaleco, mucho. In terms of articulation, it is pronounced by the tongue striking the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge as in English. Second, it is represented by two variants. The first of these, which is similar to that of English dame and did, occurs at the beginning of breath groups or after n and 1. Examples: donde, falda, conde. In all other situations the letter rep- resents a sound similar to the th of English then. Examples: hado, cuerda, cuadro, usted. This sound tends to be very relaxed, to the point of disappearing in certain environments, such as word-final and intervocalic.
Examples: gente, giro. At the beginning of breath groups before the vowels a, o, u, and before the consonants 1 and r, it is pronounced like the g of English go. Examples: ganga, globo, grada. In all other environ- ments it is pronounced as a very relaxed-. Examples: lago, la goma, agrado. Examples: kilo, keroseno. Examples: lado, ala, sol. II is no longer considered to be a separate letter in the Spanish alphabet. However, it does represent a single sound, which differs widely in pronunciation throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
In most areas, pronounced like the y of Eng. In extreme northern Spain and in parts of the Andes, it sounds like the lli in Eng. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like. Examples: madre, mano, cama. Examples: no, mano, hablan. There are exceptions, however. For example, before b, v, p, and m, it is pronounced m, as in en Barcelona, en vez de, un peso, while before k, g, j, ge-, and gi-, it is realized as [q], the final sound of Eng. Examples: caro, tren, comer. In contrast, at the beginning of words, and after n, 1, s, the letter r is realized as a trill, as in rosa, Enrique, alrededor, Israel.
The double letter rr always represents a trill, as in carro, correr, guerrero. America and in parts of southern Spain. In most of Spain, in contrast, it is realized with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, producing a whistling sound that is also common in southern dialects of American English. Examples: solo, casa, es. In these dialects, esta may be pronounced as ehta or eta. Between vowels, it is usually pro- nounced ks or gs but never gz , as in examen, proximo, though in a few words it is pronounced as s, e. Before a consonant, x is almost always.
In most areas it is pronounced like the. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like the g in beige or the sh in ship. Examples: yo, ayer. In most parts of Spain, except the southwest, it is pronounced as the th in Eng. In southwestern Spain and all of Spanish America, in contrast, it is pronounced s. Examples: zagal, hallazgo, luz. Spanish words are normally stressed on the next-to-last syllable when they end in a vowel or the consonants n or s.
Examples: mesa, zapato, aconteci mien to, hablan, mujeres. Words whose pronunciation does not conform to this rule are considered exceptions, and their stressed syllable is indicated with an accent mark. Conversely, Spanish words are normally stressed on the final syllable when they end in a consonant other than n or s. Examples: mujer, actuali dad, pedal voraz. For the purposes of stress assignment, diphthongs are considered the same as simple vowels.
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Thus, arduo and industria are considered to have two and three syllables respectively, with regular stress on the penultimate However, some syllable. Thus, the orthography esta was assigned to the demonstrative adjective 'this', fem. This convention is no longer observed by most writers. All Spanish nouns, not just those that denote male or female beings, are assigned either masculine or feminine gender.
As a general rule, male beings mu- chacho "boy', toro 'bull' and nouns ending in -o lodo 'mud' are assigned all. Otherwise, nouns ending in con-. Where the masculine noun does not end in -o, the. Finally, some words vacillate as to gender, e. The equivalent of English the is as follows: masculine singular, el; Definite Article.
In spite of this, these nouns remain feminine in the singular, as shown by adjective. When preceded by the prepositions a and de, the masculine singular article el forms the contractions al and del. Indefinite Article. The equivalent of English a, an is as follows: masculine singular, an; feminine singular, una.
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This interpretation of the experimental findings is compared with the droplet model, which relates w with the compression modulus K and the asymmetry energy J. Accounting for w leads to an increase in the extrapolated nuclear matter density by 7. However, this macroscopic model is not able to describe the experimental results in detail since w is also influenced by shell effects.
Here, too, there remain discrepancies in details. A level of accuracy is reached at which most probably also the skewness of the charge distribution must be taken into account. Unlike L. Most specimens have prominent rust colored dorsolateral stripes on the tail. Una tercera especie de Lepidoblepharis se describe de zonas templadas de los Andes de Colombia. A diferencia de L. Los dos primeros estan situados en el interior del pais, el tercero en la costa mediterranea. Se discuten los criterios convencionales y los relacionados con la seguridad, que se han utilizado en la seleccion.
Se pone de relieve la influencia de la orografia espanola en el transporte del equipo pesado y su repercusion en la seleccion de emplazamientos para centrales nucleares. Se hace referencia a la experiencia obtenida en el transporte del equipo de la central de Zorita. Se analizan las dificultades practicas encontradas al aplicar unas determinadas normas de seguridad a emplazamientos de centrales de tipo y caracteristicas de diseno diferentes.
Ya que el tipo de reactor y su sistema de contencion influyen en el valor practico de la aplicacion de unas determinadas normas que, ademas, han de adaptarse a las caracteristicas peculiares de cada nacion, se indica la conveniencia de utilizar de forma adecuada y flexible las normas de seguridad para el analisis de los emplazamientos de centrales nucleares. Se describen las caracteristicas geologicas y meteorologicas de los tres emplazamientos y se resumen los trabajos e investigaciones realizados en estos campos. En especial, se destacan los estudios de hidrologia realizados en el caso de Zorita y Santa Maria de Garofia, y se describen las estaciones meteorologicas montadas en ambos emplazamientos, los experimentos de difusion con globos equilibrados realizados en el caso de Santa Maria de Garofia y los resultados de estas investigaciones.
The proceedings contain 89 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Central Institute of Nuclear Research Rossendorf 25 years old. Hohmuth, K. Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies.
Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…. Development of a severe accident module of a nuclear power plant based in the MELCOR nuclear code and its incorporation to the room simulator; Desarrollo del modulo de accidentes severos de una central nucleoelectrica basado en el codigo nuclear MELCOR y su incorporacion al simulador de aula.
Cortes M, F. E-mail: samuelcortes correo. The module of Severe Accidents has the purpose of counting with installed and operational capacity for the simulation of accident sequences with capacitation purposes, training, analysis and design. A shallow description of SimAula is presented, and the philosophy used to obtain the interactive version of MELCOR are discussed, as well as its implementation in the atmosphere of SimAula. Finally, after confirming the correct operation of the development of the tool, some possible topics are discussed for specific applications of the MAS.
The proceedings contain 71 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. In order to expand the penetration of uranium in the national energy balance sheet, the C. After showing the attraction of direct town heating by nuclear energy, the author describes the THERMOS project, defines the potential market, notably in France, and applies the lay-out study to the Grenoble Nuclear Study Centre site with district communal heating in mind.
The economic aspects of the scheme are briefly mentioned [fr. Nuclear energy in central and eastern Europe. Bulgaria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia have all nuclear power plants on their soil, their entry to the European Union has counter-balanced the number of member states that are not in favour of nuclear energy. All these countries committed themselves to upgrade their installations to European safety standards. This work is going on and new programs for service life extension and for construction of new units have been launched.
All these countries have a strong culture and know-how in nuclear engineering inherited from soviet era. They stay very active in this field, for instance the ALLEGRO project that is carried out by a collaboration between Hungarian, Slovak, Czech research institutes and western partners aims at building the first demonstration plant of the future fourth generation reactor: a fast reactor cooled by gas.
The situation of each country plus Croatia that is a candidate to full E. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares. This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper.
Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. Central eastern Europe approach to the security over nuclear materials. Full text: This paper presents an overview of the national approaches to physical protection of nuclear materials in Central Eastern Europe CEE , with an emphasis on Poland.
Soviet influence in the past led to inadequate safety culture in nuclear activities and insufficient security of nuclear materials and facilities in the region. In the centralized economies all aspects of nuclear activities, including ownership of the nuclear facilities, were the responsibility of the state with no clear separation between regulating and promoting functions. During the last decade a significant progress has been made in the region to clean up the legacy of the past and to improve practices in physical protection of nuclear materials.
The countries of Central Eastern Europe have had many similar deficiencies in nuclear field and problems to overcome, but cannot be viewed as a uniform block. There are local variations within the region in a size of nuclear activities, formulated respective regulations and adopted measures to secure nuclear materials and facilities. The largest request for an international advisory mission IPPAS to review states' physical protection systems and to address needs for improvement was received from the countries of Central Eastern Europe.
A powerful incentive to the progress made in a number of CEE countries was the goal of accession to the European Union. The physical protection of nuclear. During , the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant JCNPP operated without any incidents involving an undue risk to the population or environment. The year was the Plant's 35th year of operation, and during that time it has provided The Plant set a record for continuous operation with days of uninterrupted operation.
The Plant had an outage for the 27th refueling and for equipment and systems maintenance, inspection and testing activities. The dose around the Plant caused by plant operation has been insignificant. For the first time in the Spanish industry, the Plant has implemented an integrated safety system that encompasses all the plant's safety-related activities. Technical economic feasibility study for the implementation of a nuclear power plant for the production of electricity in Colombia; Estudio de factibilidad tecnico economica para la implementacion de una central de energia nuclear para la produccion de energia electrica en Colombia.
Gonzales, David E. A study on the technical and economic feasibility will be used to implement a nuclear power in Colombia to generate electricity. To this will be searched if there are previous studies on this topic and what they concluded. The manner in which power is supplied will be discussed in a national level nowadays, its strengths and weaknesses.
It will be investigated the legal norms that exists in the country on nuclear power and renewable energy sources, the standards established at world level, the nuclear accidents and the great examples. Providers will be sought on the world market nuclear equipment which serve to this purpose and the technical characteristics of these equipment will be discussed. The type of fuel used in nuclear reactors, its origin, method of production, specifications, availability and long-term and safe handling and final disposal are considered. The speaches and lectures given by the president of the GDR Academy of Sciences and by scientists of the CINR dealt with problems of policy of science, history of the CINR, nuclear methods, microelectronics, nuclear energy research, development and production of radioisotopes and scientific instruments.
Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history. The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit.
The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Nuclear Power in South- Central Brazil. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in was 2. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of Nuclear spin noise in the central spin model. We study theoretically the fluctuations of the nuclear spins in quantum dots employing the central spin model which accounts for the hyperfine interaction of the nuclei with the electron spin.
These fluctuations are calculated both with an analytical approach using homogeneous hyperfine couplings box model and with a numerical simulation using a distribution of hyperfine coupling constants. The approaches are in good agreement. The box model serves as a benchmark with low computational cost that explains the basic features of the nuclear spin noise well. We also demonstrate that the nuclear spin noise spectra comprise a two-peak structure centered at the nuclear Zeeman frequency in high magnetic fields with the shape of the spectrum controlled by the distribution of the hyperfine constants.
This allows for direct access to this distribution function through nuclear spin noise spectroscopy. The science and technology S and T sector is faced today with complex and diverse challenges. National science budgets are under pressure, and many countries are changing how research and development R and D is funded, reducing direct subsidies and introducing competition for both governmental and alternative sources of revenue. On the other hand, the transition toward knowledge-based economies is creating new opportunities in the S and T sector as governments look to it to foster economic growth through innovation.
A number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe have recently joined the European Union EU which has defined the Lisbon Strategy to create a 'knowledge triangle' of research, education and innovation to underpin the European economic and social model, and economic growth. R and D has become more international, reflecting a more interdependent and globalized world. R and D progress is not only of interest to individual countries but also tries to respond to the needs of a broader society.
Governments still maintain national networks, but increasingly emphasize international cooperation, both to avoid duplication of expensive infrastructure, and because scientific excellence requires an exchange of ideas and cooperation that crosses borders. These challenges and opportunities directly impact the research and development institutes RDIs , including the nuclear RDIs. It is important for the nuclear RDIs to take account of these trends in the broader S and T sector in their vision and strategy. Several nuclear RDIs have become very successful, but others are struggling to adapt.
The challenges have been particularly severe. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction. This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines.
Dispositivo movil para el abastecimiento automatico en continuo del sistema de inyeccion del liquido de reserva de una central nuclear en situacion de emergencia. This paper presents the design and development of the first automatic mobile device for the preparation of a neutron absorbing solution, and providing continuous, 30 days, of the injection system liquid reserve of a nuclear emergency.
Accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research, Rossendorf. A survey is given of the system of accounting for and control of nuclear material at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf. It includes 3 material balance areas. Control is implemented at both the institute and the MBA levels on the basis of concepts which are coordinated with the national control authority of the IAEA.
The system applied enables national and international nuclear material control to be carried out effectively and economically at a minimum of interference with operational procedures. Se presenta un estudio de un caso concreto en la Cordillera Andina; cerca de Santiago de Chile. Jasso G, J. The use of mathematical processes that integrate concepts of uncertainty, material properties and the probability associated to the inspection results, has been constituted as a powerful tool of evaluation of the component reliability, reducing costs and exposure levels.
In this work the evaluation of the failure probability by cracks growth preexisting by fatigue is presented, in pipes of a Reactor Core Isolation Cooling system Rcic in a nuclear power station. The obtained values of failure probability evidenced a good behavior of the analyzed pipes with a maximum order of 1. Annual report The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all problems of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures.
This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of routine tasks and reports about results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the Department. The reader is referred to the English translation of Chapter 1 describing the duties and organization of the Central Safety Department. The proceedings contains 75 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Simulation of a hypothetical liquid relief valve failure open at Embalse nuclear power plant when a reactor shutdown is considered; Simulacion de la evolucion de la CNE central nuclear Embalse en el caso hipotetico de la apertura espuria de una valvula de alivio liquido con disparo del reactor.
Unidad de Actividad Reactores y Centrales Nucleares. In fact, there is a specific procedure to follow at Embalse nuclear power plant whenever this abnormal situation occurs. This procedure contains a section where a reactor trip is considered. Really, automatic reactor trip is not accepted to occur. No trip parameters set points are through to be reached neutronic or process. However, the procedure considers the situation where the reactor does trip.
We analyzed the plant behavior when a reactor shutdown is triggered. Our objective was to assess if after this trip, the procedure can lead the plant to a safe situation, preventing high pressures in the degasser-condenser and with the inventory recovered in the storage tank. Two situations were considered: trip at 40 sec. Procedure analysis and code simulations showed that following the steps recommended, provided the liquid relief valve can be closed manually, the inventory that enters the degasser-condenser from the heat transport primary system through the failed valve could be recovered in the storage tank, leading the plant to shutdown in safe conditions, and preventing the degasser-condenser relief valves setpoint from being reached.
In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel Belgium researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment linear accelerator. Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section.
Full Text Available This building is designed to house the control Centre of an Insurance Company, formed by three chartered companies, in the town of Oberursel, near Frankfurt. The work includes seven floors and two basements, in the shape of a swastika, and is completed with a rectangular annex, with two storeys, intended for the restaurant, cafeteria and an all-purpose room. The main building provides offices of a landscape type, with a total of 1, jobs, to be extended to 2, The structure is in reinforced concrete, with a modulation between support axes of The stability of the unit is achieved through a main bracing nucleus, which also acts as a vertical communication axis.
The frontage is of curtain wall, with steel framework corridor on all the floors, aluminium carpentry and insulating glazing. These corridors lead to two fire scapes, backing on to the main building on opposite sides.
Suitable decoration, together with the specially chosen furniture and the varied series of installations, both generic and specific, for this type of centers, contribute towards achieving the suitable working atmosphere. Furthermore, a group of social, recreative and sports installations, facilitate personal contacts among employees. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS. This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries CEEC and the New Independent States NIS.
It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration.
In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable.
From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread.
Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. The Central Safety Department is responsible for handling all tasks of radiation protection, safety and security of the institutes and departments of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, for waste water activity measurements and environmental monitoring of the whole area of the Center, and for research and development work mainly focusing on nuclear safety and radiation protection measures.
Centralized operation and monitoring system for nuclear power plants. According to the prospect of long term energy demand, in , the nuclear power generation facilities in Japan are expected to take From this fact, it is an important subject to supply nuclear power more stably, and in the field of instrumentation and control, many researches and developments and the incessant effort of improvement have been continued.
In the central operation and monitoring system which is the center of the stable operation of nuclear power plants, the man-machine technology aiding operators by electronic and computer application technologies has been positively developed and applied. It is considered that hereafter, for the purpose of rationally heightening the operation reliability of the plants, the high quality man-machine system freely using the most advanced technologies such as high reliability digital technology, optical information transmission, knowledge engineering and so on is developed and applied.
The technical trend of operation and monitoring system, the concept of heightening operation and monitoring capability, the upgrading of operation and monitoring system, and the latest operation, monitoring and control systems for nuclear power plants and waste treatment facilities are described. This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries.
The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. The proceedings contain articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: thermal hydraulics, severe accidents, probabilistic safety assessment PSA , nuclear waste, safety analyses, nuclear power plant operation, structural integrity and aging, nuclear energy and public, other related topics, research reactors, education and training and Monte Carlo transport calculations.
Palabras clave: Poderes Locales. Sitios de Altura. The main tools of the central power, especially the tribute and the episcopal organization, were broken down after the 8th century and the structures of local power, which must be studied particularly, got a very influential role. The analysis discover an opened frontier area, with an informal political control, that is invisible from the perspective of the central power. Nuclear power in eastern and central Europe.
Background paper. The breakup of the former Soviet Union and other political changes in eastern and central Europe have opened up the area to closer scrutiny than was previously possible. Because of the accident at Chernobyl, nuclear power is one of the subjects that western nations have had a great deal of interest in exploring. Most of these reactors follow one of two distinctly different designs: the VVER, or pressurized water reactor series; and the RBMK, which is a graphite-moderated, multi-channel reactor the so-called Chernobyl type.
In addition, there are two fast-breeder reactors and four graphite-moderated boiling water reactors for combined heat and power in operation in Russia. These last two designs are not widely distributed and so are not discussed in detail in this report. As noted above, the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has been of great concern around the world since the catastrophic events at Chernobyl in This paper will briefly describe the technology involved.
It will also examine the main safety concerns, both technical and organizational, associated with each reactor type. In addition, the paper will review the nuclear power programs in the new countries emerging from the former Soviet Union and its satellites and discuss the international efforts underway to address the most pressing problems.
The central dose register for the nuclear industry in Sweden. The central dose register for the nuclear industry in Sweden has been in operation since The system contains today about 18 persons in the register. The dose information is stored on discs on a CDC Cyber computer and all information to and from the system is handled by terminals at the different nuclear sites.
The terminals are connected to the computer by normal telephone lines. Most doses are recorded on TLD. The data from the TLD readers is automatically transferred to the computer via punched tape and the local computer terminal. The dose results are stored under the person's unique social security number. It is also possible to use social security number systems of other countries.
The dose register system also supervises the condition of the readers and their calibration by circulation dosimeters which have been given a reference dose. The information from the system can be obtained on many different types of lists, for example, annual, quarterly, monthly, departementally, personal history, job number. Piping works frequently cause many troubles in the progress of construction works, because piping is the final procedure in design and construction and is forced to suffer the problems in earlier stages.
The enormous amount of data on quality control and management leads to the employment of many unskilled designers of low technical ability, and it causes confusion in installation and inspection works. In order to improve the situation, the ''piping information management system for nuclear plants PIMAS '' has been introduced attempting labor-saving and speed-up.
Its main purposes are the mechanization of drafting works, the centralization of piping informations, labor-saving and speed-up in preparing production control data and material management. The features of the system are as follows: anyone can use the same informations whenever he requires them because the informations handled in design works are contained in a large computer; the system can be operated on-line, and the terminals are provided in the sections which require informations; and the sub-systems are completed for preparing a variety of drawings and data.
Through the system, material control has become possible by using the material data in each plant, stock material data and the information on the revision of drawings in the design department. Efficiency improvement and information centralization in the manufacturing department have also been achieved because the computer has prepared many kinds of slips based on unified drawings and accurate informations. Wakatsuki, Y. Nuclear and radiation safety of the centralized spent fuel storage facility in Ukraine.
Grigorash, O. The paper presents the analysis of ensuring nuclear and radiation safety in the management of spent nuclear fuel at the Centralized SFSF and activities planned for Centralized SFSF life cycle stages. There are results of comparing requirements of U. Coordinated control of a combined cycle thermoelectric central ; Control coordinado de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado. The description of the control scheme and its realization in software is made.
From the scheme the operation strategies and automation, supervision and control are described in detail. The software components of the programming are described, the program structure and control data and its implementation in working stations VAX under the operating system VMS Virtual Memory System , are described. Se describe el esquema de control y su realizacion en software.
Del esquema se detallan las estrategias de operacion y automatizacion, supervision y control. Del software se describen los componentes de la programacion, la estructura de programas y datos del control y su implementacion en estaciones de trabajo VAX bajo el sistema operativo VMS Virtual Memory System. Renewable energies. A challenge and an opportunity for Central America; Energias renovables. Un reto y una oportunidad para America Central. There are analyzed in this working paper the following aspects: the Central America countries and their relations with the regional energy potencies -Mexico and Venezuela- and the impact they have in the energy supply.
There are also explore the following aspects: the San Jose Agreement linked to the fossil fuels supply, the emerging scope boosted by Brazil and Colombia regarding to the alternative fuels. Tambien se exploran mecanismos como el Pacto de San Jose, ligado al suministro de combustibles fosiles y las oportunidades emergentes impulsadas por Brasil y Colombia con combustibles alternativos.
Centralized digital computer control of a research nuclear reactor. A hardware and software design for the centralized control of a research nuclear reactor by a digital computer are presented, as well as an investigation of automatic-feedback control. Current reactor-control philosophies including redundancy, inherent safety in failure, and conservative-yet-operational scram initiation were used as the bases of the design. The control philosophies were applied to the power-monitoring system, the fuel-temperature monitoring system, the area-radiation monitoring system, and the overall system interaction.
Unlike the single-function analog computers currently used to control research and commercial reactors, this system will be driven by a multifunction digital computer. Specifically, the system will perform control-rod movements to conform with operator requests, automatically log the required physical parameters during reactor operation, perform the required system tests, and monitor facility safety and security. Reactor power control is based on signals received from ion chambers located near the reactor core. Absorber-rod movements are made to control the rate of power increase or decrease during power changes and to control the power level during steady-state operation.
Additionally, the system incorporates a rudimentary level of artificial intelligence. The proceedings contain 98 articles from Slovenia, surrounding countries and countries of the Central and Eastern European Region. Topics are: reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, probabilistic safety assessment PSA and severe accidents, nuclear materials, NPP and research reactor operation, environmental issues and radiation measurement, fusion, radioactive waste and regulatory issues and public relations.
Full Text Available Official statistics show the year increasing the share of electricity produced in nuclear power plants. Although Romania was among the first countries in Eastern Europe that had a nuclear research program, switching to nuclear power reactors has been extremely difficult and slow. The implications of this decisionmaking process were the first political and then economic. Considering nuclear reactors Wer insufficiently protected against a nuclear accident, and the total requested by the former Soviet Union on the nuclear fuel cycle, the decision of us have opted for CANDU reactor, fueled with natural uranium, moderated and cooled with heavy water.
Experience in the implementation of domestic and international safeguards at the Central Institute for Nuclear Research at Rossendorf is reported covering the following topics: overview of the main nuclear installations belonging to the Institute; structure of its material balance areas; responsibilities for the different aspects of accounting for and control of nuclear material at facility level; the various types of nuclear materials handled and their flow, accessibility and strategic significance; the assessment of IAEA safeguards effectiveness.
Validation of a new version of software for monitoring the core of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde Unit 2, at the end of Cycle 10; Validacion de una nueva version del software para monitoreo del nucleo de la Central Laguna Verde Unidad 2, al final del Ciclo Hernandez, G. This work shows the differences observed in thermal limits established in the technical specifications of operation, among the new software, installed at the end of Cycle 10 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, and the old software that was installed from the beginning of the cycle.
The methodology allowed to validate the new software during the coast down stage, before finishing the cycle, for what could be used as tool during the shutdown of Unit 2 at the end of Cycle Cannabinoids and centrak neuropathic pain. A review Cannabinoidi e dolore neuropatico centrale. Una rassegna. Full Text Available Only recently, the medical community highlighted the pharmacological scientific bases of the effects of Cannabis.
The most important active principle, Deltatetrahydrocannabinol was identified in the second half of the last century, and receptors were subsequently identified and endogenous ligands, called endocannabinoids, were characterized. The effectiveness of the cannabinoids in the treatment of nausea and vomit due to anti-neoplastic chemotherapy and in the wasting-syndrome during AIDS is recognized.
Moreover, the cannabinoids have shown analgesic properties, particularly interesting with regard to the central neuropathic pain. This article will review the current knowledge and will give practical guidance on how to proceed in prescribing cannabinoids. Security Systems Analysis Dept. As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant.
This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. First-order effects of a nuclear moratorium in Central Europe. An energy supply model developed at IIASA previously is used to investigate the consequences of a hypothetical nuclear power phaseout in Central Europe. It is assumed that no new nuclear power plants will be built in Central Europe after but the existing ones will be used for a planned lifetime of 25 years.
Energy-specific consequences, import dependence, emissions, energy prices and investments from the energy sector are considered. Collective phenomena in non- central nuclear collisions. Recent developments in the field of anisotropic flow in nuclear collision are reviewed. The results from the top AGS energy to the top RHIC energy are discussed with emphasis on techniques, interpretation, and uncertainties in the measurements.
US central station nuclear electric generating units: significant milestones. Listings of US nuclear power plants include significant dates, reactor type, owners, and net generating capacity. Listings are made by state, region, and utility.
Tabulations of status, schedules, and orders are also presented. Rosatom State Nuclear Corporation play a substantial role in the energy sector of the Central and Eastern European region and the behavioral characteristics of the company forms the basis of this article. Rosatom is positioned as the dominant provider of nuclear technology and fuel supplies to the region, in large part stemming from the Soviet legacy in CEE countries.
Compounding this challenge, nuclear energy is one of the major sources of power generation in CEE. Given the long-time, near m Central Scientific and Research Institute of Nuclear Information as the branch centre of information on nuclear science and engineering. The institute coordinates scientific research and information activity of information agencies of all the USSR organizations engaged in nuclear science and technology, excercises a centralized completion of their libraries, develops and puts into practice the most progressive methods for the information servicing. Here a system for the automatic information dissemination has been successfully elaborated and employed.
Much of the institute activity is given to the estimation and analysis of information and to the determination of tendencies in the nuclear science and technology development. A conclusion is drawn to the effect that TsNIIAtominform, within 15 years of its existence, has formed as a center ensuring functioning of the system of scientific and technical information on nuclear science and technology. Current experience with central -station nuclear cogeneration plants. In considering the potential of the HTGR for nuclear cogeneration, a logical element for investigation is the recent history of nuclear cogeneration experience.
Little is found in recent literature; however, the twin nuclear cogeneration plant at Midland is nearing completion and this milestone will no doubt be the basis for a number of reports on the unique cogeneration facility and operating experiences with it. Originally designed to cogenerate steam for heavy water production, the Bruce facility is the focus of a major initiative to create an energy park on the shores of Lake Huron. To obtain an improved understanding of the status and implications of current nuclear cogeneration experience, GCRA representatives visited the Ontario Hydro offices in Toronto and subsequently toured the Midland site near Midland, Michigan.
The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the results of those visits and to develop a series of conclusions regarding the implications for HTGR cogeneration concepts. Dangerous liaisons: Western involvement in the nuclear power industry of central and eastern Europe. The state of the nuclear industry in central and eastern Europe is an issue of global concern. However, despite all the political talk and corporate hype since the collapse of communist regimes in the region, this study demonstrates that little has so far been done to change the situation. Moreover, the limited level of finance and support which has been offered has tended to support the expansion of nuclear power programmes in central and eastern Europe, rather than address immediately safety concerns relating to existing nuclear reactors and develop more environmentally acceptable and economically efficient energy systems.
El tratamiento de esta emulsion tuvo como objeto el reciclado de un residuo toxico consistente en el solvente organico componente de la emulsion y la reduccion de volumen de la masa residual. Se realizaron pruebas de laboratorio tendientes a aumentar la fuerza ionica del medio para romper la emulsion. El proceso se efectuo en modo batch y se obtuvieron 3 corrientes residuales, una acuosa que se envio al sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales de la Central , una organica consistente en hidrocarburos descontaminados aptos para posteriores trabajos de limpieza y una solida con la mayoria de la contaminacion radiactiva, consistente en jabones insolubles que forman parte de las grasas lubricantes.
The background of the project together with its achievements and future plans are presented in this paper. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. In this article a review is given of the use of magnetic resonance imaging for the central nervous system. An example of the screening of the population for multiple scelerosis is given. A good preliminary examination and the supply of relevant information to the person which performs the imaging is necessary.
Undergraduate teaching of nuclear medicine: a comparison between Central and Eastern Europe and European Union countries. In most EU countries this teaching is integrated with that of radiology or clinical modules, also with training in clinical physiology. In many CEE countries teaching and testing of NM are independent, although integration with other teaching modules is frequent. The paper discusses the differences in particular approaches to nuclear medicine teaching. AP, a nuclear central of advanced design.
Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Ek, P. At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union.
The Programme was initiated in and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment.
The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments.
This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups i. Up till June , support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine.
Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period to June is , thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going.
It is the. Fuel operation of EDF nuclear fleet presentation of the centralized organization for operational engineering at the nuclear generation division. The main feature of EDF Nuclear Fleet is the standardization, with 'series' of homogeneous plants same equipment, fuel and operation technical documents.
For fuel operation, this standardization is related to the concept of 'fuel management scheme' typical fuel reloads with fixed number and enrichment of fresh assemblies for a whole series of plants. The main features of this organization are the following: - Centralization of the engineering activities for fuel operation support in the Fuel Branch of UNIPE, - Strong real-time link with the nuclear sites, - Relations with various EDF Departments in charge of design, nuclear fuel supply and electricity production optimization.
The purposes of the organization are: - Standardization of operational engineering services and products, - Autonomy with independent methods and computing tools, - Reactivity with a technical assistance for sites 24 hours 'hot line' , - Identification of different levels on site and off site to solve core operation problems, - Collection, analysis and valorization of operation feedback, - Contribution to fuel competence global management inside EDF.
This paper briefly describes the organization. The main figures of annual engineering production are provided. A selection of examples illustrates the contribution to the Nuclear Fleet performance. Sea transport of used nuclear fuel and radiactive disposals to a Swedish central store. Sea transport of used nuclear fuel and radioactive disposals to a Swedish central store.
A vessel for transporting used nuclear fuel and radioactive disposals from the power stations at Ringhals, Barsebaeck, Simpevarp and Forsmark to a central store has been projected. Safety aspects, technical and economical aspects have been taken into consideration with regard to the actual volume of goods to be transported. Three different types of vessels are presented and a specification is given for the main alternative.
A safety study of the main alternative is shown, regarding collision safety, fire risks and fire extinguishing equipment. Central Bureau for nuclear measurements. This report covers CBNM's activities during the second year of the multiannual programme Its contents and form reflect the change in the role and in the working conditions of the Joint Research Center of which CBNM is an institute.
A small proportion of the specific programme budget is allotted to Exploratory Research, in preparation of possible extensions of existing competences or of potential new activities. Possible uses of nuclear energy in central heating of Ankara. In this master thesis, a study was carried out for the district heating of the plateau region where the population and air pollution densities are the highest. First the heat requirements of differently populated regions were calculated, then by taking different temperature decreases of hot water in buildings; flow rates, pipe diameters and pressure losses corres-ponding to these temperature decreases were obtained.
An optimum division of total heat load as peak and base loads was studied and it was seen that the unit heat cost could be lowered by employing two stations for the heating of buildings.
The optimum division and unit heat cost calculations were carried out for various alternative heating systems and it was seen that nuclear combined cycle base-load station and a peak-load station operating on fuel-oil was obtained to be the most advantageous system from an economic point of view. Sharing of responsibilities between central and local authorities with regard to the licensing of nuclear installations. With regard to sharing of responsibility in the field of nuclear licensing between central and local authorities, the Belgian State has entered into a new phase of regionalisation since the enactment of the law of August 8,