It is an obvious recommendation to know what your project will cost in total, but this is not enough. The smart project manager knows how his costs build up and what he expects to have spent each week. This is closely allied to how much effort will be expended each week of the project. These enable him to have the following vital metrics with which he can compare progress and steer the project. The combined values of 2 and 3 should be the same as 1. If not then the project is under or over spending. Either way the project manager needs to understand why and take any action required to maintain course.
Project management is a bit like sailing a yacht.
The captain sets his course and steers the craft but must constantly monitor and take account of his metrics — the location, changing conditions and progress. Responding to and sometimes pre-empting situations, he makes the necessary alterations to the trim of the boat and its course. Dependent upon the outcome of these things the project manager will adjusts the plan to keep on track.
It may be that he can change the sequence of the tasks but he may have no choice but to re-plan the project for a later and more expensive completion. One certainty in any project is that things change, this is axiomatic when it comes to project management. By definition a change is anything that was not included in the agreed goals, solution, costings and plan. If they were not written and properly agreed the project manager has little ground on which stand when change is required or occurs. If left unmanaged change will blow the project way off course and the project manager might not even realise until it is too late.
This is why written and agreed plans are important. They provide a definition of the project deliverables, cost and timing. Nothing should be allowed to change these things without the impact and cost being assessed and the solution agreed. This could be easily accommodated at a cost. If the change request is not properly considered and agreed but just included the customer may have a surprise when the project over runs and costs more. Had he understood the implications he may have decided not to go ahead with the change.
More insidiously, the team working on the project may happily incorporate lots of small changes.
No single change is costly in itself — but a whole bundle of them? One oversight in many plans that causes problems are undeclared assumptions. These are things that were anticipated but not declared. Often change affects these and because they were about things which were uncertain anyway and because they were not written down disagreements arise.
Another golden rule is always declare your assumptions at the outset and include them in your solution statement and plans. For obvious reasons this is another great stress reduction strategy. How can you apply them to your project. The Lord is at hand; do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
John Evelyn takes a closer look at the manager's faith. Liverpool FC, one of the biggest football clubs in the world has reached the Champion's League final after playing in the words of their own manager "crazy" football.
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The Reds claimed a thrilling aggregate victory over Roma last night and will now face Real Madrid in the final later this month. But what you might not know about him is that he is a committed Christian and is not afraid of making his faith known. Prior to managing Borussia Dortmund, Klopp was in charge of another German club, Mainz, and after a defeat was known to have been asked by reporters if the 'football god' was against Mainz.
In an article about his faith, he wrote: "In order to answer this question once and for all: although there is no football God, I believe that there is a God who loves us humans, just as we are, with all our quirks, and that's why I think he also loves football! But we have to score our own goals. In an age in which each successful new manager is praised for his novel 'football philosophy', Klopp is adamant that his faith is more important to him than the game. In an interview with fr-online. If anyone asks me about my faith, I give information.
Not because I have claim to be any sort of missionary. But when I look at me and my life - and I take time for that every day - then I feel I am in sensationally good hands. He also relates how he had to grapple with important lifestyle questions even at a young age: "At about 13, 14 years old, the question arose: Can I actually kick on Sunday morning, even though I was supposed to go to church? A quality control manager has the duty to ensure that products are designed and manufactured according to company guidelines, as well as all applicable state and country laws.
However, design issues of the product cause serious safety issues. The quality control manager, as well as the CEO and other company officials, determine that the design team has always been aware that that the design can potentially cause safety issues. The marketing team does not want to change the design of the product. The team estimates that changing the design would cost the company forty to fifty-five percent of sales.
Business ethics apply moral standards to all aspects of a company.
The application of such standards determines the policies and decision-making processes, as well as the production of goods. The quality control manager realizes the seriousness of the situation, and must analyze the possibility for a product recall. Sometimes these laws, called statutes, are enacted directly by a legislature. The quality control manager feels as though the CEO and other officials in the company are not considering the impact that a product recall will have on the company. Furthermore, the legality of the situation is extremely relevant. Clearly, the company has never been involved in litigation regarding the safety of a product.
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Litigation is generally seen as a punishment method implemented after an injury has occurred. An ethical decision maker might consider the six aspects of ethical decision making. In the coffee maker issue, the quality control manager acknowledges that the issues regard all three bases of decision-making: fact, value, and policy. Factually, the data regarding the rate of incidence is easily obtained. This data acknowledges that the product is harmful to the consumer. She must consider the validity or lack thereof of an assertion.
However, the quality control manager must also make a decision based on value. She has been provided information which states that the rate of fire due to faulty design of the coffee makers is approximately one percent. However, a change in design of the product will result in a decrease in sales of forty to fifty-five percent.
Finally, her decision must also consider policy. Decisions of fact are mandatory. Decisions of value should be weighed against other possible decisions. Decisions of policy result in actions that should be taken. Moreover, she must decide what impact her decision will make on other managers and employees. The quality control manager must be action oriented and make a decision in a timely fashion. Since there is a stakeholder meeting next month, the quality control manager must make a decision prior to the meeting but within plenty of time for all relevant individuals to come to an agreement with which to present to the stakeholders.
The manager must also acknowledge any emotional bias. Though she may have emotional involvement with other members of the company who disagree with her opinion, she must not take these relationships into consideration when forming her decision. Moreover, she must be realistic.
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She cannot presume her decision will be neither completely positive nor completely negative. Another step in decision-making is to search for casual links. The manager must correctly discover casual links that have currently and previously led to faulty decisions. An analysis based on secular ethical systems can also be conducted. The Christian Manager as an Ethical Leader To be an ethical leader, a Christian manager must be able to explain the concept of servant leadership, as well as implement effective and ethical leadership styles in various circumstances.
The quality control manager clearly demonstrates a lack of knowledge or a lack of thoroughness in her investigations.
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She did not find an issue with the design of the product, though the design team itself acknowledged that there are indeed safety issues within the design. The design team, as well as the CEO, may feel that the manager lacks pertinent knowledge, so any negative feedback she provides may be disregarded due to such a lack of knowledge. An ethical leader must obtain the respect of her fellow employees, as well as her employer.
She must ensure that she has moral authority. If she does not possess such authority, she must earn moral authority by her behavior.
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She must be straight-forward in her communication regarding her objectives, and this can be done by adhering to the shared values of the group and by treating the stakeholders fairly. If the quality control manager acts in a Christ-like manner, her employees will respect her morality. Arguably, ethical leadership follows a method similar to the theory of Utilitarianism.