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The Gender of the Portuguese Nouns Caule, franco ou haste. Formation of the Plural of the Nouns. Formation of the Plural of the Nouns continued; Tomada de Santarem. Use of the Article Portugal continental e insular. Use of the Article continued. Portugal ultramarino. Omission of the Article Joao I. Com- plements without Preposition. XII Index. A Cigarra e a formiga. General Use Use of the Personal and the Im- personal Forms of the Infinitive. The Independent Infinitive. A ignorancia do povo portugues. The Dependent Infinitive with pre- ceding de Letter to a Friend. A respiragao. XIII Page.

The Dependent Infinitive with pre- ceding a. A Mulher portuguesa como serici- cultora. Page 5, Remark II, instead of border, read: bordar.

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From the page until the end of the 1st part the exercises are to have the numbers of Page , 1. O f , read: First Part, Pronunciation. The Sounds of the Portuguese. The Portuguese orthography corresponds only im- perfectly to the pronunciation. And there are signs as the til, the cedilla, the accents and sounds as the nasal vowels, the lh, the nh t which do not exist in the English language. To give an idea of the Portuguese pronunciation next to accuracy, we have had to recur to a phonetic transcription and adopted that of the Asso- ciation phonetique Internationale.

In order to be easily distinguished from the remaining text, the phonetic signs are invariably put in parenthesis. Each of these signs represents always the same sound, and each sound is always given by the same figure. If you want to acquire the most possible correctness in speaking the Portuguese idiom, please to pay a careful attention to the phonetics.

Whenever you have an opportunity, let the sounds be pronounced to you by a native of Lisbon, the pronunciation of the Portuguese capital being the one adopted for this grammar. Be careful also in distinguishing voiced sounds from dumb ones, in vowels as well as in consonants. The Portuguese letters are equal to the English, but their denomination is different for the most part. The vowels and also some of the consonants have several different values. In the alphabetic list here- after we give their alphabetic value which mostly cor- responds to their names: Portuguese Conversation-Grammar.

Auxiliary Signs of the Portuguese Alphabet. The accents, which mark not only the tonical accentuation, but also the colouring of a vowel, are well to be distinguished from the French accents. Where- ever it is to be found upon a, e or 0 , it denotes the open sound of an unaccented syllable padeiro, fregues, patetice, sbmente. Stress and Duration. But being in the former employed upon a consonant n , it is found in the latter only upon vowels and diphthongs, conferring nasality to them: Id, mae, poo, pde poi , mui.

On the u it is to be met with only in the equally antiquated mui and muito actually written only muito ; it has altogether disappeared from upon the i, being supplied by follow- ing n or m: insua for isua, sim for si etc. Formerly also the m of com was sometimes dropped. Actually the contraction of the elided words end- ing in e is preferred to the apostrophe: delle, duma, nesse, etc.

The hyphen - unites two words to one idea: agua-ardente brandy, mal-afortunado unhappy, bem-casado well married, recem-chegado new-comer. These words may be written in one aguardente, etc. As for the ' employed in this grammar for the prosodical accent, see 4. In the phonetics we indicate the prosodical accent by an acute ' placed before the tonical syllable. The vowels are of a middle length when having the tonical accent; they are shorter before the accented syllable and shorter still after it. A has three chief sounds: 1.

In Portuguese it is always followed by t or u of the same syllable: mat [matj, mau [man]. IE in accented syllables has two different sounds: 1. When in the middle of a word the e is fol- lowed by a or 0, it is pronounced also like a short i: theatro [ti'atru], deante [di'untd], peor [pi 'or], theologo [ti'dugu], theoria [tiu'riv]. Also the conjunction e and is pronounced i, when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. J [i, i] sounds: 1. Before another vowel and not having the tonical accent, it is very short and sounds nearly like the English y: ocio ['osm] but: macio [mv'siu] , inertia [i'mrswj but: vertia [vdr'tivj , rdio f'rramj but: sata sv'iv meia ' N.

O in accented syllables has two different sounds: 1. When tonical it is a little longer and more ringing than in unaccented syllables: cor [kor], avo [e'vo], fora [forv] '; adoptar ft do' tar]. Remark 1.

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In northern Portugal the diphthong ou is pronounced o-u, so that there is a difference between ougo ['ousuj I hear, and osso ['osuj bone, while these words are similar in Lisbon as well as in Brazil. Remark II. Before an I of the same accented or unac- cented syllable, the o is generally close: solto f'sottu], colza ["kotev] ; voltear [voUi'ar] exc. In open syllables and before r or s of the same syl- lable.

Remark III. The definite article of the masculine gender o, pi. Nearly every unaccented 0, if not nasal, is pronounced u cf. The u after a q and before a or o, is pro- nounced like the English w: qual [Jurat]. It is the same when at the end of a word, and after a voiceless consonant the u meets with an o or a: vdcuo ['vakwu]. The u after a g and before an e or i is mute. See also 10, end. Falling Diphthongs. Such diphthongs where the weight rests more upon the first vowel than upon the second, are called falling diphthongs.

Their second vowel is either i or u. In northern Portugal the ow-sound is preferred, -while the south pronounces oi or o. Feeble it-sound. Rising Diphthongs. Such diphthongs where the weight rests upon the second vowel, are called rising. Nor can the diphthong ou be supplied by oi in the following words : ou or, ousar dare, omadia, ousado; outorgar, ouvir, ouvido, outubro, ouco, couve, mouco, louco, and their derivatives, and never in a verbal form e.

Nasal Vowels and Diphthongs. The nasal sound of a vowel is either indicated by the til s. The nasality of the vowel, especially when making part of a diphthong, is not attainable without considerable practice. It is not so pure and ringing as in French, but rather squeezed. We shall try to approach the sound by means of examples, as much as possible. I im, in; em-, en- as unaccented initial sounds : alike to that in ring: fim, fins, findo, limpo. Nasal diphthongs with terminal feeble i or u. There are in Portuguese numerous triphthongs which consist of a falling diphthong with preceding feeble i or u.

These latter vowels are never nasal, even in nasal triphthongs. Those Portuguese consonants which in their denomination and pronunciation differ from the English, have already been mentioned 2. As for the voiced consonants, they are very carefully to be distinguished from the voiceless. The b is mute when ter- minal: Jacob fgv'koj. If the g is to keep its g ive -souud before e, i, y, a dumb u is put between the two letters cf. The initial I sounds like the English; when ter- minal, it corresponds to the English U: falar [fu'Ur] to speak; mal [mat] bad.

I united to a following "h Ih forms a sound which corresponds to the Castilian U and may be com- pared to the I and y in the combined English words will you, e. It is figured by [K]. As for the r, it must not be confounded with the English vocal r in far, further. Good Portuguese speakers trill all r's, whether initial, medial, or terminal.

Only there is a difference in the energy employed with the strongly rolled initial or doubled r and the weaker r that is found after a consonant not being , n or s between vowels or at the end of a syllable. We re- present the former by rr and the latter by r. In some words the initial r is followed by a mute h: rheuma ['rreumvj rheumatism ; Eheno ['rrenu] Rhine. S is pronounced like English s in such, silver. The terminal [f] is changed into [z] when followed by a vowel; Ex. X has various sounds. Z is pronounced like [z] in English zeal at the beginning or in the middle of a word: zelo [' zdu]; fazer ffu'zerj; and like [f] at the end of a word: pea fpefj, juiz [ 5 u'if] cf.

In Brazil the terminal s and z are pronounced 5. The Ih, nh and rh have already been mentioned in 9. The h is still found in union with t ih , where it is mute theatro [ti 'atruj , and with p ph , where it forms the sound f: apht h as ['aftuj thrush, photographo ffo'togrrfuj.

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Ph is mute before th: phthisica ['tiziku]. With the c ch it forms two sounds: a [f]: chave ['fnvd], encher [i'fer], chilro [JitrruJ. The c is found compound also to t and a second c, ct, cc , where it is often mute: actual [atu'at], ac- 12 Pronunciation. It is also mute after an initial s sc : sceptro f'sftru], sciencia 6. The p is often mute before s and t ps, pt : psalmo f'satmu], adoptar [vfto'tar], prompto [prontu] ; ph is mute before th: phthisica ['tistkej cf.

The vowels e and o, even when unaccented, are open before the mute consonants c and p : director fdirs- 'tor], excepgao [ vjifsz'seuj ; while a is open before ct and pt and in a few words before cc: activo [a'tivuj, aptidao [apti- 'dfru] ; accdo [a'suu], fracgao [fra 7c 'svu]. Doubled consonants are generally pronounced like one cf. Yet when, of two m's or 's, one belongs to a prefix, it is pronounced with a nasal sound : emmalhar ftmv'fiarj; ennovelar finu'vdlarj.

As for the gu and qu see 5, w, Remark and 9, 3. In qu the u is mute before e or i: queda [fadvj, quinMo [Ui'yivu]. Before a and o it is sometimes mute: quatorze [kvtorzd], quotisar fkuti' ' zar or kwuti'zarj. Words of two or more syllables, ending by a, e, o, have the stress generally on the penultimate syllable: 'lama, 'vinte, cas'tello, anted' pado. Another vowel i, u or o , preceding those vowels, does not form a diphthong, and is to be con- sidered an independent syllable: 'lia, harmo'nia, 'crua, 'tua, ma'goa, 'broa.

Words ending in a consonant, a nasal vowel or diphthong, or in i or u, generally bear the stress on the last syllable; so, for instance, all the infinitives cha'mar, ven'dcr, inftu'ir ; pa' pel, nacio'nal, ir'ma, ir- 'mao, ale'mdo, java'li, ba'hu. Principal exc. The s forming the plural of the nouns and adjectives, or the termination of a verb, does not affect the accentuation 'mesa, 'mesas; 'alto, 'altos; sa,'bias , even when by the flection the last syllable is changed into two: ta'ful, pi.

Words with stress on the ante-penultimate syl- lable are rarer and generally marked by a graphic ac- cent: nitido, fotografo, comprdvamos; they are called esdruxulas 4. To this group belong a the adverbs formed of the 14 Pronunciation. In such words it is the originally accented syllable which has the secondary accent. Atonic pronouns of only one syllable are added to the verbs, melting together with them: sabe-lo or sabel-o , ver-nos, dar-lhe. Any vowel, whether accented or unaccented, even nasal, may terminate a syllable.

Of the consonants, only the following ones may do so: I, m, n, r, s, z. More rarely and only in scienti- fic terms : p, c. Even here we meet words separated thus : corru-pgao, aprom- ptar, au-gmentar, te-chnica, pra-gmatica, etc. Ih, nh must not be separated. They are found only in the middle of a word and belong always to the following vowel: mi-nha, ve-lho. An only apparent exception form words from the Greek, as pkti-harmonica, and from the Latin, as in-hibir, an-helar, in-Mspito, in- habil, etc. Not to be separated are the diphthongs and the nasal syllables am, an, em, en, im, in, om, on, urn, un.

Vowels not forming diphthongs may be separated : ma- gu-a-do.

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A syllable may begin by one of the following groups of consonants: pr-, br-, fr-, vr-, tr-, dr-, cr-, gr-, cl-, gl-, pi-, U-, fl- r or I with another preceding consonant , and sc- this only in foreign words. There may also be read syllabications like: comi-pgao, pra-gmatica, aprom-ptar,etc.

Goncalves Viana, they are not to be imitated. The consonantal combinations of st-, sp-, sph-, spl-, spr- and sc- are found only in scientific or in foreign words: sparadrapo, sphinx or sphince pop. In genuine Portu- guese or nationalised words they are always preceded by e, spoken like a fugitive i, which with the following ,9 forms a syllable: espargo fif'pargu], estado, estilo, es- casso, esplendor, espraiar These groups cannot be se- parated.

Homophonos [o'mofunufj. There are a number of homonymical words in Portuguese that is, words of equal sound and different orthography. Here some examples: accento [v'sentu] accent apregar [vprd'sar] to ap- praise. Homographos [o 'mstgrsfttfj. Examples of Homographs with the same sound, but different meaning.

Examples of Homographs with Different Pronunciation and Meaning. Ponctuaqdo [pontuv ' 1. The signs of punctuation are the same as in English; they are called as follows:. On the whole, the rules of punctuation do not differ from the English. Before the conjunctions e- and and ou or , the comma is generally not em- ployed; also not before a relative sentence. On the other hand, elucidating adjectives and, frequently, ad- verbs are separated by commas from their nouns or verbs. When e or ou do not only add a particle, but introduce an independent phrase, they are also pre- ceded by a comma.

Onde houver pessoas, o pardal presume logo, como o rato, que ha comida, e e ahi que elle esta bem, para comer sem grande trabalho. A cobra, pore'm, e inoffensiva. A este respeito, contem-se coisas muito inter essantes Trindade Coelho. Eu, porem, observei-lhe que, sendp ess' outro artigo, na ver- dade, notavel, elle, a meu juizo, estava incomplexo, e, insufficiente, nao esgotava o assumpto. The Gender of the Noun and the Article.

There are only two genders in Portuguese: the masculine and the feminine; there is no neuter. Those nouns which designate beings of masculine sex e. Neuter nouns are con- ventionally ranged either amidst the masculine or the feminine ones. Examples: mesa table, feminine; pais country, partial sparrow, masculine. The Portuguese language distinguishes the gender, not only by the pronoun, but by the very article; by: a the definite article o the 1 for the masculine singular; a the 1 for the feminine singular , when there is a definite person or thing spoken of amidst others of the same kind; b the indefinite article urn a n for the mascu- line, uma a n for the feminine , when we speak of an indefinite person or thing among others of the same kind see 2 nd Lesson.

To signify the masculine sex and gender and the feminine, the Portuguese language has various ways: 1 The definite article the is consequently employed for the two genders and even for the two numbers: o os, a as. In the latter case the feminine 1 is obtained by the following rules: 1. Those nouns ending in -o not being the second vowel of a diphthong change the -o into -a, ex.

Those ending in -do change the -do into -6a: ledo lion, leoa lioness, abegdo head man-servant, abegoa head maid-servant. Those ending in -or or and -es ez add an a for the feminine: senhor sir, senhora; leitor reader, leitora; lavrador peasant, lavradora; ingles English, inglesa. The chief exceptions are: actor actor, actriz; em- baixador ambassador, embaixatriz; imperador emperor, imperatriz; prior prior, prior esa.

Que e isto? Isto e uma penna What is this? This is a pen , while este, esse, aquelle are adjectives and employed only with a noun clearly expressed or imagined esta penna e aquella. There is the same difference between este, esse, aquelle, as between isto, isso, aquillo. Esta marks a passing or casual quality ex. Fica is employed to designate the place appointed to something rarely to somebody , ex. Sometimes you may doubt whether to employ fica or estd or even estd or e ; there are cases where you may indifferently employ the one or the other.

See 5th Lesson. Leitura e versa o. Na escola. Aqui 6 1 a escola. Onde fica 1 or e a aula? Eis aqui 2 a aula. Onde esta 1 o professor? Onde e or fica o lugar do alumno? Quern tern o giz? Isso 3 1 o quadro preto. Que e" isso? Isto e o mappa. E que e aquillo? Aquillo e o tecto. Where is the window? The window is in the wall. Has the reader the book? The book is on the table. There is a lead-pencil on the ground.

Where is the copy-book of the school-boy? The copy-book is on the chair of the teacher. Who is that man? That man is the head man-servant of the baron. Has the daughter of the baroness a governess? Yes, and the friend of the girl has also a governess. Where is the inkstand? The inkstand is on the table. The pen- holder too is on the table.

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Who is there? The father of the boy is there. Who is at a the door of the school-room? The pupil of the teacher is at the door. Is here the place of the boy? Yes, here on the bench. Quern 6 esse menino? E quern 6 o professor d'esta aula? E He is um alumno da aula. E um cidadao d'esta cidade. Que rua e esta?

Esta e a rua do Abe. Onde e or fica a escola? A escola e" or fica aqui. Tern o menino um lapiz? Sim, eis um lapiz e uma ca- neta. Que 6 isto? Isso 6 o giz. Isso e" o quadro preto, etc. Que 6 isso? Isto 6 o livro. Isto e a penna. Isto e a cane"ta, etc. Que e aquillo? Aquillo e" o tecto, a porta, a janella, o mappa, a parede, etc.

The same exercise to be continued for all objects already mentioned. Second Lesson. Licjao segunda. The Plural of Substantives. All nouns ending in a vowel or diphthong except -do or in -n form the plural by adding -s, thus: o banco the bench os buncos the benches a janella the window as janellas the windows o pae or pai the father ospaes the fathers, the parents a mde or mdi the mother as mdes the mothers o dia z the day 05 dias the days a irmd [vir'mv] the sister as irmas the sisters o dolmen [' udtfmen] the barrow os dolmens the barrows.

Nouns ending in -m change this letter into -n before taking the -s of the plural: o homem [u'dmvi] the man os homens the men o jar dim [ugvr'dl] the garden os jar dins the gardens o som [u'soj the sound os sons the sounds um [u] a, one uns some, any. Nouns terminating in -ao distinguish two chief classes: 1 The rules given for the formation of the plural of the noun are applied also to the adjective.

Y Most substantives ending in -ao among these all abstract nouns ending in -do form their plural by changing -ao in -des, as: o coragdo [Jcwe 'svu] the heart, o aldedo the peasant, os aldeoes 2 os coragoes [kurv'sotf] a acgdo the action, as acgoes o lido the lion, os Hoes a divisdo the division, as di- o can-do the song, os cangoes visoes o meldo the melon, os meloes a ligdo the lesson, as UgSes. Words nouns and adjectives ending in ac- cented -al, -ol, -ul, change the letter -I into -es: o animal [vni'mal] the ani- os animaes [vni'maif] mal o sol [sol] the sun os soes ['sotf] o taful [tv'ful] the gambler os tafues [tu'fuij] geral [gd'ral] general geraes fez'raif] azul [v'zul] blue azues [v'zutfj.

Nouns ending in -el or unaccented 41 change these letters into -eis. If the termination -el which is always pronounced [tf] is accented, -eis is pronounced [eijj; if not accented, it is [vifj. Reptil scientifical form ['rrsptil], popular form: [rrsp'tilf forms the plural in reptis [rrtp'tif], instead of reptis [ 'rreptifj, as would be correct. Nouns and adjectives ending in accented change the letter -I into -s, as: funil [fu'nii] the funnel funis [fu'nif] burril [bu'rrtt] the chisel burris " [sd'vtt] civil adj.

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Nouns ending in -s preceded by an un- accented vowel or falling diphthong, do not change in the plural: o s alferes [at'ferif] lieutenant s ; o s lapis f'UpifJ pencil s ; simples simple. Some substantives are only used in the plural, as: as calgas ["kalsvf] the trousers as ceroulas [39 'rolvf] the dra- wers as tenazes [td'naztf] the tongs os arredores [arrd'donf] the os generos ['gendruf] the vic- tuals as fontes ['font? As already mentioned, the adjective follows the same rules as the noun, as for the feminine and plural forms; so it agrees with the word qualified by it, in gender and number, as: o homem e alto the man is tall a torre e alta the spire is high as torres sao alias the spires are high.

Present Tense Presente of ter to have. Eu tenho [eu'twyo] I have tu tens [tu 'tm. Eu nao tenho I have not, etc. Nao tenho eu? The negative nao is put before the verb. The conjunctive personal pronoun may be omitted. Yet it must be employed: 1. In the interrogative form it is put after the verb, but may also stand before it. As for you have, etc. Men, minha my o sogro f'sogru] the father-in- ['meu, miyiis] law seu, sua ['seu, his, her, its, a sogra ['sogre] the mother-in- suv] your law the lecturing- desk the prince the princess the reading exercise translation, version the heir the heiress the gentleman the gentlewo- man, the lady the grand- father the grand- mother the dog the bitch the boy the girl, the young wo man also.

The possessive adjectives are generally pre- ceded by the article, if the noun is not a title of re- The Plural of Substantives. The article is dropped also at addressing per- ms. Leitura e versao. Meu pai tern dois filhos e duas filhas. Seu sogro e um homem velho, sua sogra 6 uma mulher velha. Na aula ha uma cathedra, dois bancos, duas janellas e uma mesa. Na me"sa ha uma esponja, tres canetas e quatro lapis. Os meus cadernos estao tambem na msa. Tenho [um] avo e [uma] avo.

Onde esta o cao do ingles? Esta ali no chao. I have two hands. Each hand has five fingers. We have also two feet, and each foot has also five toes. These are my copy-books and my pens. Is this your lead-pencil? No, it is not 1 ; it is the pencil of my father. These girls and those boys are pupils of my master. Have you any brothers? Yes, I have three brothers; they are in the garden.

The princes are the sons of the king and the queen. Those men are aged. They are German captains. The English, the Portuguese, and the Germans are Christians. There are four dogs in the street. Have we a map in the school-room? Yes r there is a map on the wall. Tern o menino uma lousa? Ha uma esponja? Quantos alumnos ha aqui? Quantos ha em cada banco?

Onde esta o menino Carlos Charles? Onde fica a porta? Ha tint a no tinteiro? Que tens tu ahi? Sim, tenho uma lousa e dois cadernos. Nao ha esponja nesta aula. Ha cinco alumnos e tr6s alumnas. Ha um em cada banco. Esta na rua. A porta fica acola. Ha 2 , sim, senhor. Eu tenho alguns meloes. Have you had good luck? Tenho Yes, I have. Isto e" uma m6sa. Isto 6 urn banco. Isso 6" o caderno do menino. Aquillo e a cathedra do professor. A cadeira tern quatro pes 7.

Ha cinco rapazes na classe. Cada rapaz tern dois lapis. Onde fica a porta r a janella? Que tern o menino? Que temos nos? The same exercise to be continued for all objects and forms already mentioned. Third Lesson. Ligao terceira. The Address. The Yerb ter to have. The English address "you" is given in Portuguese by different expressions: a Mostly it is not expressed at all: Tern tempo? Have you time?

Ndo tens lugar? Have you no place? Esta doente? Are you ill? Pode dieer-me. Can you tell me. A senhora quer sentar-se? Will you sit down? Qual e a opinido do senhor Doutor? Doctor, what is your opinion? Conde count deseja passar? Do you wish to pass, sir? What do you say, father mother? Que manda o senhor patrao principal? What do you command? Neighbour my boy , are you well? A prima quando vae? When shall you go, my cousin? Charles, did you already go there? Mary, didn't you say? It is to be considered, that with gentlemen the family name sometimes also the Christian name is employed directly after senhor, while with ladies only the Christian name is used, but preceded by senMra Dona D a.

Antonio Correa d'OUveira escreveu um novo poema? Have you written a new poem, Mr. Tern uma creada a sr a D a Maria? Have you a maid-servant, Mrs. Upon country people or person of low condition, the title Dona is not bestowed. This form may be abbreviated toVossencia [vo'sesw]. Your grace, a title given in Portugal to lower people, maid- servants, etc. With all these addresses above mentioned the verb is to be employed in the third person e.

If on the one hand it would not be polite to dispense with it, a too frequent em- ployment would be heavy. The pronoun M is used only in familiar treatment and may be altogether avoided by foreigners. The pronoun ws, if not taken in the plural and even here it is better to substitute it by the third person , is antiquated and only tfsed in pathos, at prayers, and in solemn allocution, for instance, to the king.

The verb ter to have. Past participle participio passado tido: f'tiduj had. Indicative Indicative. Present Tense Presente. See 2 nd Lesson. Imperfect Tense Preterito imperfeito. Eu tiriha ['tiyiv] I had nds tinhamos ['tinvmuf] we tu tirihas you had thou hadst had die, ella tinha he, she, it, had vos tinheis ['tinvtf] you had elles tinham ['tiyivu] they had.

Perfect Tense Preterito perfeito. Present Perfect Preterito composto. Eu tenho tido I have had tu tens tido you have had, etc. Pluperfect Mais-que-perfeito. Eu tiriha tido I had had tu tinhas tido you had had, etc. Future Futuro. Eu terei fa'rvi] I shall have nds teremos we shall have. Yet the student is not supposed to learn at once all the verbal forms, so as to master them, as, indeed, these verbs with their resemblances and differences constitute one of the greatest diffi- culties of the Portuguese language for the foreigner.

But he is ear- nestly requested not to put these lessons aside before having at- tained an absolute understanding of the meaning and employment of the auxiliary verbs. Eu terei tido I shall have had. Conditional Conditional. Eu teria [td 'riv] I should elle, ella teria he, she, it would have have. Eu teria tido I should have had. Subjunctive Conjunctiva. Eu tenha I have nos tenhdmos we have tu tenhas you have vos tenhais you have elle tenha he have elles tenham they have. Se eu tivesse [ti'vesd] if Se nostivessemosfti'vesdmuf] I had if we had Se tu tivesses if you had Se vds tivesseis if you had elle tivesse if he had elles tivessem if they had.

Personal Infinitive. Infinit iv o pessoal. Para eu ter that 1 may have, to have I tu teres you you elle ter he he nos termos we etc. Portuguese Conversation- Grammar. Ter que or ter de indicates necessity: Tenho de Id ir I must go there. The nouns of material, taken in a partitive and indefinite sense, are, as in English, used without the article or a preposition: Tenlio pao I have some bread. But: Tenho urn pouco de pao I have a little bread.

Leitnra e versao. Tenho uma canSta, Nao tern tambem um lapis? Nao tenho. Tenho dois caes. Nao tinha meu Amigo um jardim com algumas flores? Tinha, sim, senhor, e ainda tenho. Se tivesse arvores fructiferas, tambem teria fructa. Tern a menina andado a escola nestes dias? Nao tenho ido, tenho andado or estado doente. Quando tiver saiide, terei muito gosto em voltar a aula.

Teve V a. Tive hontem. Tenho tido noticias d'ella from her em cada m6s. Temos tido muito trabalho, para termos uma creada. Agora teem? Temos, mas nao a her teremos por muito tempo. Nao tendo ordem para la ires, teras de to ficar em casa. Exercise, Have you some fruit, my friend? I have none. She has the sugar. They have the milk. We had the cheese. You had the butter. I shall have eggs. He will have tea. We shall have a pudding. You will have a pie. They had no potatoes. He has had pepper and salt.

Had you some wine? Will you have butter and cheese? I shall have bread and meat. The boy has -soup and meat. I shall have no poultry, but I shall have game. Your horse will have bread and brandy. Shall you have a duck? My daughter would have a glass of milk. If you had money, you would have chocolate. Whenever we are to have money, we shall have everything we want fludo quanta precisarmos. Que temos nos nesta msa? Terao os rapazes pao e leite? Nao teve V- queijo esta manha? Nao terei eu carne de boi e vinho para o meu jantar? Onde tern a sua penna e a caneta?

Nao teve ainda caldo com arroz? Temos uma penna, tinta e papel. Nao, elles terao pao e agua. Nao, eu tive manteiga. Nao, tu teras um pastel e cerveja. Tenho-as them na minha gave"ta. Ainda nao not yet , mas eu tive um copo de leite. Teria o meu amigo escripto Teria, sim, senhor. Mas ha uma carta, se tivesse tido muito que nao tenho tido tempo? Oral exercises to be done on the subject, as indicated in the preceding lessons. Fourth Lesson. Licjao quarta. The Auxiliary Verb ser and the Adjective.

The verb ser to be. Participio imperfeito: sendo ['senduj. Eu sou [sou] I am nos somos f'somuf] we are tu es [sf] thou art vos sois ['sotf] you are elle, ella e he, I you are elles, ellas sao [svu] they she, it is j you are. Eu era ['srv] I was nos eramos we were tu eras thou wast elle, ella era he she, was vos ereis you were you were elles, ellas eram they you were.

Eu fui 1 f'fui] I was or have nds fomos ['fomufj 'if] tu foste ['foftd] elles, ellas for am f'forvu]. Eu tenho sido ['sidu] I have been tu tens sido you have been, etc. Eu tinha sido I had been, etc. Eu serei [sd'rvi] I shall be nos seremos [sd'remufj we tu seras [sd'raf] you will be shall be elle, ella serd [s9'ra] he, vos sereis [sd 'rmfj you will be she, it, you will be, etc.

Futuro perfeito. Eu terei sido I shall have been, etc. Conditional imperfeito. Eu seria [sd f riu] I should be, nos seriamos [so'rivmuj] tu serias etc. Conditional perfeito. Eu teria sido I should have been, etc. Eu seja ['svgv] I be, etc. Infinitivo pessoal. Eu ser tu seres elle ser nds sermos vos serdes elles, ellas serem Imperative. The Portuguese adjective follows, as already mentioned, the same rules of inflexion as the substan- tive with which it consequently agrees in gender and number. It is the same as for the demonstrative, pos- sessive, and indefinite adjectives, and the ordinal numbers, which are all considered adjectives.

Also the cardinal numbers um and dois have a different form for the feminine cf. There are adjectives, denominated uniforms, which have only one form for both genders. This class embraces those ending by -e, -I, -ar, -as, -iz, , -im, -ea and -6, and those ending by -s in syllable not accen- tuated. Exceptions: este, esse, aquelle, mestre chief e. The place of the Portuguese qualifying ad- jective is for the most part after the noun as for those denoting colour, form, dimension, nationality, religion; while the demonstrative, possessive, and indefinite ad- jectives precede the noun.

Eu sou velho. Tu es muito novo. Elle 6 um homem ruim. Ella 6 uma mulher nova. Aquelle menino e doente. Nos nao somos ricos. Vos sois applicados. Ellas sao bellas. Eu era teu amigo. Era isso um bom conselho? Nao, foi mal pensado. Eu fui tarde duma hora. Fostes vos fdste tu, foi V g.

Se fosse mais cedo, seria melhor. Se as fructas ja forem colhidas, 6 signal de ja terem madurecido. Isto que sera? Sera um vestido para a menina.

Nao teria sido melhor escolher uma fazenda que fosse mais duravel? Se nao for duravel, nao tern duvida; o panno nao foi caro. Tudo quanto tenho comprado a esse negociante, tern sido bom. A nossa casa era muito alta e tinha quartos bastante grandes e airados.

You are a tall man. The rooms are very large. He is [a] Portuguese. Those are big horses. It was a grand idea. She was a pretty little girl. He has always been a good boy. If it be late, you will not find nao encontrard the way. The telegraph is a grand invention. Be kind to the boy! Be good, and I will give you the fine fruit. If I were you, I should be diligent. The Crystal Palace is a grand edifice. Camdes was a great Portuguese poet. His best poem is "Os Lusiadas" He is an heir.

Is this an apple? No, it is a quince. We are no bad boys. The dog of my cousin is good and useful. Coimbra is the only university in Portugal. Can we be a little more self-restrained? I don't see how it is boastful, unless you have a personal problem with it for some reason. It happens to be the truth I don't know about the Germanic part though, new studies are claiming they were actually Slavic, but whatever and it is in fact showing restraint.

If you saw my genealogical tree it would rock your socks off my friend. This article describes "A nine -member constitutional court oversees the constitutionality of legislation. But another article about Portuguese Constitutional Court Organization describes thirteen judges in the court. Does a ranking of It would seem to be closer to the median than it is to the maximum. Cleduc , 26 December UTC.

I deleted a line from the Religion section, "One curious fact is that Satanism is growing. The Wiki entry on "Satanism" describes definable organizations citing individuals who call themselves Satanists but gives no demographic statistics. My sense is that besides a citation, the line would need a meaningful definition of "Satanism" in the first place.

I'm starting to notice items that seem too innocuous to be called vandalism, but which are dificult for me to explain otherwise. Should we grep in all national entries for references to "satanism" to detect a difuse propoganda scheme? Peter H. John, M. The Mirandese people the people speak a different languague to the portuguese people. The mirandese people have all the characteristic of a nationality, land, history and languague. In the Republic of Portugal there are two different nationalities, the Portuguese and the Mirandese.

This is a complete and total fabrication! There are no feelings of ethnic differentiation in Miranda! I dont even think this unregistered editor should be taken seriously. Or else he is an anonimous vandal. Even if he is from Miranda do Douro, which I doubt, he is probably the only one that thinks the Mirandese are a different nationality or ethnic group.

His edits are infatile and he doesn't understand that an encyclopedia is not about what the world is but about what people say and discuss the world is!

  • Generations on the Land: A Conservation Legacy?
  • Glossary | Practice Portuguese.
  • Angolan Tourists Spend Big Bucks in Portugal · Global Voices.

His matter of fact statements, unsupported by any source, show he has no understanding of the social and cultural processes envolved in ethnico-political differentiation. His edits should be treated as vandalism. If he has a case for his statements he should bring it forward in the talk pages before writing such delusions on the multiple articles where he has been adding them. Of course we are not a different race, we are white like the most of the people of Pertual but he mirandese have the characteristic of a nationality like Catalonia in Espanha.

We have our costumes, we have our languague, this is true and we are working to recover the national identity of the Mirandese. Wikipedia must be neutral and recognize that there are two different nationality in the Republic of Portugal, Portuguese and Mirandese. Miranfree , 11 January UTC. The mirandes people is different to the portuguese: A source: Ethnologue. Language Mirandese people use Official regional language. A folklore group is promoting the language and culture.

The language has been introduced into the schools. It is sometimes used in court. Comments The people have a different style of dress from their neighbors black, handwoven cloth. Agriculturalists: wheat, potatoes, oil; wine producers; animal husbandry: sheep, cattle; commerce. I agree with TheOgre, but I would remind everyone that nation is also a problematic word. Thank you Filipes, you argue with good manners. I know that "nation" is problematic in the portuguese languague now, but this is because in the Portuguese Republic there is a tradition o repression to the minorities. The portuguese people should accept that there is a minority that have his own costumes and his own languague and is different, the republic is not a state-nation, is a state multicultural.

Is Portugal and Pertual. Miranfree , 12 January UTC. Information about the Terra de Miranda and the culture of the Mirandese People. We are more than a few elderly in couple of villages. I show sourcex that demonstrate the differentiated culture of the mirandese people. We are not castilian, we are not chinise inmigrant, we are here since always. I am proud of not saying a good Portuguese, mine mirandese is much better.

Miranfree , 14 January UTC. Is only that we suffer in the past a lot of time the action of people of Estado Novo that want the dream of a homogenic country and because that hate the the mirandese minority and I see that there are still people that have the dream os this Portugal the state-nation of only-one-culture-with-only-one-languague and is not true.

You can see the discussion in the portuguese wikipedia with authentic censure. If you say respestuosly that you feel different, you are sure a spanish spy Pedro say. We exist and we have a different culture and languague Mirandes na net. Lhengua i Cultura Mirandesa , a athentic different nationality in the Republica Portuguesa.

There's no such thing as a Mirandese nationality. I used to live close to Miranda do Douro and people around there are Portuguese just like everyone else in northeastern Portugal. Rather pointless to fabricate this so-called Mirandese nationality. Wikipedia is not a soapbox. I thougt it was strange that no mention was made about the gigantic role Portugal played in the transatlantic slave trade, one of, if not the greatest crime against humanity. Portugal was one of the first nations to establish the transatlantic slave trade, it remained one of the biggest slave trading nations.

The former portuguese colony Brazil's huge black population is a testimony to that. Portugal was also exporting slaves to the colonies of other European nations. Having said that, Portugal was the last nation to abolish the trade of slaves across the Atlantic, defying the British navy. The abolition of slavery in Brazil only came with that countries independence from Portugal in the late 19th century. Forced labour was maintained in Portuguese colonies in Africa until the late s when those countries became independent. Ironically, Portugal has very little to show for this horrendous exploitation of humans and nations and the amassing of wealth it must have entailed.

It is now one of the poorest members of the European Union. Before the accession of new former communist states, it was constantly the second poorest country after Greece among the pre 15 member states since it's entry into the Union. Portugal is a net-recipient member of the EU, i. Where has all the colonial wealth gone? Wasted in colonial wars? Stashed in off-shore or alpin accounts somewhere? It would be an interesting project to trace the money and blood trail after the glorious "Portuguese Empire".

We're waiting until England , France , Germany , the United States of America and a few other nations add a note about their gigantic roles in slavery to their Wikipedia articles. Brasileiros escravizados em fazendas? Se tivesse sido Holanda ou Inglaterra a colonizar o Brasil, a gente agora estaria bem melhor mesmo.

Que tristeza de povo. Parem, por favor! Se querem insultar-se mutuamente usem outra plataforma! Como todos os outros. Por favor Furthermore, The Ogre did indeed use bold type but his language was not harsh and in fact was encouraging the insults to stop and to communicate in a more positive manner.

Durante o tempo de D.