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    I will make sure to bookmark your blog and may come back in the foreseeable future. I want to encourage yourself to continue your great work, have a nice holiday weekend! Conway Gregory, Jr. Ernest C. Murray County, situated in northwest Georgia, is bounded on the east by Fannin and Gilmer Counties, on the south by Gordon, and on the west by Whit-field County. The northern boundary of the county, part of the state line between Tennessee and Georgia, is the 35th parallel of latitude.

    Once much larger. Murray County now consists of square miles. Murray has a variety of topographic elevations ranging from feet above sea level in the valleys, to more than 4, feet in the mountains. Prominent peaks in the Murray skyline include Fort, Grassy, Cohutta. Bald, and Potato Patch mountains. Mountains occupy about one-third of the eastern part of the county and have long been noted for their beauty. All surface drainage in the area flows into the Mobile River Basin. Many minerals are present in Murray.

    Gold was mined for a time while marble, iron, lead, silver, and manganese exist in smaller amounts. Long an agricultural region, Murray fields have yielded countless amounts of corn, cotton, wheat, fruit, grasses, other vegetables, and, in more recent years, soybeans.

    The land is fertile and provides excellent pasturage for cattle as well as other animals. The lumber business has also thrived in the area for many decades. Murray's population has shown various increases and declines in the 20th century. The number of residents climbed from 8. Although the population decreased to 9, in , it rose almost 2, by 11, During the years during and following World War II the number of residents declined and by the population was 10, This change is attributed to agriculture declines and the number of people who left the area for jobs in other places during the war.

    Between and Murray enjoyed a population increase of Since then the population has continued to grow. Thus the labor force and school enrollment have increased steadily. Murray County has changed tremendously in the last two decades. Many long-time residents have passed away and, with them, much of our heritage. A significant number of people have moved to Murray, and are learning about the area's long and fascinating history.

    Here then is the written account of "Murray County Heritage. As mentioned earlier, James Vann helped get the Cherokee Nation's first highway built by convincing the chiefs that a road would be beneficial to the Indians and perhaps more importantly, to James Vann.

    In the Cherokees granted informal permission for the Federal government to build a road across heir land. This major thoroughfare became known as the Federal Road and connected Tennessee with points to the southeast. Lewis Richardson again shares his knowledge of early North Georgia history as follows:. These [roads] served a dual purpose: provide easier movement of supplies to the [Indian] agencies and western settlements and, if war came, speed the passage of army baggage trains.

    The informal agreement was ratified by the Treaty of Tellico in and the road was opened for wagons by the next year. Richardson continues: By this time, there was no money available from the federal coffers. The Administration referred the matter to the Governors of Tennessee and Georgia, suggesting that the states pay for locating and opening the road. Both states refused any responsibility.

    The road was actually opened by private effort, for the most part by tavern owners and trading post operators. No federal money was expended on any part. It should have been christened the "Cherokee Road. At first there were the heavy freight wagons with four and six horse teams; later lightly built post stages began to carry the mail and an occasional passenger. By , there were the "movers," families passing through the Nation seeking new homes in Tennessee or Northern Alabama.

    Some few liked what they saw in the Cherokee country, made an accomodation with the Indians and settled along the road. The track also became an important drovers route, with herds of cattle and droves of hogs, from Hast Tennessee to markets in Georgia. And always there were the individual horsemen, politicians, military men, traders, missionaries and curious travelers.

    It was inevitable that other connecting toads would be opened to serve the larger villages. New Echota and Ellijay, for example. By the rnid's, there was a considerable network of wagon roads, cart tracks and pack horse trails in the Nation, ll should be noted, however, there had been almost no attempt to improve any of these roads There was no grading, bridges, or surface treatment other than poles d brush thrown in the worst stretches of mud and swamp.

    By our standards, they could hardly be classed as roads. This was the transportation system in the region when the removal of the Cherokees began in the late 's. In the early 's John H. At Cuniston, two miles farther on. Near this place also, not far from a present large dairy barn, in frontier days was an interesting place named "Bloodtown. Traces of Bloodtown have long since disappeared, but tales of the reveling and brawling which took place there persisted long. Up the road a little farther, in front of a filling station which now marks Ramhurst, Georgia, on U.

    One fork. The other continued straight ahead, approximately along the course of U. The U. Goff gave additional information about the western fork of the Road from Ramhurst as follows No one living along its course now seems to remember it as a Federal route; generally it is referred to as the "Old Chattanooga Road," although in rare instances a few old timers recall it as the "Georgia Road. At Spring Place the road bore to the north of the village and the majestic old Vann house that stands just notth of that place.

    A stretch of the early trail is missing along here, But it takes up again at Free Hope Church Crossroads, northwest of Spring Place, and runs straight north to the Old Chattanooga l-ord below the mouth of Mill Creek on Conasauga River. The ford is no longer used, but the former trace is still there. The road then went through Whitfield County. A stage began running through Spring Place as early as ' and by regularly ran to Athens, Tennessee.

    A post office had been established at Spring Place earlier. Another important event during this era was the beginning of a canal system in Georgia. Designed to improve "internal" transportation, these canals were very ambitious undertakings, but the canal era did not last long due to the coming of railroad and almost none were even begun in Georgia. However, "the Conasauga River was once a busy artery of commerce and was twice considered as part of a canal system," according to historian Lewis Richardson. One proposal was for the River to become a portion of Georgia's Northwest Canal.

    Wilson Lumpkin and State Engineer Hamilton Fulton led an exploratory party through the area and selected the river as the best route. Plans were drawn to connect the Conasauga with the Ocoee River by means of 15 locks spaced over 10 miles. However the canals were not to be. Return to TOP of page! The area that now comprises Murray County was long the home of native Americans. Although hunting, fishing, and gathering remained the principle sources of food, agricultural methods and larger, more permanent villages characterized this Woodland period.

    The Woodland Indians were also the first to develop religious systems and to build dirt mounds over graves of important people. Mound building reached its height during the succeeding "Mississippian Age. Several mounds have been excavated there. Around A. About years later the older natives reconquered parts of Georgia and their descendants, the Creeks, later played an important par!

    The invaders from the north retained control of the Murray area although some Creek placenames were retained in North Georgia. By , when the Spanish explorer Hemando DeSoto came through Georgia, two groups of Indians existed, the Creeks in the south and in the north the people who were to be called Cherokees. An Indian town called Guaxule is mentioned in DeSoto's records.

    The Spaniards received a warm, peaceful welcome from the chief of this village which included some houses. Five hundred warriors dressed in skins with feather decorations escorted their leader to his meeting with De Soto. Georgia historian Charles C. Jones, Jr. Apparently the Cherokees occupied an old Creek settlement and later renamed it "Coosawattee" which means "old Creek place.

    In the early days of the 18th century, the Cherokees roamed freely over most of what is now the states of Virginia, Kentucky. North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee. Georgia, and Alabama. As the white settlers moved inward from the Atlantic the native Americans were forced to relinquish pieces of land, first in Virginia and South Carolina, then in North Carolina and Georgia, then in Tennessee and Alabama.

    Finally, by the 's the once vast Cherokee Nation included only a small area where North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia, and Alabama join. But many changes had taken place within the Nation in that space of years. The Cherokees had decided that there was no need to try to fight the encroaching white people, but rather agreed to settle down, build log homes, become an agricultural nation and adopt the ways of the whites in hopes of retaining their homeland. Traders were allowed into the Cherokee domain as well as French and British Indian agents.

    As the American colonists revolted for their independence, the Cherokees felt they should fight with the British, feeling that the mighty Englishmen would surely defeat the Americans and would then treat the Cherokees in a favorable manner. Unfortunately for the Cherokees, the British lost the colonies. More and more whites pushed toward the Indian lands and with this came a greater exchange of ideas between the Indians and the white culture.

    Murray County soon had a number of white residents who lived among and married Cherokees. Coosawattee Old Town, located near Carters, became a thriving settlement. Ebenezer Newton traveled through the area in and found that Coosawattee was "a considerable town of the Indians on both sides of the river. The Newton party spent the night at "Captain Foster's" in a comfortable log cabin.

    Foster was a prominent Cherokee who had several slaves. Newton remarked that the blacks spoke English better than their master. Judge Martin built the house now known as Carters Quarter. During the Carter ownership of the land much was discovered about the earlier Indian settlement. In the 's two large silver crosses which pointed to DeSoto's visit were unearthed. In the late 's and 's excavations were conducted on the burial mounds, by Prof. Warren Moorehead, while in a large cave was discovered and was thought to contain lost Indian treasures.

    Professor J. Stull was told of the cave by an aged Cherokee in Utah and followed markings on trees to the spot where some "stone images" were found. Iron objects, shells, arrow points, pottery, and skeletons had been found during the earlier diggings. Other burials were unearthed in the 's prior to the building of Carters Dam.

    Apparently this area, under its various names of Guaxule, Coosawattee Old Town, and Carters, is the oldest continually occupied "town" in Murray County. No family adopted white ways to the extent that the Vanns did. Their fame, fortune, and failures are known not just in Murray County and Georgia, but across the United States. Their story is the story of the Cherokees as well as the story of Murray County in the first quarter of the 19th century. Accounts of the first Vann to come to the Cherokee Nation vary a great deal.

    Some say his name was James, others say Clement, and still others compromise and say it was James Clement. Several versions of the family story report that the first Vann to come to Georgia was James Vann's father, while others feel that it was James's grandfather, a Scot trader perhaps running from the law, who entered the Cherokee Nation near its southern boundary and married a full-blooded Cherokee princess named Wawli.

    Some authors write that the first Vann had married Ruth Gann. A more recent genealogist proposes that two brothers began the Vann family trading business with the Cherokees. James came first but died a short time after marrying Waw-li who then married James's brother. Clement, a later arrival to the Cherokee lands. At any rate, Waw-li, the chieftain's daughter, married a Scot trader named Vann and had at least three children: Avery, James, and Nancy according to most sources, anyway. Here the saga of the Murray County Vanns really begins. The Vann family moved to the Murray area in the late 's.

    Since they were already well-to-do traders and farmers, the clan quickly built up vast land-holdings. At this time Spring Place was still merely a stopping place for hunting and trading parties. James increased his wealth, establishing a mill, trading post, and slave cabins on Mill Creek. He is said to have built the first wagon in the Cherokee Nation. He married three wives.

    Of the first two, one was Indian and one was white, while "Peggy" was of mixed blood. Her father had been an Indian agent for the British. James fathered five legitimate children: James, John, Sally, Delilah and, the youngest, Joseph bom , his only child by Peggy. Vann developed quite a reputation as a fierce man, particularly when he had been drinking which was very often.

    Nevertheless, in he was called upon by U. Government Indian Agents to clear the Cherokee lands of thieves and other white men who were causing trouble. He continued in this "police" action until his death. James Vann killed many white men in duels or to enforce his authority over them. One account reports that he murdered Georgia militiaman Leonard Rice and most sources reveal that he was very strict on his workers, whites as well as slaves. He once whipped his overseer Mr. Crawford strokes and tried to shoot another employee, Mr.

    Giger, on another occasion. He also had an overseer named Bohing at one time. His most violent action came in against a slave named Isaac. When Isaac was captured he was burned alive while the others were shot or "strung up in a tree. Despite his fierce temper and drinking problem, James Vann did care for his mother's people, the Cherokees. He hated to see them robbed and mistreated by white intruders.

    He was also concerned for their education. While on a business trip to the eastern coastal cities, including Washington, D. Vann took the plan to the other chiefs and persuaded them to allow the establishment of a mission on James Vann's property. The Moravians were installed in two small cabins which were being vacated by a Mr. They asked Vann about building their new mission complex on a hill just west of their present spot and he agreed, but to the missionaries' dismay, Vann soon had plans made to build a new house for himself on the hill. The missionaries then were given land a short distance southeast of the proposed spot for their mission.

    They were not displeased at being a distance from the home of Vann. Vann hired a German named Vogt to design his new house, a house which would rival any house within the bounds of the Cherokee nation, a house on the scale of others Vann had seen in the east during his many travels. So while the Moravians were attempting to build their own dwellings and a school, Vann asked them to help instruct his slaves and other Indians in how to build his new brick house.

    All Moravians were excellent craftsmen and he must have been pleased at his choice of missionary teachers to come to his town. The work on the house began late in with most of the work being done in The Vanns moved into the newly completed house in March, Everything used in building the house was made on the site except the glass for the windows which was shipped from Savannah. Meanwhile the Moravians had begun their school which also pleased James Vann. In sponsoring the school, Vann contributed greatly to the education of the many men who would lead the Cherokees through their most trying hours in the next two decades.

    Although the Moravians were interested in making Christian converts, this was difficult since the spirits of James Vann were in such close proximity. The Moravians named the mission complex Springplace or "place of many springs" due to the large number of excellent streams in the area. The town which sprang up after Vann moved his family nearby was soon going by the name of Vann's Town. Vann reigned both as plantation owner and master as well as a town chief over the area. He had increased his wealth until he owned over 4, acres of land as well as operating taverns, stores, a grist mill, a sawmill, a blacksmith shop, ferries, and other types of businesses throughout the Cherokee nation.

    Many of his business ventures were located on the Old Federal Road, built in under his sponsorship. Some say the duel came about after James abused his mother and beat his sister Falling's wife while she was with child. Another source mentions that Falling had been involved in the theft ring which had resulted in Isaac's death.

    Whatever the cause, the following account of the duel was recorded later: Vann met Falling. He charged him with Treachery. Words ensued. A challenge passed. Such an instance never before occurred in the nation; nor has it ever occurred since.


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    • The parties agreed! They were to be armed at their own choice. Vann had a long French musquet, Falling a double bundled fowling piece; each were loaded with 21 buck shot; each well mounted. At the hour fixed, each started at a full gallop. When they caught view of each other, each gave the war whoop, as they dashed onward. Their horses heads neatly struck together, ere they fired.

      The guns went off almost on the same instant. Vann's horse gave a slight dodge, and the charge grazed Vann as it passed. Falling dropped dead ,..

      Lamar Owens Public records

      It caused much excitement and it was thought prudent that Vann should not be seen until the excitement could have time to cool. The death went unavenged until February 21, At this time there were loud complaints of the depredations committed in the nation by horse thieves, white and red, as well as other rogues, emanating from the whites upon the border.

      James Vann gathered some followers and paraded the country to punish the aggressors. They caught and flogged some of each complexion. Vann now returning from his judicial and patriotic expedition; and at Buffmgton's on the Etowah he stopped to wind up his adventures with a frolic. In the log hut tavern the interstices between the logs of which were open, he stood in the center of the group carousing.

      He had been at high words with some of his ancient associates-to Alexander Sanders, for one, he had been very abusive. The door, which swung loosely, was silently pressed open by the point of a rifle. In an instant, James Vann was dead, and no one has ever known his slayer. He was buried at High Tower, near Blackburn's. The death of Falling by his hand had never been revenged and hence there was no search made to discover his own murderer. The Moravian missionaries added that "after hearing the shot, Joseph James's son and a Negro rapidly gathered up the belongings of father and son including Vann's "pocketbook" containing.

      Wrapped in a blanket Joseph and the Negro fled to his father's plantation on the Chattahoo-chee River. Almost frightened to death, Mrs. Vann and her parents-in-law fled to Buffmgton's at dawn. Reaction to Vann's death was mixed. Vann and "Mother" Vann were distraut for weeks as were other members of the Vann household. The missionaries wrote: Thus ended the life of one who was feared by many and loved by few in the 41st year of his life Vann had been an instrument in the hand of God for establishing our mission in this nation.

      Never in his wildest orgies had he attempted to harm us. We could not but commend his soul to God's mercy. They had lost their "greatest friend and benefactor. At last by a rifle ball he fell and the Devil dragged his soul to Hell. This man was once a Chief of the Cherokee Nation, and was considered a great man among them, and was very rich. But his greatness and his riches could not ward off the stroke of death. Nevertheless, the year-old Joseph inherited the bulk of his father's estate. Joseph grew up. Upon reaching legal age, he received full title to the plantation and made many improvements in the house and on the land.

      He was an even better businessman than his father and won the nickname "Rich Joe" because he had a cousin also named Joseph who was not quite as wealthy. The cousin was Teaultle or "Big Joe. At the young age of 16 he had joined other Cherokees and Americans under the command of Andrew Jackson to defeat the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, during the War of He was also a delegate to Washington. The 6-feet-6 man had two wives, Jennie Springston and Polly Black. Both James and Joseph left their doors open to any visitors and. Joseph also loved to drink, but apparently was not quite so beliggerent.

      Lewis Richardson, a descendant of an old area family and now a resident of Gainesville, wrote his account of the presidential visit: The tour of James Monroe through the Southeast and the Cherokee Nation in is of interest for two reasons. He was the firsl President to visit what is now Murray County and the travel arrangements, the size of the party and the lack of publicity is in startling contrast to similar Presidential tours today.

      Monroe made this southern joumey for three reasons. First, to review the defenses of the young nation along the coast and on the southern frontier; second, for political purposes. As do all politicians, he welcomed the chance to meet people and to promote the policies of his administration and his party.

      His last objective was to view the work of the Government and the private Missions in the Cherokee country. Monroe was a compassionate man and sympathized with the plight of the native Americans. He believed that with the help of tools and implements supplied by the Government, by teaching the older Indians the arts of agriculture and by educating the young, the Indian problem would cease to exist. On this trip he would see for himself how well his policies were working.

      There were only hree in the original group, the President; his secretary, Samuel Gouvernor and his military aide, Lt. Monroe, It was almost a family affair. Monroe was the son of the President's brother, Joseph, and, in the following year, Gouvernor would marry Hester Maria, the President's youngest daughter.

      In the course of the journey, this small group would be augmented by numerous politicians, military officers, office holders and assorted notables. Most would travel only a short distance and would be replaced by others in each new town. The party left Washington, April 1, and proceeded to Savannah by slow stages. From the Georgia coast they went northwest through the State, arriving in Athens, May 21st, seven weeks from Washington.

      The next morning they traveled to Jefferson in Jackson County where they partook of a "noon dinner" provided by the citizens of the village. From this point they would follow the Federal Road into Tennessee. That afternoon, they crossed the Georgia State line and entered the Cherokee Nation. The Chattahoochee River was crossed at Vann's Ferry and they spent the night in the village on the west bank.

      That night they forded the Etowah River and slept at Lewis Blackburn's Tavern about a half mile west of the river. Ten years before, James Vann had been murdered near Blackburn's place and he is said to lest in the Blackburn Cemetery nearby. The next day, the route was west, then north to the crossing of Long Swamp Creek, just east of Tate, in present Pickens County.

      On the 26th, the travelers continued through Pickens County, passing the Indian village Of Sanderstown. They arrived in Spring Place late in the evening, unexpectedly, and the Moravians recorded the event: May 25, Very late In the evening, Mr. James Monroe came with the overseer. Brodewell, to announce that the President of the United States and his party had arrived at Joseph Vann's. We were told by James Monroe that because so many were in his party that they did not wish to worry us for a night's lodging.

      The President had sent him to tell us thai he was in the neighborhood and that he would like to see Br. Gambald before the party leaves the next moming. The overseer asked for several lights for the company. The "Mr. Monroe" was, of course, Lt. Monroe, The President's announced reason for not stopping at the Mission may be classed as a polite subterfuge. He was acquainted with Joe Vann, and the prospect of staying in the comfortable Vann home rather than the austere quarters of the missionaries is understandable.

      He did take time the next morning to inspect the Indian school and expressed his satisfaction with the work of the Brothers. There is no evidence of Federal aid having been offered or solicited. The Moravians were self sufficient. Later in the day, the party left Spring Place, going northwest to the old crossing of the Conasauga River, later known as the Chattanooga Ford.

      Early the next afternoon, they arrived at Brainerd Mission, again unheraJded. Jackson at the Hermitage. They arrived in Nashville, June 13th. When they left the Tennessee Capitol, the route was north to Frankfort and Lexington, then east to Washington where they arrived on Sunday moming, the 8th of August. They had traveled about 5, miles in four months.

      The long journey was unremarkable, except for the distinguished participants, for that period in our history. Two factors however, make it almost unbelievable by present-day standards. First, the trip was accomplished with so little attention. Newspapers of the day gave the President little space, even in those towns he was visiting.

      In fact, for the time between the departure of the group from Jefferson the arrival at Jackson's home near Nashville, the nation had no idea of the President's whereabouts. Even more astonishing, the four month junket cost the taxpayers nothing! In those days, "Traveling Presidents sponged, like royalty, on the local gentry, and accepted free transportation from the mail contractors.

      Some say that Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun, and Sam Houston might have also visited Spring Place. By the 's the Cherokees had discarded the traditional Indian clan system of ruling a tribe, with an indefinite number of clan and town chiefs making up the council. Instead, they patterned their government after that of the United States with a written constitution and a republican form of control with four delegates from each of the eight districts making up the National Council.

      The capital was moved from Tennessee to New Echota, near present-day Calhoun in Gordon County, and since the Vanns lived on the major thoroughfare through the land, many of the visitors to Council at New Echota stopped at Vann's Town and Spring Place for refreshment. The Cherokees were very advanced-thanks to leaders like the Vanns. But all was not to last for the wealthy Vanns and their Cherokee brothers. Gold had been discovered in the mountains of North Georgia and the white citizens of Georgia began demanding immediate removal of the Indians so that they could take the gold from the Indians who had known of its existence for many decades.

      Georgia had surrendered its claim to western lands to the Federal government in with the concession that all Indians would be removed from its borders. The Creeks in South and Middle Georgia had been moved already, but until now no one had wanted the mountain land of the Cherokees. The Cherokees would be removed he said and the State began passing a series of laws extending its authority over the Cherokees. Without waiting for the Federal government to remove the Cherokees, white Georgians began moving in to claim their property.

      Inevitably Joseph Vann and his fine home became involved in the "land grab-" At this time his holdings in Georgia included acres of cultivated land, 42 cabins, eight com cribs, six barns, a sawmill, the grist mill, five smokehouses, a blacksmith shop, a foundary, a trading post, a peach kiln.

      In the fall of Joseph left on a business trip, but before leaving he "employed a Mr. He returned about the 28th or 29th of December. Howell he did not want his services. Yet Mr. Bishop, the State's agent, represented to the authorities of Georgia that Mr. Vann had violated the laws of that state by hiring a white man. A white boarder. Spencer Riley, claimed the house as his and a battle resulted between the rival claimants while the Vann family huddled within the house.

      Gunfire was exchanged before Bishop ordered that a small fire be built on the stairway to smoke out Riley. Riley left-for the time being! Since the winter was not yet over, the Vanns moved to a small farm Joseph owned near Ooletewah, Tennessee. They lived there until about and Vann built a racetrack where he raced his favorite horse "Lucy Walker. Named for his racehorse, the boat had been docked at Ross's Landing Chattanooga, Tennessee when Vann lived in Georgia.

      Now the goods it carried helped the dispossessed merchant reaccumulate his wealth. As early as Vann began legal proceedings against those who had taken his property. Though the case began in Murray County Superior Court, not until did he receive payment for his land-after his claim went to the Federal government. He received S19,60S for all his Georgia holdings; his Murray County property alone had been valued at over , in Nevertheless, according to the government, the claim was settled. However, by that time Joseph Vann, like his father, had met a tragic end.

      In the fall of Vann went on what was both a business and a pleasure trip to Louisville, Kentucky. After selling these goods and buying wood, coffee, gunpowder, calico, linen, etc. Some say Vann's Lucy Walker was in the race and won. At any rate, Vann and his guests returned to the steamboat to celebrate. Joseph was drunk and in a rage quarrelled with Captain Hadderman over just who really ran the ship. As the return trip was about to begin, the captain, who had had enough, walked off the ship. Vann decided to be his own captain and ordered the vessel to set forth.

      Vann's valet. Percy, was still serving drinks to his master's guests when another boat, the "Firefly," eased past the "Lucy Walker. He ordered that some salt pork be put on the fire to create more steam and slowly his own vessel passed the "Firefly. When Vann's craft resumed the race, he ordered more steam.

      A servant, Nebuchadnezzar, protested that the boiler was taking all the steam it could, saying, "But Massa' Vann, if I t'rows dat [more meat] in dere, dem b'ilers is goin' to splode an' blow us all to Hell! Some bodies, including that of Vann's youthful son-in-law Preston Mackey were recovered, but not Joseph Vann's. Meanwhile the Vann House in Spring Place was suffering through rough times. Captain Bishop took possession of the place, and then rented it to his brother, Absalom. The actual owner of the house was Revolutionary War veteran Thomas Turley of Warren County who had drawn lot 9th District, 3rd Section in the land lottery.

      Turley died soon after and in the administrators of his estate, J. At last Riley got the upper hand over the Bishops! He sold the acre lot to Alexander Shotwell of Decatur County and then purchased the house, kitchen, barn, orchards, and one-third of the land from Shotwell for himself. For the next decade the Bank officially owned the house but several people occupied it. Apparently at one time it was a sort of hotel. George Wacaser lived in the house once as did the Charles Warmacks Joseph B. Smith also tried to purchase the house during this era.

      By James Edmondson. For the next 11 years the home was once again the center of an extensive plantation as former Edmondson slave Levi Branham recorded in his My Life and Travels years later. During the Civil War Mr. Tibbs, a Tennessee Confederate of some means who had recently arrived in Spring Place and had begun to accumulate large land holdings.

      In Tibbs deeded the Vann House to his son and daughter-in-law. Jacob and Lavinia. They used the house as rental property at least part of the time for the Stephen John Howard family occupied the house in John Bryant bought the place in and sold it 2 years later to Oscar and Esther Coins. The Coins couple resided in the house for some years and for some time it even look the name "Coins Hill. Some say that it also was a two-story brick house smaller and not as well built as the Vann House, Its second floor had lately been used for a ballroom.

      The Coins built a one-story frame building on the same spot and added a kitchen to the north side of the Vann House. They also constructed a large barn west of the house across the road. On the interior, Mrs. From until Mr. Owens technically owned the house although Mrs.

      Dill continued to live there for a time Mr. Kemp bought the house in and his family moved in the following year. Dooley was me owner from until and sold it to jW Sellers. Bradford, who bought the house in , owned the house longer than anyone-even the Vanns. Bradford used the house for rental purposes as had several of the earlier owners. Countless people occupied tile house during this era. Among those remembered are the W. Roberts, W. Blassingame, Pritchett. Over the years all the Vann plantation buildings had disappeared and the porches on the house itself had been changed several times.

      By the house was in very poor condition. The roof was gone; parts of the floor had collapsed; the brick arches over the doors had cracked; and every window pane had been shattered by vandals. Therefore, various groups began discussing the possibilities of restoring the Vann House as a shrine to the Cherokees. The Chatsworth Lions Club sent a committee to see Dr. Bradford in hopes of obtaining an option to purchase the house if Bradford were not going to restore it himself After the committee was turned down, V.

      Pickering, a state official, offered to buy the place. He too was refused. Then in a Chamber of Commerce which became Chatsworth Enterprises, was founded. The group's officers, consisting of President J. Sr and Secretary-Treasurer R. Chambers, comprised a Vann House Restoration Committee. For 2 years these men tried to interest Dr. Bradford in a plan to restore the rapidly deteriorating Vann House, but could not do so.

      Bradford to sell the property. Joe Mahan met with the committee, examined the Vann House, and agreed that Dr. Kelly would talk with Dr. When the two met, Dr. Bradford explained why he had refused earlier offers. The Doctor felt that those groups which were financially able to carry out the project were more interested in making a profit than in preserving the landmark and that those who cared the most did not have the resources needed.

      He had been particularly bothered by a proposal by a Dalton group which said "The Vann House, in its present location, would never pay back its restorers. Therefore ,. Bradford told Dr. Kelly that he would consider the new proposal. In the meantime Mrs. Sidney H. Gertrude Ruskin of Decatur, a leader in the District Womans Club, unaware of the efforts already underway, called a public meeting for October 10, for the purpose of acquiring the Vann House.

      The result of this meeting was that the committee, now including Dr. Kelly, could arrange for an option to purchase the Vann House in the name of the Georgia Historical Commission, newly created by the Legislature to take important landmarks out of private hands for public ownership. Kelly visited Dr. Bradford on December 27, and left with a handwritten "Memorandum of Agreement for option for Purchase of Vann House It is agreed that the owner will give an option to purchase of this property for the cash payment of six thousand dollars, of which the owner will give one thousand dollars.

      During the next six months many people across the state worked many hours to raise the needed 4, Kelly worked in Athens, Mrs. Ruskin, Mrs. Kooert Jones, and Mr. Her students pooled their nickels to make a contribution to the cause. Chambers and Mr. Kenemer called a meeting of interested citizens in Dalton on February Bandy of Dalton was elected president and became the driving force behind the Vann House Restoration.

      She was joined by Mr. Kenemer, Odell Ingle, Mrs. Sapp, Mrs. Gregory, Miss Mary Louise Horan. Blanche Gardner, and the original committee in fund-raising efforts. The restoration began. After making emergency repairs the Historical Commission and the Historical Society began researching to find information about the house and its original owners. Brick walkways were uncovered along with signs of a kitchen, a guesthouse, and an office to the east of the house.

      In a year-old cabin of Indian origin was reconstructed on the site of the Vann "harness and tack" shop. South of the house were a blacksmith shop and stables as well as a garden. Slave cabins were probably located farther south. The carriage drive was uncovered on the north side and marked the original entrance to the house. The site of the brick kilns where the bricks for the house were made was uncovered near the Bradford Spring. Since the Vann House was the first project either of the historical groups had undertaken, progress on the house itself was slower. Odell Ingle was selected to be the contractor for the repairs as designed by restoration architect Henry Forman of Easton.

      Frum a painting of the house as it was in , the men learned that the house had originally had gabled porches though later owners had changed them several times. The porches were rebuilt; the more recent kitchen addition was removed; plaster was replaced; missing hinges and locks were reproduced; damaged flooring was replaced; broken glass was replaced; and original doors, trim and wainscoting were copied.

      Interior decorator Marjorie Rhodes spent hours scraping through layers of paint and wallpaper 19 in some places to find the original colors of the woodwork. The house was then repainted with the colors of nature-blue for the sky, green for the grass and trees, yellow for ripened grain, and red for the rich Georgia clay. A safety rod was added to the mysterious hanging or floating stairway, the oldest example of cantilevered construction in Georgia, but workmen did not discover the secret of the stairway which originally had no visible means of support.

      Cherokee Roses adorn the house both inside and out. Furnishing the house was not an easy task. Other pieces were purchased or donated and loaned by other individuals. Finally by July 27, the house was ready for a great day of dedication. Some 42 descendants of the Vann family and dignitaries from across the country gathered on the hill to hear addresses by Secretary of State Ben Fortson and Governor Marvin Griffin. More than 6, people visited the house that day. In the course of the restoration and during research since that time, many important facts about the house have been uncovered and legends proven false.

      The bricks were made on the farm; only the glass had to be brought from Savannah. New York, and Savannah where he saw the type of furnishings he wanted. Robert Howell, an Englishman, was the brick mason. Moravian missionaries Byhan and Schneider, both excellent craftsmen, helped build the house. Their influence is particularly evident in the Christian doors whose top contains a cross and whose bottom represents an open Bible.

      There is no secret passageway from the third floor to the basement and the third floor coffin-shaped rooms were bedrooms for the children, not secret council rooms. The only secret compartments in the house are drawers beneath two windows in the dining room which were used for storing silver and tableware.

      The basement was sometimes used as a prison for slaves that misbehaved while another room was a storage area and wine cellar. Bandy hoped to find the grave of James Vann and move the remains to Spring Place. Heard of Forsyth County remembered seeing the grave as a child. Located in the Blackburn cemetery near the tavern where Vann was killed, the cemetery was later used as a Negro burial ground. In Mrs. Heard had described the area where the grave was.

      Three years later Mrs. Bandy, Raymond Vann a descendant , and two experienced excavators looked for the exact spot. Eventually a grave site was found and excavated. Several buttons, nails, screws, a buckle, and two rings were found along with the skeleton. Authorities with the Historical Commission examined the evidence and felt that the remains were those of a male, but were much too recent to be those of James Vann. Bandy was firmly convinced that they were the remains of Mr. Vann and buried a small box of the Forsyth County ashes at the Vann House, a small disiance southwest of the reconstructed cabin.

      Since several improvements have been made at the beautiful historic site which has been under the operation of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Parks and Historic Sites Division since the Historical Commission was abolished in Soon after the dedication additional furniture reproductions were placed in the house and in a log kitchen was reconstructed just east of the house.

      Due to structural and historical problems the building was dismantled in In five more acres of land were purchased from the Bradford Estate and in fifteen additional acres, including the springs, were obtained. Lightning protection was installed in and in that same decade a security system, window light shields, new draperies and upholstery, and further landscaping were added to the house and site. A climate-control system designed to preserve the house and furniture has since been installed.

      Several paint jobs and repair work have kept the National Register of Historic Places site looking grand. In the house was included in a Georgia Historic Homes cookbook and has been featured in countless periodicals and on television and radio. E, Chambers donated his papers relating to the purchase and restoration to the site in Several special programs have brought additional attention to the Vann House in recent years. For several years students from Spring Place Elementary School performed a drama highlighting President Monroe's visit and the eviction of the Vanns.

      Dunn and Frances Townsend directed these plays. In two annual events were begun-Vann House Days in July in commemoration of the restoration and the Moravian Christmas featuring candlelight tours. Local volunteers and groups such as the Garden Club, Woman's Club, the Sheriffs Auxiliary, and the Historical Society have contributed to the success of these programs. Ellis was the first curator of the Vann House. Present Superintendent James E.

      Hall and his wife Pat have cared for the site and greeted guests for 15 and 20 years respectively. Today, the Federal-style mansion boasts a sleigh bed from Carters Quarter, a table that is said to have been used by Alexander Stephens and novelist Will Harbin, a canopy bed that was possibly owned by General P. McCamy of Dalton. However, it is more; it's the Showplace of Murray County. However, their greatest contribution to the Cherokees was their sponsorship of the Moravian Mission at Spring Place.

      Dedicated missionaries labored in the Cherokee Nation for more than three decades and from their diaries we have much information about the days before Murray County was drawn on the map. The Moravian Church traces its origin to the pre-Reformation awakening led by John Hus and was formally organized as the Unity of the Brethren in Because much of its early history centered in Moravia the Brethren's Church later came to be called the Moravian Church.

      Persecution and wars reduced the Brethren to a few scattered remnants in Central Europe until when the church was revived in Saxony. Within 10 years the reorganized Moravians launched into a world-wide foreign mission program. Among the teachings and practices of the Moravian church include Infant Baptism. Confirmation, and missions. It is a Protestant church with evangelical emphasis on salvation through faith in Jesus Christ as personal Savior. Subscribing to the Apostle's Creed, the Moravian Church is life-centered rather than creed-centered, however.

      Noted for beautiful music, love feasts, and historic preservation, the Moravians follow the motto; "In essentials unity; in non-essentials liberty; in all things charity. When war broke out between the colonists and the Spanish in Florida, the Moravians resettled in Pennsylvania in Some of the group returned to the South in and made North Carolina their home.

      By the end of that century Salem and Wachovia had become thriving Moravian communities. In Martin Schneider had tried to begin a work among the Cherokees, but the chiefs, busy with other matters, did not have time to discuss the mission with him. Christian Frederic de Schweinitz volunteered to go with him, but when they reached the Cherokee capital in Tennessee, the chiefs were on a hunting expedition.

      The next year the two men were more successful. Through the influence of Charles Hick, a half-blood interpreter, and James Vann, the ministers were granted permission to establish the long-desired mission on land provided by Mr. In Rev. Steiner and young Gottleib Byhan rode horseback to Spring Place to begin the first mission in a small cabin built with their own hands. Three months later a Mr. Brown vacated his farm and the brethren moved there. Due to the longevity of the mission, the meticulous ministers accumulated volumes of records now in the Moravian Archives at Salern.

      Some of the materials have never been translated from the original German. The Moravians began their diaries with many descriptions of the geographic and natural features of the area. In addition to identifying the various springs, the writers listed the many types of plants and trees which grew in the area.

      In early days the name was often spelled in one word-Springplace-but as the years passed many people, particularly the white men, changed the name to Spring Place. Additional information about the Vanns and other Indians is given, such as the fact that the due] between James Vann and John Falling occurred near Spring Place.

      Falling and his wife Nancy lived near Coosawattee where several Indian ballgames were held. Also, several Indians and whites made "Sumach Town" their home. The Brethren were as amazed or confused by the Vann family tree as many present-day genealogists. The Moravians mention many Vanns by name and record that Wawli, James Vann's mother, had several sisters, while Clement Vann had at least one. Wawli also had several daughters besides Nancy Falling, including Jenny Brown who lived near the mission for a time.

      Also noted is that as James built his new house, his mother, who had been living near the construction site, planned to move 3 miles away! The brethren recorded that Joseph Vann entered their school in but often accompanied his father on trips and therefore was absent a great deal. After James' death. Margaret Scott Vann, Joseph's mother, moved away from the brick mansion to a new house about 1 mile away.