Observations: The beauty of having a constructivist, student-directed classroom? This freedom allows you to be a fly on the wall, gathering data on individual students: How well are they making sense of the content? Interacting with others? Are they struggling with a learning activity? Such data from observations then leads us to adjust pacing for the whole class or scaffold for those students who are still struggling. Projects, Essays, and Exams: Summative assessments, such as literary analysis essays or end-of-unit science exams, allow us to measure the growth of individual and whole-group learning.
Much information is found in these files. Here are some notable examples:. Perhaps prior to eighth grade, the child had been an A student and then started earning Ds and Fs. You can express concern about this, sharing the data with them. One student told me that she just gave up on school when her dad went to prison. Apart from the need for training, both students and teachers indicate that a strong and competent IT team would contribute to the success of this academic innovation.
This study contributes to the existing literature in several respects. First, the goal of this study was to unravel the perceptions of important stakeholders on the use of tablet devices in secondary education. While investigating perceptions is necessary to analyse the use of technological innovations in education [ 15 , 16 ], specific research that goes further than relatively short-time research, including the influence of the novelty effect when introducing tablet devices, is lacking.
Besides the need of investigating teacher perceptions [ 14 , 15 ]; the perspective of secondary school learners remains under-researched [ 43 , 46 ]. More research is needed to unpack the potential of these devices, more specifically research that goes further than the sales hype [ 6 ]. Thus, examining the perceptions of both teachers and students after a considerable time of intensive tablet use is desirable. In order to elaborate existing research, an explorative focus group study was conducted in the first iPad-school in Flanders where the tablet is used in daily teaching and learning practices.
As the results for the first research question have shown, this study confirms that perceptions on any educational innovation will influence its practical integration [ 10 , 16 , 17 ], and that teachers are key to the success of the implementation of technology in schools [ 14 , 19 , 20 ]. The results for the first research question are in line with previous research of Becker et al. Indeed, the results of current study indicate that the teachers using tablet devices can be distinguished into two categories, which has clear consequences for teaching and learning practices.
Innovative teachers attempt to shift from a teacher-centred to a learning-centred innovative approach, integrating educational applications during courses. In addition, these two types of teachers can be related to Welliver' s instructional transformation model [ 25 ]. Instrumental teachers can be linked to teachers, who stuck in using tablets without a fundamental change in teaching and learning approaches, who use technology as a functional improvement to enhance learning.
Innovative teachers can be linked to the highest level of technology integration whereas teachers use tablet devices to transform learning , which opens teaching and learning practices which were previously inconceivable. Taken together, the results show that the introduction of innovative technology seems to provoke conservative practices among teachers with an instrumental view as they adopt a stringent role and give traditional courses with a tablet device. This is somewhat contrary to the overall intention of introducing tablet devices; instead of revolutionising education, to the tablet strengthened the old educational structures.
This consolidation underlines the importance of switching to digital didactics where the tablet device is integrated in such a way that it is used to its full potential during lessons. Secondly, findings concerning the second research question of this study corroborate the educational potential of these devices, such as browsing the Internet, working together spontaneously, and using multimedia for a better understanding the course content. Results confirm that tablet devices comprise learning activities that were previously not possible [ 7 , 31 , 33 ], making the device an asset to the learning process.
Students in this study reported that in particular the innovative teachers use tablet devices to provide authentic learning experiences and where they can construct and share knowledge in a media-rich environment, which is in line with the little available research [ 5 , 7 , 35 , 45 ]. However, both the students and innovative teachers also remarked that the introduction of tablet devices entails a shift in learning, for which not all students are ready.
Younger students appear to be more flexible in respect to learning through devices, while it seems difficult for older students to change their study habits. This opens avenues for further research. Thirdly, the fact that the older students in this study advise teachers to improve their didactical skills in order to master tablet devices is a new phenomenon in the research literature. This finding highlights the importance of taking into account the perceptions of students when investigating the introduction of new technology into education [ 43 ].
Most teachers reported feeling abandoned by publishers due to the lack of adequate teaching material appropriate for the tablet devices.
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If editors cannot follow or provide adapted digital material, teachers are under pressure to adopt the role of academic authors, which, in turn, generates a heavy workload and ambivalence about the integration of tablet devices into courses. Policy makers should take into account the lack of adequate teaching materials because this deficiency will be an obstacle for schools to implement this technology successfully.
Hence, publishers also have a certain responsibility in facilitating the success of these educational innovations. Without appropriate equipment, many teachers will simply use the device in an instrumental way. Fifthly, more attention should be paid to the formal and informal professional development of teachers to support them in this educational reformation [ 31 ]. This finding can be linked to the e-capacity framework of Vanderlinde and van Braak [ 42 ], describing that educational change depends on important school-level variables such as an adequate ICT-support team, infrastructure and teacher professional courses.
Introducing new technology into education generates a simultaneous need for professionalization. Aside from professionalization and the need for adapted teaching materials, teachers need time to become familiar with these new devices. To conclude, this study shows that certain supporting conditions must be in place when implementing technological educational tools [ 7 ]. In sum, policy makers and educators should take the possible pitfalls into account mentioned in this study so lessons can be drawn in order to ensure the smoother future implementation of this technology.
Avoiding such pitfalls will facilitate the development of new teaching and learning practices in accordance with the needs of the current digital age. Apart from qualitative research being an excellent method to gather information about perceptions in depth, some limitations could be formulated. For example, data are collected from a few individual cases and based on first-person perspectives. However, we believe that these findings have an added value to the research world in several respects and that they can be transferable to other innovative settings.
In addition, only perceptions of the participants are examined in this study, while these results challenge teaching practices and the development of learning materials in future research it would be interesting to investigate the impact of such tablets on teaching and learning practices.
Additional empirical research is needed to gain further insight into the impact of modern technology on teaching and learning. Future research will be conducted to answer didactic questions such as: how should tablet devices be implemented in class contexts and does the use of tablet computers increase motivation and achievement among students? Research on this topic is still an unexplored area, requiring further in-depth studies.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Dec 7. Andrew R. Dalby, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jun 24; Accepted Nov This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
Introduction Information and communication technology is a principal driver in our Information Society [ 1 ] of which the immediate consequences for educational practice can be observed [ 2 ]. In order to answer the above mentioned problem statement focusing on the impact of tablet devices towards teaching and learning practices, the present study explores the following questions: How do teachers and students experience the role of the teacher following the introduction of tablet devices in the classroom setting?
Method Context A qualitative focus group study was conducted in the first secondary school in Flanders the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium that has implemented tablet devices iPads into the whole school and classroom organisation. Table 1 Semi-structured interview of students and teachers. Open in a separate window. Ethics Statement This research is in line with the general ethical protocol for scientific research of the Ghent University. Results The results are reported following the three research questions.
RQ 1: How do teachers and students experience the role of the teacher following the introduction of tablet devices in the classroom setting? Fig 1. Fig 2. RQ 2: What are the perceptions of both teachers and students towards this change in learning practices? Fig 3.
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RQ 3: What are the perceptions on the conditions that support these teaching and learning practices? Fig 4. Fig 5. Discussion and Conclusion This study contributes to the existing literature in several respects. Limitations and Further Research Apart from qualitative research being an excellent method to gather information about perceptions in depth, some limitations could be formulated.
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Funding Statement The authors have no support or funding to report. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper. References 1. Kozma RB. Teaching and learning in digital environments: The resurgence of Resource-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development.
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Managing learning in virtual settings: The role of context. Hershey, PA: Idea Group; Pelgrum W. Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: results from a worldwide educational assessment. Melhuish K, Falloon G. Looking to the future: M-learning with the iPad. Falloon G. Young students using iPads: App design and content influences on their learning pathways. Clark W, Luckin R.
What the research says iPads in the classroom. London: Institute of Education University of London; Hattie J. Visible learning: A synthesis of over meta-analyses relating to achievement NY: Routledge; Linn MC. Learning and instruction in science education: Taking advantage of technology In Tobin D.
International handbook of science education. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer; Stoddart T, Niederhauser DS. Technology and educational change. Computers in the Schools. Can integrated instructional technology transform the classroom? Educational Leadership. Yelland N. Changing worlds and new curricula in the knowledge era. Educational Media International.
Journal of Computer Assisted Learning , ; 25 5 , — Vanderlinde R, van Braak J. Fullan M. Niederhauser D, Stoddart T. Teaching and Teacher Education. Educational reform, personal practical theories and, dissatisfaction. American Educational Research Journal.
Ghaith G, Yaghi H.
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Relationships among experience, teacher efficacy, and attitude toward the implementation of instructional innovation. Journal of Teaching and Teacher Education. Considerable evidence shows that shortages historically have disproportionately impacted our most disadvantaged students and that those patterns persist today. Nationally, in —14, on average, high-minority schools had four times as many uncertified teachers as low-minority schools. These inequities also exist between high-poverty and low-poverty schools.
When there are not enough teachers to go around, the schools with the fewest resources and least desirable working conditions are the ones left with vacancies. There are many policy decisions that can be made to relieve teacher shortages. These are generally aimed either at increasing the attractions to teaching or lowering the standards to become a teacher. Short-term solutions may temporarily curb the fear of empty classrooms, but, as the authors found, they can often exacerbate the problem over the long haul.
For example, if teachers are hired without having been fully prepared, the much higher turnover rates that result are costly in terms of both dollars spent on the replacement process and decreases in student achievement in high-turnover schools. Long-term solutions focusing on recruitment and retention can ease the shortage while also prioritizing student learning and a strong teacher workforce.
See sidebar for full list of recommendations. The teacher shortage provides an opportunity for the United States to take a long-term approach, as was done in medicine more than half a century ago, to mitigating current shortages while establishing a comprehensive and systematic set of strategies to build a strong teaching profession.
At first, the pricetag for these investments may seem substantial, but evidence suggests that these proposals would ultimately save far more in reduced costs for teacher turnover and student underachievement.
Preventing and solving teacher shortages so that all children receive high-quality instruction is essential in a 21st-century economy for the success of individuals, as well as for society as a whole. A Coming Crisis in Teaching? Teacher Supply, Demand, and Shortages in the U. Research in this area of work is funded in part by the S.
Bechtel, Jr. Skip to main content. Recommendations Based on research reviewed on what matters for recruiting and retaining teachers, policies should focus on: Creating competitive, equitable compensation packages that allow teachers to make a reasonable living across all kinds of communities: Leverage more competitive and equitable salaries so districts serving high-need students have a fair shot at recruiting well-qualified educators.
Create incentives that make living as a teacher more affordable, including housing supports, childcare supports, and opportunities to teach or mentor after retirement to more effectively recruit and retain teachers.