After the burning of the Reichstag Brecht fled to Vienna; he attended the meeting at Sanary-sur-mer of exiled writers, and thence moved to Denmark, to the province of Svendborg, where he watched events in Germany most closely. A-Z 43 The view that Brecht, deprived of a theatre, turned his attention to formulating a Marxist aesthetic of drama, a theoretically determined system, is erroneous: the subsequent theorizing was an attempt to explain to himself as well as to others how it happened that this or that particular work had been written and produced in a particular way.
His theoretical writings reflect the way in which he meditated upon his own work: there is nothing rigid nor inflexibly ideological about his speculation. The tone is light, frequently wryly humorous, often curious, but always allowing for movement and renewal; a rare intelligence is at work which questions, worries, retreats, adapts and restates.
The Messingkauf dialogues, a four-handed conversation piece, relate more directly to theatrical problems, and stress above all the need for lightness of touch, Spiel, and a kind of elegance in acting which contains sobriety within it. The rapier thrust is preferred to the sabre blow, the elliptical precision of Chinese art to Germanic ponderousness and an athletic form of acting to the pretentiously histrionic.
This was to be the play with which the Berliner Ensemble opened in ; it has remained in the repertoire ever since and has been staged by the leading theatres throughout the world. Every scene, and there are twelve of them, is supposed to stand as a self-contained unit indeed, in theory they should be virtually interchangeable , but a cumulative effect is undeniable, and there are moments that are conventionally dramatic, which enthral, rather than alienate, the audience.
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Brecht did not approve of the reactions of the audience after the first performance: in notes to the play he added certain modifications which were intended to emphasize the more negative qualities of the central character. He had been forced, he A companion to twentieth-century german literature 44 claimed, to overstate the differences between the conventional theatre and his own in order that certain abuses be rectified: there was nothing sacrosanct or dogmatic about his suggestions. As early as Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny he had, in fact, stressed that an overschematic differentiation between dramatic and epic was unsuitable: it was simply a matter of emphasis.
In he had written a conventional play—admittedly not one of his best—on Aristotelian lines, Die Gewehre der Frau Carrar, which provided opportunity for splendid acting on the part of the heroine. Brecht turned on the critics and admonished them to look at his plays as plays, without preconceived ideas or theories. His initial concern was to show Galileo as a man determined to live, whose cunning recantation enables the truth to be heard despite the strictures of the Church. The issues are intellectual, but the play provides magnificent theatre, especially in the scene of the dressing of the Pope, the transformation of man to institution as each layer of clothing is added.
The Soviet purges sickened him, as did the American situation: the work on the film Hangmen Also Die with Fritz Lang made him entirely disillusioned with the American film industry. The theme of goodness occupied him once again, but the basic theme concerns the rightness of giving the child or the disputed land to those best able to tend or cultivate it. The play is most successful in the portrayal of the judge Azdak, a figure compounded of the vitality and amoral zest of Baal, of Puntila and, to a lesser extent, of Galileo himself.
Brecht returned to Europe at the end of The setting up of his own Theater am Schiffbauerdamm brought little comfort: the Berliner Ensemble was boycotted by the orthodox critics, the workers made up only a small percentage of the audience, and government pressure was brought to bear at every point. It is perhaps significant that Brecht wrote nothing of original merit for the theatre after his return to East Berlin; he adapted, produced and modified, turning his attention, amongst other things, to Waiting for Godot and Pineapple Poll.
He withdrew again into poetry and wrote, in the Buckower Elegien, some of his finest. With economy, grace and sobriety he evoked a world of trees and water, silence and serenity, far from the turmoil of Berlin. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 46 Brinkmann, Rolf Dieter —75 Brinkmann, whose early death in a road accident on a visit to London put an end to a career which may or may not have been in the doldrums, began in association with the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Elsner, etc.
Never political, he combined crude vitalism, linguistic virtuosity and an obsession with the surface detail of everyday life; only the last of these features, however, was taken up and developed by others e. While his poetry already seems dated and undisciplined, his final major prose work Rom. Blicke may prove to be a seminal work in its combination of verbal and photographic commentary, besides maintaining the strong German tradition of literature portraying the metropolis.
Britting, Georg — Poet, playwright and writer of narrative prose, Britting started to write after the First World War he was badly wounded in He collaborated on many expressionist journals Die rote Erde, Der Sturmreiter, Der silberne Spiegel and edited his own, Die Sichel, with Josef Achmann, who contributed the graphic designs. Britting greatly admired Georg Heym; he also wrote grotesque versions of biblical themes Hiob, Kain, Jor auf der Flucht, etc. During the Second World War Britting turned increasingly to nature poetry, leaving behind the excesses of expressionism and the parodistic elements of Hamlet.
Lob des Weines, a collection of twenty poems, appeared in more were added after the war Britting turned to traditional themes and structures, although his imagery remained fresh and striking. Broch insisted upon an intellectualization of the novel, on working out, by sheer intellectual effort, the troubles of the world. Theoretical essays alternated with works of imagination: philosophical, mass-psychological and socio-economic investigations return ultimately to a religious realization of the fallenness of man; the inability to love is the root cause, for Broch, of human unhappiness.
Both Broch and Musil embarked upon vast novels that would encompass the problems of the age, combining rationalism and mysticism. The Schlafwander trilogy —2 , encyclopedic and polyhistorical novels, have as their concern the disintegration of values and the decay of European civilization in the period — The first, Pasenow oder die Romantik, has been compared with Fontane, but the secure ground of the nineteenth century has been left far behind: the age seems bent on radical solutions, and the symbol of the uniform seems an apt one. The second, Esch oder die Anarchie, portrays the insubstantiality of the existence of the small book-keeper Esch, who is able neither to escape from Europe nor to come to terms with it; the third, Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit, portrays violence and anarchic forces which destroy the narcissistic world of the heroine.
The realization of the helplessness of the word when faced by the unspeakable will be a concern of many writers in the twentieth century, especially in German-speaking countries. The fourth novel, Die Schuldlosen , treats twentieth-century themes and uses certain dates , and as points of reference: the dangers of solipsism are analysed with considerable sensitivity. The novel is uncomfortably suspended between political allegory and romantic myth. The character of Mutter Gisson with her Demeterlike qualities fails to convince, the symbolism being forced and obtrusive, but the description of mass psychology is masterful.
The speculative study on A companion to twentieth-century german literature 48 Massenpsychologie stands comparison with the essay Masse und Macht by Elias Canetti as one of the most perceptive analyses of the relationship between the individual self and the corporate whole. Broch, of Jewish parentage, was arrested when the Nazis invaded Austria, but was released on the intervention of writers like James Joyce.
He settled in America and wrote his last novels there. The Gesammelte Schriften ten vols appeared between and reprinted ; the Kommentierte Werkausgabe 13—17 vols appeared from to His early story Tod den Toten! As a Jew, Brod became a Zionist in , and he became especially interested in the more conservative faith of his co-religionists from the eastern provinces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Brod emigrated to Tel Aviv in and died there in In that year his autobiography Streitbares Leben appeared, which contains enlightening references to Kafka and also to Franz Werfel, of whose conversion to Christianity see Das Lied von Bernadette Brod did not approve. He produced three volumes of war poetry, Aus meiner Kriegszeit.
Gedichte , Kamerad, als wir marschierten. Kriegsgedichte and Soldaten der Erde. Neue Kriegsgedichte A war novel, Bunker Geschichte einer Kameradschaft , was widely read it was translated into English as Pillbox Gesamtausgabe der Gedichte in Eine Auswahl der Gedichte appeared in Bronnen, Arnolt originally Bronner, — Dramatist and novelist, Bronnen was one of the most extreme of the young talented writers who made the opening years of the Weimar Republic a fascinating and often disturbing experience. His play Vatermord written in , performed in Berlin in was the first of many scandals that surrounded his name; the portrayal of brutal violence and uninhibited sexuality outraged the audience.
Die Geburt der Jugend is a chaotic description of anarchic youth; the older generation is annihilated by sexually demented adolescents. In his comedy Die Exzesse the erotic desires of the woman, Hildegarde, find satisfaction in contemplation of intercourse with a goat. Katalaunische Schlacht looks back to the war as a time of frenzied and erotic ecstasy. Rheinische Rebellen is an overtly nationalist play; Ostpolzug , a monodrama, fuses ancient and modern in its portrayal of Alexander the Great.
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The novel O. Bronnen worked for the film industry in the s, also the Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft. His relations with the Nazis were, however, strained. His autobiography Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll appeared in ; Tage mit Brecht posthumously in Bruckner, Ferdinand pseudonym of Theodor Tagger, — Primarily a dramatist, Bruckner achieved fame in with his play Krankheit der Jugend, a crass and naturalistic portrayal of adolescent sexuality, much indebted to Freud. Bruckner used techniques made famous by Erwin Piscator; his greatest success was Elisabeth von England , where the stage is again split between the two realms, Catholic Madrid and Protestant London, with both antagonists praying to the same god for victory.
Bruckner also turned his attention, with less success, to classical themes Timon and Pyrrhus und Andromache perf. A very successful play was Die Rassen , one which exploits the generation conflict and also the tension between Jew and Aryan. Bruckner emigrated to America in and returned to Europe in , spending the last years of his life in Berlin. Dramatische Werke and Schauspiele nach historischen Studien were both published in An edition of Dramen appeared in Brust was helped by Kurt Wolff; he lived in isolation in Memel and moved to Cranz after the Lithuanian occupation.
Brust shares with many expressionists a predilection for crass and often shocking climaxes. Brust turned towards a portrayal of pseudoreligious experiences in a series of other plays Cordatus. He died in obscurity, isolation and poverty at the age of forty-three; the Nazis initially tolerated his writing, believing him to be an acceptable poet of East Prussian life, although later his work was condemned as degenerate.
The Dramen — ed. Horst Denkler appeared in Since then he has written stories Ein schwarzer, abgrundtiefer See , extended and Babylon and novels which concentrate on human foibles and idiosyncrasies in domestic and professional contexts, although social and political pressures, implicitly criticized, are present in various forms.
Essays Kritiken Glossen Unpolitische Betrachtungen zu Literatur und Politik demonstrate individual interests Haiti, Alejo Carpentier and more general concerns of his generation ecology, post-history, apocalypse , the latter present also in Bericht aus dem Innern der Unruhe. Gorlebener Tagebuch , on demonstrations against nuclear power. Central to the rest of his work is his relationship to the American continent and in particular Haiti, which he visited for the first time in and where he has ancestral links.
In the reportages Aus der neuen Welt. Afro-amerikanische Impressionen An informative document on Burckhardt is the Festschrift which appeared on his seventieth birthday, Dauer im Wechsel Burger, Hermann —89 Burger studied in Zurich, wrote dissertations on Paul Celan and contemporary Swiss literature and taught for a while at the Federal Technical University in Zurich. His chief works, Schilten.
Burger shares with the Austrian Thomas Bernhard and with other contemporary Swiss writers e. Meyer the theme of death as the ultimate threat to personal identity, which he treats with an even greater degree of linguistic virtuosity and reflective intensity. He committed suicide in Brunsloben and Menzenmang volume I and volume II, chapters 1—7 of the planned tetralogy Brenner on the scion of a cigar manufacturing dynasty in search of his childhood appeared in and Der unsichtbare Held, a Nibelungen drama, appeared in the same year.
A companion to twentieth-century german literature 54 Burte published poems in Alemannic dialect Madlee ; a further anthology appeared in Die Seele des Maien. Burte received much acclaim for his work, the Kleist prize for Wildfeber and other distinctions during the Third Reich. The sinologist Peter Kien, obsessed by his own private library, and retreating ever further into a state of solipsism, is ultimately destroyed by fire, ancient symbol of transformation.
The other characters, Pfaff, Theresa Krumbholz and Fischerle, are also utterly self-centred and convinced of their own importance. The idea for the novel came to Canetti in when he witnessed the burning of the Palace of Justice by a mob in Vienna. Canetti moved to Paris in and to London in the following year. In he published Masse und Macht, a sociological, anthropological study of crowds and power: here fire is interpreted as a symbol for the crowd. A collection of aphorisms made between and , Aufzeichnungen, appeared in Das Geheimnis der Uhr.
Aufzeichnungen — appeared in In Canetti was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 56 Carossa, Hans — Son of a doctor, Hans Carossa studied medicine in Munich and Leipzig, then settled as a medical practitioner in Bavaria. Verwandlungen einer Jugend is a less successful sequel. The novel Geheimnisse des reifen Lebens uses the diary form to explore human relationships. After the war Carossa attempted to explain his situation at that time in Ungleiche Welten Further autobiographical details of his life appeared in Aufzeichnungen aus Italien ; a scattering of short stories appeared in the s.
In his work Carossa eschews modernist experimentation; he appealed to the educated middle-class German reader with his cultivation of humanistic values derived from Goethe. Unlike his parents Celan escaped deportation when his home was occupied by the Nazis, but awareness of the Holocaust is at the centre of his work, his approach to the problems of language and communication in general long a preoccupation of writers from the linguistic melting-pot of Central Europe and the Balkans being linked to the impossibility of conveying the extreme physical and existential exposure of the persecuted.
These, together with translations of twentyone sonnets by Shakespeare and poems by Char, Supervielle, Michaux, Yessenin, Mandelstam, Block and others, were assembled in the provisional Gesammelte Werke in five volumes. Despite the increasing number of exegeses see the Celan-Jahrbuch: — there is still uncertainty on the question whether his work may be interpreted by reference to the Bible and the esoteric Judaism in which he was partly educated, or whether it represents an ever more private exploration and probing of language and its elements on the edge of silence.
He was a man of mystical tendency whose experience of the Holocaust placed obstacles in the way to religious enlightenment; the distortion and reversal of normal syntactical relationships which are a marked feature of his work are related to this central paradox. However, he remained attached to Jewish culture, as is evident especially in late poems set in Jerusalem. Gesammelte Werke five volumes appeared in Chotjewitz, Peter O. His defence of members of the Baader-Meinhof group during the seventies influenced along with Kafka the fragmentary novel Die Herren des Morgengrauens He has also produced works which owe their origin to experiences in Italy Malavita.
Mafia zwischen A companion to twentieth-century german literature 58 gestern und morgen and Briganten , a play on Mayakovsky Weltmeisterschaft im Klassenkampf and radio plays. Csokor, Franz Theodor — Csokor is known primarily as an Austrian expressionist dramatist. After Csokor fled into eastern Europe; he was finally arrested in Yugoslavia, and interned. A selection of his works, Du bist gemeint, with a foreword by Erhard Buschbeck, appeared in The Zeuge einer Zeit.
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Ein paar Schaufeln Erde. Czechowski, Heinz — Czechowski witnessed the destruction of Dresden, which became the subject of several poems and autobiographical sketches. His melancholy free verse belongs to a tradition of nature poetry which originates in the eighteenth century and is imbued with an awareness of how his predecessors have responded to the same mainly Saxon landscapes and the effects on them of industrial development.
In all these one can detect a movement from a positive depiction of everyday life in the GDR and a straightforward autobiographical approach to the expression of a more complex subjectivity, sceptical of conventional views of progress. Nachtspur consists of poems and prose from to His vast epic Das Nordlicht, which took him twelve years to write, was published in some thirty thousand lines long, it is a vast cosmogony, characterized by frequently bizarre neologisms.
The works that follow Das Nordlicht, particularly the collection of sketches Mit silberner Sichel , contain much talented writing: monstrous hyperbole gives way to an unsuspected delicacy. Dichtungen und Schriften appeared in , and Gedichte in In the following year his best-known work appeared, Ultra Violett. He travelled extensively; a collection of Novellen again, greatly influenced by Jugendstil topoi appeared in Die acht Gesichter am Biwasee.
Japanische Liebesgeschichten it was reprinted in and was extremely popular. In the same year his second novel, Raubmenschen, was published: the descriptions of Mexico and other countries are little more than travelogues. Dauthendey responded sensitively to the Orient and popularized the culture of the Far East: he was interned in Java during the First World War and died there.
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Erlebnisse aus Java and Letzte Reise appeared posthumously. His Gesammelte Werke six vols appeared in Degenhardt, Franz Josef — Degenhardt became known in the s as author, composer and performer to his own guitar accompaniment of protest songs, of which there have been numerous recordings and publications, incl. As a novelist he is associated with the realists published by the Autoren-Edition incl. Fuchs, Timm , who aim to raise political consciousness in a wide readership by showing how political forces impinge on the lives of ordinary people.
Dehmel, Richard — A student of the natural sciences, philosophy and economy, Dehmel took up writing in the Berlin of the s and reflected in his poetry the main preoccupations of the following two decades: Nietzscheanism, naturalism, impressionism, Jugendstil and a latent expressionism.
His poetry is marked by a powerful sensuality, compassion and a keen intellect. Dehmel stresses in many poems the joy to be found in sexual love, together with hope for true emancipation in the future. His work is at its best in the portrayal of sensuous love and in its sincere, humanitarian beliefs. Although exempt from enlistment due to injuries received at school after a fall from a horizontal bar , Dehmel joined the army in he was over 50 at the time : his experiences are described in Zwischen Volk und Menschheit Dehmel was in close contact with the major writers of his day; he contributed to the leading literary journals.
Gesammelte Werke ten vols appeared from to a three-volume selection in A posthumous autobiography, Mein Leben, was published in In appeared Dichtungen, Briefe, Dokumente. His awareness of the forces at work in contemporary society and of how their interaction affects individual lives underlies all his novels. In Adenauerplatz a security guard employed to watch over a shopping and business complex in an anonymous German city is forced to confront the contradictions of his position as a refugee from Chile after the fall of Allende when he is drawn into collusion with a plot by friends to burgle an international wheeler-dealer with a stake in the political status quo in South America; having become aware of the ramifications of Third World exploitation he decides to abandon his job and return to Chile.
Mogadischu Fensterplatz is a fictional treatment from the perspective of an ordinary passenger of the hijack carried out by members of the Baader-Meinhof group in Somalia in and reflects a deepening concern with Third World topics evident also in the work of Born and Timm. Die Birnen von Ribbeck , a story consisting of a single sentence seventy pages long, describes the impact of the opening of the Wall on a farm in provincial GDR made famous by a ballad of Fontane. The publication of Part One met with little interest, the exception being Karl Wolfskehl, who looked back on it with great pleasure during his New Zealand exile.
Das Werk six volumes was published in The first of these was much acclaimed and widely read; in crudely sensational terms it describes the poisoning of the blood of a German woman, Johanna, through once having had intercourse with a Jew. The child born to Johanna and her husband Hermann, both blond and Germanic, is dark and of Jewish appearance. Hermann kills the Jew and returns to find that his wife has killed the child and has committed suicide. A collection of Novellen appeared in , bearing the title of the first story, Die Ermordung einer Butterblume, an account of mental disturbance and, in fact, little more than a catalogue of neuroses.
Wallenstein two vols , which appeared in , deals with the historical figures of the Thirty Years War but also hints at wider issues—the role of the individual during a time of massive upheaval. Comparisons have been made with Manhattan Transfer and Ulysses Hans Henny Jahnn and others referred in their reviews to the Irish novelist : interior monologue, collage and montage convey the density as well as the fragmentary and elusive quality of life.
Biberkopf sinks from one stage of degradation to another: obstinate, gullible, and at times violent, he is crushed beneath a force stronger than he. Babylonische Wandrung curses the sin of pride and portrays with grotesque humour the passage of the hero through the Babylon of Western civilization in a journey of selfexploration and expiation. The work appears formless a fusion of mythology, history, modern events, statistical facts and popular songs , but an inexhaustible richness cannot be denied.
In he became a convert to Roman Catholicism and after the war he returned to Paris, working in the cultural department of the French military government his son Wolfgang had been killed in the war, fighting as a French soldier. Questions are asked concerning the possibility of responsible action and the ultimate meaning of human existence. Doderer, Heimito von — Born near Vienna, Doderer enlisted in the Austrian army as a young man and became a Russian prisoner of war in his novel Die Geheimnisse des Reichs , an account of the Russian civil war, is obviously based on his experiences he returned to Austria in Doderer studied history at Vienna University, received his doctorate in and dedicated himself to creating an epic description of the city he knew so well.
He had published a book of poems, Gassen und Landschaften, in , also a short novel, Die Bresche, in , but Doderer felt that he needed the breadth of the full-scale novel to do his subject Vienna justice. Other novels, Ein Mord, den jeder begeht , Der Umweg and Die erleuchteten Fenster , are best regarded as sophisticated detective stories and thrillers, meant for a wide readership.
The hero is one Melzer, former imperial officer, now senior official in the new republic. The years —11 and —5 are compared and contrasted. The book is felt to lack social awareness, despite the rich clutter A-Z 67 of its scenario. A certain pretentiousness cannot be denied here, also much implausibility the worker Leonhard Kakabsa, for example, who experiences Latin as an almost mystical illumination.
This novel is meant to be part of a cycle bearing the title Roman Nr. Der Grenzwald, a fragmentary part of this cycle, appeared posthumously in She made her final return to Germany in , since when she has lived in Heidelberg. She has also produced autobiographical writings, Von der Natur nicht vorgesehen , Aber die Hoffnung. Roman in Segmenten , revised version Her editorial work includes the anthology Nachkrieg und Unfrieden and Doppelinterpretationen , in which brief essays by readers and authors on poems by the latter are juxtaposed. The A companion to twentieth-century german literature 68 poetological reflections present in the introductions and epilogues to these volumes are continued in the Frankfurt lectures Das Gedicht als Augenblick der Freiheit Dorst, Tankred — Dorst served in the army at the end of the Second World War, was a POW until , then studied German literature, art and drama in Munich, where he has continued to live.
His plays since the early s are the result of a close working partnership with his wife Ursula Ehler. He then collaborated with the director Peter Zadek on the television film Rotmord , based on this play, and on the revue Kleiner Mann— was nun? The film scenario Sand , radio play , which explores the motives for a political murder in , was followed by A-Z 69 Eiszeit , on an old man who can be identified as the unrepentant Nazi sympathizer Knut Hamsun; with his stubborn will to live he is contrasted with his would-be assassin who commits suicide.
The late s were occupied with the Merz cycle, an extensive chronicle in various media of a middle-class family between the late s and the present consisting of Auf dem Chimborazo , play, radio play and television film , Dorothea Merz , novel and television film , Klaras Mutter , story and television film , Die Villa , play , Mosch , film , Fragment einer Reise nach Stettin , radio play , Die Reise nach Stettin , scenario and Heinrich oder die Schmerzen der Phantasie , play and radio play , which together form a vivid panorama of German history.
Karlos first performed is a version of the material made famous by Schiller in Don Carlos. Fernando Krapp hat mir diesen Brief geschrieben presents a woman between two constrasting men, Herr Paul , first performed a conflict between progress and stasis with surreal effects, as a young entrepreneur attempts to dislodge an old couple Paul and his sister from his new business premises.
Wie Dilldapp nach dem Riesen ging is another play. A Werkausgabe has been in progress since He returned to Vienna in and again took up legal practice. His prose works include the autobiographical Z. Drach can thus be associated with Lind, Hilsenrath and Tabori as an advocate of black humour in order to expose persecution in general and that of the Jews in particular. Oktoberlicht portrays a day in the life of a middle-aged woman who visits her scattered family after a stay in hospital; in Wer verteidigt Katrin Lambert?
Eingeschlossen , in which Jesus and Prometheus confront one another as a social worker and an atomic physicist who have become the inmates of a mental hospital, represents a significant departure from the naturalism of her previous work. For A-Z 71 many years he, together with Frisch, represented contemporary drama in German to the rest of the world. Early influences consisted of the theology absorbed at home—he was, especially in his early years, exercised by theological problems in what he recognized as a post-religious age and therefore approaches existentialism—and the plays of Thornton Wilder and Brecht.
In the context of the breakdown of ideological confrontation in the late s, the play appears unwittingly prophetic. His other writings include two volumes of Theaterschriften und Reden , , Der Mitmacher. A Werkausgabe in thirty volumes appeared in , Gesammelte Werke eight volumes in and Das dramatische Werk seventeen volumes in A Werkausgabe in seven volumes appeared in E Edschmid, Kasimir pseudonym of Eduard Schmid, — Edschmid studied Romance languages in Munich, Geneva, Paris and Strasbourg; he rapidly associated himself with the young writers of expressionism and became a tireless propagator and theoretician of that movement.
Er sieht nicht, er schaut. Er schildert nicht, er erlebt. Er gibt nicht wieder, er gestaltet. Er nimmt nicht, er sucht. Nun gibt es die Vision davon. In later life he wrote on expressionism again Lebendiger Expressionismus ; his diary Tagebuch —60 also contains reminiscences. Ehrenstein, Albert — Born in Vienna, son of Hungarian Jewish parents, Ehrenstein was discovered by Karl Kraus, who published his poems and grotesque prose sketches in Die kackel. Ehrenstein went to Switzerland during the First World War; he led a restless life afterwards, travelling through Europe and Asia in an attempt to find and cherish the finest manifestations of human civilization.
Ehrenstein fled to New York, where he died in a hospital for the poor in Gedichte und Prosa ed. Eich also achieved prominence in the s as the principal contributor, along with Ilse Aichinger, whom he married in , Ingeborg Bachmann and Wolfgang Weyrauch, to the renaissance of radio drama, composing some fifteen plays within the decade. In his treatise Negerplastik appeared, containing illustrations of African masks and statues. Einstein pleaded for a new three-dimensionality, finding in African carvings a sense of spatial structure similar to that created by cubism. Jahrhunderts sought to combine the assessment of primitivism with social awareness.
Einstein identified with the anarchists in the Spanish Civil War and fought with them; he returned to France, but was interned when the German armies invaded. Unable to return to Spain because of his previous involvement he committed suicide at Gave de Pau. Gesammelte Werke ed. A companion to twentieth-century german literature 76 Eisenreich, Herbert —86 Eisenreich lived in Vienna and Upper Austria, except for a period of war service, four years as a writer for the newspaper Die Zeit and the radio in the Federal Republic and a stay in France.
These and his novels show him to have been the last representative of a tradition of Austrian social fiction which reached its zenith in the work of Joseph Roth and Heimito von Doderer.
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Die abgelegte Zeit is the surviving fragment of a novel which originally had the title Sieger und Besiegte and presents from the standpoint of the efforts of a number of characters to adapt to the situation after the Second World War in the spirit advocated by a resigned and conciliatory Austrian general in the theory of retreat he devises in the last weeks of the war.
Elsner, Gisela —92 Elsner achieved fame and notoriety at a stroke with the award of the Formentor Prize for her first novel Die Riesenzwerge The gruesome, grotesque effects conveyed here by mainly concentrating on the meal rituals of the petty bourgeois family can be related to the distanced distortions evident in the work of Grass, Jakov Lind and the early Peter Weiss rather than to the Cologne realists Wellershoff, Herburger, Born with whom she was initially associated. They are less manifest in her later novels, but she remained primarily a satirist of contemporary social and domestic mores in the Federal Republic, viewed from the committed standpoint of a member of the West German Communist Party.
In Der Nachwuchs the narrator is a repulsive child treated as a pet by its parents and forced to make a late discovery of the world beyond the confines of the stuffy family house; narrator, family and neighbours appear, as in Die Riesenzwerge, in the same jaundiced light. Das Windei covers forty years in the lives of a couple determined to maintain an affluence they have been brought up to take for granted by means of a shady construction business which ends in bankruptcy.
Ende, Michael —95 Ende is the most prominent recent author of stories which aim to appeal to children and adults. His international success is based on Momo and Die unendliche Geschichte , both of which have been filmed. In the second the framework narrative set in the real world and the core narrative set in the realm of fantasy are indicated and separated by red and green scripts until after the passing of a critical point which reverses the debilitation of fantasy which had threatened the central child figure.
Lauk Hrsg. Klaus Schmidt, Haufe, Freiburg i.
Weltwirtschaft im Zimmermann Hrsg. Was macht eine Volkswirtschaft wertvoll? Deutschland — Ein Sonderfall? Wenke Hrsg. Perspektiven einer Metropolregion. Juergen B. Donges zum Comment zu Scale and the political economy of financial change von John Grahl Globalization of capital markets and monetary policy. Der Euro — Opfer des transpazifischen Ungleichgewichts? Februar , S. Adam, W. Franz Hrsg. Rolf Peffekoven zum Wandel als Chance. Zur Rolle internationaler Finanzinstitutionen Beitrag zum 1.
Wiggering Angemessenes Wachstum — Dauerhaft umweltgerechte Entwicklung. Junkernheinrich Hrsg. Berlin, , S. Angemessenes Wachstum. Mummert, M. Wohlgemut Hrsg. Baden-Baden, , S. Hochberg Eds. Lenz, Friedrich H. Hagemann, C. Krohn Hrsg. Umbau der sozialen Sicherungssysteme im Zeichen der Globalisierung? Reform des Finanzausgleichs. Bullinger Hrsg. Gestaltung des Wandels und Aufbruch in die Zukunft. Stuttgart, , S. Unsichtbare Interpretation einer unsichtbaren Hand. Kritik zu B. Strukturelles Defizit und Konjunktureller Impuls Wirtschaftsdienst, Wolff Wirtschaftsdienst, Akademie Bad Boll, This relationship is not a matter of advantages or certainties; in truth, it is about questions of identity, about what we are and what we want to be.
As I see it, identity is a process, not a completed state, not a fixed, unchangeable constant. It does not start and stop in the now and instead is made up of origin, of language, of what has been inherited, learned, lived, and experienced, of work, suffering, belief, love, hope, of forgetting and remembering, of fears and longings, of what we were, what we are, and what we want to become. As soon as identity solidifies or is curtailed or dictated from the outside, it transforms into a slogan, an accusation or a mask. Identity is determined by bonds, and bonds can be life-affirming or destructive.
State entities are also subject to processes of forging an identity and of change. The relationship between the individual and the state moves within those contexts. The decisive criterion is to be found at the beginning of this unusual relationship. It is the criterion of democracy. Democracy is an organisation of law, of participation in societal and political processes. It runs on the balancing of interests, on dispute, on argument, on correction, on freedom of the individual. In contrast, the authoritarian state bullies the weak, the Other, prohibits any possibility of contradiction, free will, political involvement, control of power, change.
Democracy is — to put it in familiar terms — the antithesis of the authoritarian family, usually headed by a patriarch, with family members at the mercy of his decisions. The history of the Republic of Austria moves in the political field between war and peace, between repression and societal and cultural awakening, between recession and prolonged economic and social progress.
The First Republic of Austria was created as a democratic project following the collapse of an old monarchical order. The rising political forces wanted to transform the trauma of the collapse and the war into a dream of progress. But the loss of the old traditions, combined with a dramatic economic crisis, was too heavy a burden. The young parliamentary democracy had to defend itself against a shadow empire of fears and authoritarian traditions. The First Republic is stored in the memories of the generations as an era of discord following the loss of the powerful father.
Back in the 19th century, in the wake of industralisation and increased mobility, people had seen themselves being torn from their accustomed ways of living. Following the destructive war, the sense of abandonment must have been overwhelming. What still echoes or lingers from this period, in my view, is — in addition to the presence of so many cultural and historical memorials and monuments — a prevailing sense of loss of the homeland. This feeling of loss shaped Austrian popular culture.
What was lost is idealised — not just in the rural parts of Austria — into a beauty that has perhaps never been seen. It is the image of the idyllic past that is being doggedly held up, even though all of the injuries and humiliations remain hidden beneath it. The demise of the old world could hardly be counterbalanced by universal suffrage, which included women for the first time, the struggle for fair pay, the introduction of the eight-hour workday or the Social Democratic movement.
The old ways continued to have their effect, in the resurgence of antisemitism, in the yearning for a strong man and in the upwelling of the national question. The First Republic initially attempted to suppress all multilingual cultural references to the former crown lands. The Carinthian Slovenes were most affected by the requirement to renounce their language and culture. In retrospect, one might say that the majority of Austrians of the First Republic wanted nothing better than to become German. But there was a high price to be paid for those aspirations. The Austrian democracy quickly toppled over into an authoritarian state, into civil war and ultimately into Nazi dictatorship.
It is said that Austria disappeared from the map for years, but Austrians were to be found on all sides of the front, including the apocalyptic murders in the occupied eastern part of Europe. When we recall who fought for Austria during the Nazi era, we find it was individuals. The resistance, which was what even made it possible to recreate a free Austria, was organised and acted in groups, but it was individual in most cases.
That fact casts a special light on the impact and importance of individuals who act ethically. The Austrian resistance was carried out by people who, at a time of tightly organised power and total propaganda, did not throw their humane attitudes overboard. It is a conglomeration of almost commonplace, helping, courageous gestures that defied the will to annihilate and the organised malevolence against people. We have been given democracy as we know it not only thanks to this civil courage and in view of the many victims of the Nazi regime.
We also owe it to strokes of political luck and to the negotiating skills of certain individuals. At this juncture I would like to recall a loss that often remains unmentioned on official occasions, the loss of a generation of Austrian writers and artists who during the Nazi era were exiled or deported, deprived of their livelihoods, driven to suicide, or killed. In their literature, history is condensed and images and yearnings from the world of yesterday — so near and yet so far from the world of today — are preserved.
I believe we must trust the profound shock of all of the survivors of the catastrophe of the Second World War, as expressed by the phrase Never again. If we fail to do this, we will be condemned to repeat political mistakes.