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It was reached despite a last-minute hiccup between Mr. Macron warned that he would not sign a trade deal if Brazil pulled out of the Paris climate agreement.

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After threatening to cancel a bilateral meeting on Friday with Mr. Macron, Mr. Bolsonaro sat down with the French leader and invited him to visit the Amazon. The European bloc has also recently reached trade agreements with Canada, Mexico and Japan. This is the first major trade agreement for Mercosur since it was created in the s. The two regions will now need to finalize the legal text of the agreement. It will then go to the European Parliament for ratification, a step that is not expected to be controversial.

Climate change is an example of the complexity of a multilateral foreign policy, where different national policies environment, economic, foreign are strongly influenced by non-governmental actors, regional regimes, and international agreements. Climate change and other transnational challenges as a consequence of globalization force governments to pool national sovereignty and to multilateralize foreign policies.

Even though international organizations still depend on the decisions of national governments, the formulation of national and global preferences increasingly also depends on domestic lobbies and international alliances. Climate change and sustainable development as a primary global concern of both Brazil and the EU is also a key issue for a bilateral coordination at the global stage.

Each of the bodies held separate summits and define issues and action plans without any type of coordination or convergence. A clear overlap of agendas and outcomes see Tables 2 and 3 prove that all these levels of relations lack cohesion.

Brazil: EU and Mercosur ‘on the verge of signing’ trade deal – POLITICO

The analysis of selected sector policies in Brazil-EU relations confirm a preference for pragmatic realist bilateralism over liberal inter-regionalism: trade exclusive supranational EU competences and inter-regional level , investment supranational and national levels , development supranational, local and national levels , security national level , and climate change all levels. The failure of inter-regional trade negotiations contrasts with positive results in Brazil-member states relations and strategic relations with Brussels.

Thus, to advance bilateral relations, neglecting the MERCOSUR dimension seems to be a more viable option than pushing for inter-regionalism that has not proven to be successful in any of the five areas analyzed trade, investment, development, security, and environment.

Against these arguments, both partners maintain the inter-regional format as a concession to their collective identities that weights more than a result-oriented negotiation process. The absence of visible progress in Brazil-EU relations in the last decade can partly be attributed to this type of multi-level governance of foreign policy as obstacle for decision-making and convergence. The EU represents a unique multi-level foreign policy model by combining classic national instruments with supranational trade negotiations of the European Commission, in its relations with Brazil, but the combination of bilateralism and inter-regionalism lacks a coherent strategic, result-oriented approach.

Consequently, Brazil has to deal with a fragmented EU foreign policy of different actors with supranational ambitions and national realities. The ideological realignment toward liberal realism in EU-Brazil relations makes a bilateral trade deal more likely. Moreover, the search for economic opportunities and export promotion beyond China and the US is an incentive for mutual trade concessions.

But mutual uncertainties create serious doubts about the likelihood of closer ties. Nonetheless, taking into account that the EU remains a regional rather than a global actor, its relationship with Brazil and Latin America represents an interesting test-case for its future as a global power. Brazil-EU Strategic Partnerships represent an important instrument for bilateral convergence, but they need cohesion, coordination, and strategic orientation.

Eleven of those relationships, one with Brussels and another ten with EU member states confirm close ties between Brazil and Europe, driven by a balance between common values and interests. The complex and dense pattern of relations helped to increase mutual understanding and confidence, but did not create a strategic relationship beyond the formal diplomacy of summits and intergovernmental coordination.

From a liberal realist perspective, a Brazil-EU trade deal with a leading voice of these two countries could work better than inter-regionalism Gratius This international scenario brings Brazil closer to the EU. In midst of political turmoil in Brazil and in the EU, there are three indicators for a revitalization of relations. First, the government of Michel Temer and its close relationship with the private sector might push for trade liberalization and less state interventionism in the economy.

Nonetheless, there are also arguments against the revitalization scenario.

EU und Mercosur einigen sich auf Aufbau der weltweit größten Freihandelszone

The lack of mutual strategic priorities and the concentration on domestic concerns diminish the prospects for visible progress in relations, as well as the severe crisis in Brazil, together with relative economic stagnation and protectionism in the Euro zone. Presidential elections in in Brazil and the identity crisis of European integration pose additional uncertainties in a relationship that promised much but delivered less than expected.

Ayuso, A.

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They are also included in the 31 sector dialogues together with others like the UN, human rights, finances, drugs, disarmament, peace and security, social policies, and energy. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal.