Jefferson and Robin M. Sadly, owing to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople—now Istanbul—there are very few mosaics of the Pantokrator within this cityscape dating from the Byzantine period. As such, this article addresses the representations of Christ Pantokrator in Venice, Palermo and Monreale the latter two both in Sicily in order to shed light on the popularity of this image in territories influenced by Byzantium. The presence of this image in the West also indicates another motive in writing this article: that images are evocative of the realities they point to is something that can be taken for granted in traditional societies, and the Orthodox Church is by-and-large traditional.
For Orthodox Christians, the icons representing Christ and the saints participate, through the grace of God, in their archetypes, so that veneration given to the image is truly transferred to the person that image depicts. I do not give to you as the world gives. It is part and parcel of it. It too is an ecclesial tradition. To attempt to practise it, therefore, apart from active participation in this sacramental and liturgical life is to cut it off from its living roots. It is also to abuse the intention of its exponents and teachers and so act with a presumption that may well have consequences of a disastrous kind, mental and physical.
Palmer, Philip Sherrard, Kallistos Ware eds and trans. The Pantokrator, the standard image of Christ as master of the universe—and thus the provident God—who is transcendent insofar as he is depicted in the dome above us all, and yet immanent since he is the Son of God who assumed humanity in other words, became one of us apart from sin , is a necessary corrective to images of Christ that depict him defeated on the cross;13 especially since this world is anyway harassed and harried by diverse and unsettling representations.
That the Byzantine-inspired Pantokrator, a staple image in Orthodox countries, can be found in the West, is important. There is therefore good reason for the Orthodox emphasis on the resurrection, which ties into the representation of the Lord as Pantokrator since even now he governs the universe and watches over us. This can be discerned in the following texts which, since they are from different epochs and contexts, show the diachronic consistency of this experience: Tim Vivian, trans. Tanner, ed. Figure Notice that the right and left sides of his face indicate his divinity and humanity respectively.
For more see John A. And there are worse representations of him out there, ranging from Jesus the zealot and violent revolutionary against the Romans,20 to representations that best remain unuttered. I am not asserting that the Pantokrator is the only genuine representation of Christ, or that other representations are not legitimate. In a world that all too often forgets Christ, or construes him in inappropriate ways, the Orthodox Church, but also other traditional Christians such as Catholics, Copts, and High church Protestants , have within their artistic repertoires the image of Christ as the master of the cosmos that can be used to indicate not only his exalted Lordship and humble condescension in our behalf, but also reminds us—in our tumultuous world—that he is the only bestower of peace in our lives.
But despite its use by other Christians, it is a truism that the Pantokrator is used most frequently in the Orthodox Church: it is characteristic of Orthodox churches not only in Byzantium, but throughout the various Orthodox lands today. In what ensues, I address the symbolic significance of the appearance of the Pantokrator in circular domes, first in relation to its paradigmatic importance in Byzantium and the Orthodox Church generally—contextualising it within medieval Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium which established the standard for most Orthodox art—before assessing its impact on its Western neighbours, principally the Venetians and the Normans in Sicily.
It concludes with reflections on how this important image appearing in Catholic churches, serves as a reminder of a common Orthodox and Catholic tradition that, in the latter, can be retrieved as a corrective to inappropriate images of Christ, and in. For the Church, there is one Christ, who of course existed historically, but who both pre-existed Colossians his historical incarnation as the eternal Son of the Father, and who roughly two-thousand years ago assumed human nature as Christ Jesus while remaining fully God , and who now—resurrected and ascended Acts —sits at the right hand of the Father and reigns together with him and the Holy Spirit.
Moreover, the testimonies of the saints confirm that he really is ever-present within the Church, which is his mystical body 1 Corinthians , Ephesians , The full implications of this image can be best understood in relation to its association with the domes of churches; the dome being a significant feature of the ecclesial space in Byzantium and the Orthodox Church generally.
Due to financial and construction constraints, the image of Christ Pantokrator would only appear in the dome of the cathedral church of Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom in Constantinople in the fourteenth century: but generally it featured on portable icons by the end of late antiquity, and by the Middle Ages, it would recur in domes, apses, and wall panels throughout Christendom in East and West; especially in Byzantine churches and churches influenced by the Byzantine style.
Figure Thus, in many churches throughout Christendom, the Christian conception of the whole universe is represented, with Christ as its master. Figure 27 Christ Pantokrator surrounded by Old Testament prophets in the Pammakaristos parekklesion. Photo by Nicholas Sen, In the tenth century, the Byzantines reconquered part of southern Italy, to the north of Sicily, establishing a catepanate centred in Bari that was dissolved by the invading Normans in The present basilica, which is in cruciform design and topped by five principal domes, is the result of a reconstruction that took place in the eleventh century, during which it was decorated internally by Byzantine mosaicists or local artisans trained in Byzantine techniques and iconography.
Did not Our Lord tell us: "Woe to the world because of scandals. For it must needs be that scandals come: but nevertheless woe to that man by whom the scandal cometh. Paul: "But judge this rather, that you put not a stumblingblock or a scandal in your brother' s way. Annals of Family Medicine. Environ Health Perspect. Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol.
PLoS One. Cigarettes and the developing brain: picturing nicotine as a neuroteratogen in clinical and preclinical studies. Tzu Chi Med J. A neuroteratogen specifically targets neural-brain development. PMC PMID A n irrational belief: that is what cognitive clinical psychologists consider an attitude of desperate need to depend on others Ellis, However, they distinguish between unhealthy dependence and psychologically and spiritually healthy dependence.
The characteristic signs of unhealthy dependence are the high intensity of the emotional need, a sense of self worthlessness, and a lack of confidence and ensuing helplessness and hopelessness when not dependent on others. To discern between them in and for oneself, a good beginning would be a realistic assessment of one's strengths talents and weaknesses. It is important to know one's God-given strengths in the various domains of life, academic, cognitive, creative, social skill and sport. Then one can build on those gifts of strength, often by enhancing them with the aid of others who can guide because of their more advanced skills.
If our weaknesses can be compensated for, then others may help us in this regard as well. Another way of looking at this is to say that we attain independence by recognizing our strengths and weaknesses while remaining open to guidance from others to attain even greater competence. Thus, we develop a healthy dependence. Many of those engaged in the most demanding professions, who demonstrate what we consider great personal acts of bravery and skill, may initially appear 'independent.
Frequently heard among those in the military and among emergency first-responders are: "I got your back," and "it was a team effort.
We can look to various spiritual traditions to discover a symbiosis between independence and dependence. A Buddhist spiritual writing contains these poetic verses: "My hut is roofed, comfortable, free of drafts; my mind, well-centered, set free. I remain ardent. So, rain-deva. He is free and determined. He is ardent. Along with these traits, one might characterize him as independent. The very writing of this poem, however, implies dependence on the part of the monk. Without dependence, he could not have written, "So, rain-deva, Go ahead and rain.
In the Judeo-Christian tradition, in the Book of Psalms, David, the king and warrior, says of God: "His truth shall compass thee with a shield: thou shalt not be afraid of the terror of the night. Of the arrow that flieth in the day, of the business that walketh about in the dark: of invasion, or of the noonday devil. A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand: but it shall not come nigh thee. An Eastern Christian Church spiritual father, St.
Nikiphoros the Monk, quite explicitly tells us of the crucial importance of having an enlightened guide in life "so that under his [her] instruction we may learn how to deal with the shortcomings and exaggerations [that beset us]" Philokalia IV, 4 Thus we are able to live a life of 'healthy dependence. Basically, people prefer not to face discomfort. The consequence of their feeling anxious about possible impending discomfort is that they avoid "life's difficulties and self responsibilities.
The comfortable route is to do what is easy, natural or intrinsically enjoyable. Avoiding responsibilities, and their ensuing untoward consequences, can be exacerbated by the imagery we create of scenarios, that is to say, the imagined sequence of possible efforts in actually doing these tasks. Often we create an image of how awful we would feel doing the most difficult part of the task. A cognitive therapeutic alternative is to transform the image into an affirmative one. Imagine yourself performing the simplest part of the task and then re-evaluating how uncomfortable it would be to do that.
Then imagine yourself starting at that simple point. Adherence to a spiritual tradition may help us to avoid overcoming avoidance of responsibilities, by motivating us to act responsibly. A contemporary commentary on Buddhism states "Buddhism is in essence a practice, a method of mental training by which we cultivate morality, concentration and wisdom.
It is meant to be lived, not just discussed or believed in. The course of an individual's life, including the degree of happiness and peace he experiences, is ultimately determined by his own present and past actions But every one shall die for his own iniquity:every man that shall eat the sour grape, his teeth shall be set on edge.
Using cognition thinking in acting responsibly was not lost on a contemporary spiritual father of the Eastern Church, St. Paisios of the Holy Mountain He noted:"The excuse of irresponsibility applies only to those who do not think. The spiritual elder counseled breaking tasks down into doable parts. Although originally given as advice to parents, his guidance can be applied to all. He said that "parents must also help their children from a young age to assume responsibility for themselves.
They should be given opportunities in the family to do small chores suitable for their age For example, to set out a pencil and pad to start a school assignment, or to set out a hammer and nail to hang a picture. After perceiving that the level of discomfort felt was minimal, it is now easier for the patient to move on to the next step and repeat the process. Also acquired is a sense of self-mastery or what Bandura 5 terms self-efficacy.
That is to say,acquire an attitude. Our life's journey toward emotional, psychological and spiritual accomplishment is thus enhanced. When encountering fearsome situations some people have an automatic appraisal that they must flee from them at all costs and that they should continue to keep such dangers in mind - and even "keep dwelling on the possibility of such events occurring" again. This is described by clinical cognitive psychologist Albert Ellis, 1 as being "terribly concerned about" them.
Another possible common reaction is to 'freeze in place. To run and call attention from someone threatening harm would be functional in some situations; naturalists, however, would advise that when coming upon a harmful animal in the wild many times it is best to immediately stop, and not move to prevent calling attention to yourself. Most common everyday situations are not this extreme, and for our well-being it behooves us to deal with them.
When I was in post-graduate clinical training under Ellis, I was instructed in the technique of performing a public "shame exercise' and then teaching the technique and encourage its use by patients who were adversely affected with fear in their daily lives.
SAINTS From Chilton Books
One example suggested and that I practiced was to go into a large department store and shout out the time of day every 10 seconds while riding up and down the escalator for a few minutes. I quickly learned that I could get through such shameful and potentially fearsome situations. The "shame exercises" given to patients as psychotherapy 'homework' are related to their particular feared circumstances. To this day, I tell patients that they are capable of carrying fears with them as they journey through their various life activities.
Such counsel was not lost on some of our brave military individuals. Former U. Navy aviator, POW and Silver Star recipient John McCain has said: "We are taught to understand, correctly, that courage is not the absence of fear, but the capacity for action despite our fears. Courage is fear holding on a minute longer. All men are frightened. That's the time to listen to every fear you can imagine.
When you have collected all the facts and fears and made your decision, turn off all your fears and go ahead! A spiritual perception when confronting life's vicissitudes can aid us in persevering in fearsome situations. The Buddhist tradition would have us focus on detaching ourselves from our attachments: "From what is dear, grief is born, from what is dear, fear is born.
For someone freed from what is dear there is no grief— so why fear? Dhammapada Judeo-Christian teachings would encourage us to see God accompanying us in frightening times. As we read in Psalm 90 , "He that dwelleth in the aid of the most High, shall abide under the protection of the God of Jacob.
He shall say to the Lord: Thou art my protector, and my refuge: my God, in him will I trust. For he hath delivered me from the snare of the hunters: and from the sharp word. He will overshadow thee with his shoulders: and under his wings thou shalt trust. His truth shall compass thee with a shield: thou shalt not be afraid of the terror of the night. John Karpathos summarizes, "With our whole soul we must trust in God: as one of our Fathers said, 'Entrust yourself to the Lord, and all will be entrusted to you.
While carrying our fears with us we can be assured that God is accompanying us as well, as our buckler, our shield, our protector. Philokalia , IIV. This is a follow up course to Orthodox Christian Spirituality and Cognitive Psychotherapy: An Online Course, that appeared in four parts over the years Icon of Ladder of Divine Ascent based on the spiritual treatise written by St.
John of the Ladder. Such Church Fathers as St. John of the Ladder and St. Gregory Palamas indicate that continual sin becomes habitual. They work by blackening our minds, which guides and inclines people to do things they would not normally think of. Palmer, The Church Fathers suggest reducing the strength of habits by removing sensory factors and stopping memories [thoughts] as they begin.
With repetition, these new techniques become stronger. This is not unlike the 'thought stopping' techniques proposed by Cognitive-behavioral therapists. For the Christian, putting these techniques in a spiritual perspective, as suggested by the Church Fathers, provides added motivation and rationale for the treatment. Cultural and to a lesser extent, spiritual factors have received increased emphasis in understanding mental disorders and psychological treatment DSM IV, American Psychiatric Association, ; McGoldrick, et. It would be unthinkable for Orthodox Christians not to include spiritual factors in the understanding and treatment healing of mental disorders.
The Christian spiritual tradition, including the prayers and practice the church, Scripture and the writings of the spiritual Fathers, lends itself to an elegant integration with the Cognitive therapy methods noted above. Christians are committed to do all in Christ's name. Jesus told His followers: "For whoever is ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of man be ashamed when he comes in his glory and the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.
Evidence science based clinicians are trained to realize that others are going to follow their set of rules, not the personal set of rules the mental health practitioner may have. As long as the laws of society are not broken and professional ethics are followed it behooves the clinician to respect the patient's values. In emulation of Christ, who for example was asked by the rich young man "Good master, what good shall I do that I may have life everlasting? Mt , an orthodox mental health clinician can answer straightforwardly what the inquirer must do in accordance with Christ's teachings and His Church's Holy Spirit inspired understanding of His teachings.
However, if not related to patient-inquirer psychotherapeutic treatment, such instruction is better done outside of treatment and by an orthodox spiritually oriented person other than the therapist. It should be recalled the young man rejected Christ's counsel and as St. Matthew records: "And when the young man had heard this word, he went away sad: for he had great possessions. The Christian psychotherapist must always be guided by St. Paul's counsel to the Ephesians 4: 32 : "And be ye kind [emphasis mine]one to another; merciful, forgiving one another, even as God hath forgiven you in Christ.
There is a tendency in our society to point to outside events in and of themselves as the cause of our happiness or unhappiness. This is followed by the idea that individuals have limited power to control their emotional responses to such happenings. While it is true that physical assaults, depending on their gravity, could certainly harm us, psychological assaults are a different matter. Emotional responses, such as demanding expectations and overevaluations are often triggered by irrational beliefs specific to each individual. These irrational beliefs have been noted by the observations of clinical cognitive psychologists, such as Albert Ellis , p.
Especially in this day of instantaneous social media, I want to make clear that in no way am I condoning or excusing the proliferation of socially deviant egregious behaviors, such as bullying, harassment or sexting. However, understanding that we can develop control over our emotional reactions to such untoward events can aid us in walking a path leading to true happiness. Failure to do so leads to a cascading scenario of untoward events.
A particularly nasty situation may in reality be quite unpleasant. However, a strong emotional reaction to it, which is also unpleasant, just adds to the problem. Furthermore, the more strongly emotionally reactive we are to such events, the less effectively competent we are at coping with them or in solving unpleasant events that can be changed. Two mental health cognitive strategies are aimed toward reducing unhappiness. One is realizing that others are going to follow their set of rules, not ours.
What helps us understand the reality of this situation is seeing the frame of reference of others, even if we do not agree with their words and actions. There is also a spiritual path pointing us to true happiness. As a recent N. However, to attain this will entail commitment and effort. With these ending words on working toward achieving true happiness I cannot help reflecting on the words of St. Paisios of Holy Mountain , p. Spiritual Counsels, Vol. The featured author article this month is an updating and reworking of the Society of St.
Furthermore all Christians should join in prayer, witness and action to cure the increasing societal illness of depersonalization. And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them. And the Lord God formed man of the slime of the earth: and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.
Gn One would hope that the basis of union among those who acknowledge the transcendent personal God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob would be that of the worth and sanctity of personhood. It would appear, however, that rather than a reestablishment of cordial relations among those who acknowledge the sacredness of Scripture, and the Book of Genesis in particular, there is an ever growing divide.
The Apostolic Churches view is that persons are known by God outside of created space and time. And the angel departed from her. Some Christian communities not in communion with the Apostolic Churches have not dealt directly with the issue of personhood. However, their understanding of personhood can be inferred by their stance on, for example, the issue of abortion.
The critical importance of understanding the worth of personhood can be seen in the various interpretations or perspectives on personhood in Islam. Islamic scholar Peter Riddell points out that there are various interpretations or perspectives on personhood in Islam.
Spiritual Church Father Nikitas Stithatos c. Let us also consider the moral context in which any ongoing ecumenical efforts should occur. Without getting into the intricacies of the various patristic writings on the persons of The Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit and the relationship of the Divine persons to human personhood a summary statement, by Archbishop John Zizioulas [viii] is insightful on this matter.
From this understanding each individual person known by God in eternity and known humanly on earth in space and time existentially-subsistent, has inestimable worth and value. And Jesus looking on them, saith: With men it is impossible; but not with God: for all things are possible with God. Mk The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church. One of the more unfortunate irrational beliefs held by many is that some individuals are intrinsically evil or good. The assumption prompting this deleterious attitude is that the actions that people do define their 'personhood.
In practical terms this means that if a person does good, prosocial, kindly and moral things they are a good person. Biologically, humans are of the animal kingdom, but people who engage in especially nefarious acts are pejoratively referred to as "animals," - implying they are subhuman and, frequently, not even worthy of life. The implication of this, as cognitive-behavioral clinical psychologist Albert Ellis[ 1 ] puts it, is that, "They did this 'wrong' act, therefore they are perfectly worthless beings who deserve to be severely punished or killed.
Philosophers and philosophical psychologists have considered the basis of humanness to be "a personhood nested within physical, biological, and sociocultural reality, both historically and ontogenetically[ ii ]. For example, The Council for Secular Humanism affirms: "We believe in the fullest realization of the best and noblest that we are capable of as human beings.
The concept of the person as having worth reaches its peak in various religious traditions. A contemporary Buddhist scholar Somparn Promta writes: "Buddhism believes that all human beings share a set of psychological properties such as self-love, death-hatred, and willing to have a good future. The definition of personhood in Hinduism is based on this self.
However, human life is the highest level of consciousness. The divine spark, or soul enters at days Artma. Hindus also perform a pre-birth ceremony at 7 months when personhood is fully achieved. Common to the understanding of what it means to be a 'person' among the Abrahamic religious traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam is the scriptural passage: "And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them. An individual "is an image of God manifest in a spiritual, immortal and intelligent soul, an intellect that is the father of.
One view is that "Islam holds that Man consists of two essential elements, one material which is the body, the other spiritual which is the soul. On the other hand, "non-formally trained" radical fundamental Islamists would say that "Islamic scripture allows for some humans to change from 'person' to 'non-person'.. The closest compatible echo in the secular sphere of the viewpoint of the preponderance of world religions and of clinical psychology is the spirit of the preamble of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights, which states in part: ".
John the Evangelist: "But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaites[ x ], which I also hate. Thus we can strongly disapprove of the nefarious works or actions of others while still maintaining their worth or personhood. Kosher Sex. Judaism Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved This second course is specifically oriented to explain Orthodoxy to mental health practitioners, and serve as a useful resource for Orthodox Clergy and laity as well.
Generally speaking, every one of us must take advantage of his mind which is a gift from God Saint Paisios of the Holy Mountain [i]. T here are currently various psychological models to explain this interaction. One model, based on Darwinian evolutionary theory, is that emotion develops as an adaptive value to a stimulus. From the different laboratories of Izard , , , Plutchik and Tomkins come remarkably similar findings on the presence of primary emotions shortly after birth.
These researchers agree on six emotions fear, anger, joy, disgust, interest and surprise out of about eight or ten primary emotions. Phylogenetically, these emotions occur before the brain structures supporting cognition initiate development. That is, subcortical brain areas such as the hypothalamus and the limbic system develop before the cerebral cortex. Researchers have shown that emotional responding in lower animals appears to be an innate reaction to certain stimuli. In human brain architecture, the limbic system and hypothalamus are connected by neural structures to these later developing cortical structures, allowing communication between these two areas.
Research on neurophysiological processes and psychopharmacological processes summarized by Izard suggests that these areas serve as the possible neural architecture subcortical and cortical pathways of emotion. Early Christians knew nothing of the taxonomy and biological substrates that are understood today. They were limited to the understanding of their times.
The research literature demonstrating the cognitive elicitation of emotion is ubiquitous. Appraisals, anticipations, attributions, beliefs, construals, inferences, judgments and memories of stimulus situations all fall in the cognitive domain. Other studies in this area use variations of this paradigm. In recent years, a substantial body of information has been collected on cognitive-emotion interaction.
Bandura, ; Erwin, ; Galanter, E. Cognition research has also been extended to the behavioral processes of parenting Patterson, Cognitive-Behavioral principles in parenting have been outlined in a series of Smart Parenting articles available at www. The question arises, in use of psychospiritual intervention to address emotional disorders, as to what extent cognition plays a role in initiating, sustaining and possibly attenuating emotional responding. If one were to maintain that emotions can be triggered even in humans by subcortical processes, would cognitive processes have any role in their modulation?
This is not a trivial question; it is at the foundation of the various Cognitive therapies and goes to the heart of the moral and spiritual teachings of the Church Fathers. To what extent do individual differences play a part in such control processes? In other words, are some individuals able to control the various systems of emotional activation over others? Inasmuch as we have no comprehensive individual difference model of emotion activation, we must proceed with caution and at best heuristically.
Some patients with lower levels of cognitive control may benefit from interventions targeting the neural sensori-motor or affective systems directly i. Patients with higher levels of cognitive control may benefit from more focused cognitive treatment programs i. It has been my clinical observation, however, that even patients with limited cognitive resources with the exception of low-functioning cognitively impaired individuals benefit from some cognitive interventions. Ware, Bishop Kallistos The Orthodox Way. The inherent irrationality of perfectionism can be seen by considering that no one can be masterful in all things, and that it is often accompanied by undue anxiety, stress and physical disorders.
Focusing on trying to excel over others, or considering perfection as the measure of our personal worth by demanding perfection of oneself, distracts us from task-attention and from making the appropriate choices to achieve success. Such perfectionistic standards are opposed to diligence. A sense of diligence guides us to be conscientious in appropriately paying attention to a specific task and giving it the actions necessary to carry it out to a successful conclusion. An appropriate understanding of religious tradition regarding perfection can aid us in being conscientious, that is to say, diligent.
He struggles with his conscience. When you fight for something, you demonstrate its worth. This idea is like the conscientious attention of diligence previously mentioned. Then perfect your actions; the more you work [italics mine] to attain perfection, the more Allah loves you. IV, p. T he work of Satan, the great divider, or separator, is not new, It goes back to Christ, Himself, His Apostles and Disciples and many early Christians. They were criminals in the eyes of the law, the state. We know from the Holy Gospels and historical accounts that real possession by Satan can occur.
However as one Christian author C. Lewis ii , has pointed out most of the work of Satan is not done by him or his demons, but by us, that is to say, people like you and I. Lewis writes a fictional account of an experienced devil or demon named Screwtape who teaching a novice devil, his nephew called Wormwood to adopt a "war aim," that would entail a, "world in which Our Father Below has drawn all other beings to himself The moral of the story boils down to this: 'you don't have to do much, you can more or less stand back and people will do the Devil's work for you.
Many of us would think, that considering Christians as criminals today would be for third world countries or those countries under radical Islamic control. How many would think that, the Criminalization of Christians is now being promoted in the West and in the United States as well? This Fall, , I came across an advertisement for a book almost a decade old now, entitled the 'Criminalization of Christianity.
Prayer in school was banned, portrayals of the Ten Commandments were forbidden in courts, public buildings and of course schools. There was and still is an outcry by atheists and secularists to remove the words "in God we Trust," from our national motto and to remove the words "under God" from the Pledge of Allegiance. A couple decades ago some individuals were saying that the ultimate goal of the gay-rights movement was the 'criminalization of Christianity. A self-proclaimed lesbian mayor of a major Texas city recently tried to subpoena the homilies of pastors in her jurisdiction.
She was looking for any criticism of so called 'gay-marriage' as it would be a hate-crime subject to prosecution. Her office was flooded with books of the Sacred Scriptures. However in Europe, supposedly an enlightened area of the world, criminalization of church leaders who preached on homosexuality have already been prosecuted. A Swedish court sentenced a pastor to a month in prison by inciting hate by quoting Scripture and thus offending gays and lesbians.
A news account reported that the prosecutor said the homilist crossed the line when he recited Scriptural verses referencing homosexuality. Folger, By the way, the term 'gay marriage' is an oxymoron - that is to say a contradiction of terms. The Apostolic Churches v have taught that the marital commitment is a reflection of the love of the persons of the Holy Trinity amongst themselves and that the potential for procreation between the male and female united in a blessed marriage reflects God's creation of the cosmos and specifically mankind.
As Christians we are to pray for the spiritual healing of all, but at the same time we can judge an action or deed, proclaiming it is wrong, if indeed we have been told as such by Christ and His Church. Recall Christ's words, spoken through His angel, to St. John in the Book of the Apocalypse : "But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds [emphasis mine] of the Nicolaites, which I also hate.
Only the merciful God can judge the individual. Where is this reflection leading? It is leading to saying that that segment of secular and politically correct society and sadly, even among those claiming to be Christian themselves, that seeks to persecute and criminalize Christ and His Church for proclaiming God's message to mankind and is in dire need of healing.
It is also points out the unique diaconia of the SSJC and actually all who are baptized unto Christ is to witness the solidarity of the Apostolic Churches on such moral matters. The grace to do this was by our entry into the Royal Priesthood of Christ bestowed on us at Holy Baptism. Let us all exercise this gift according to our state of life and become the physicians, next to Christ, the chief physician, of ourselves and all whom we touch.
The Criminalization of Christianity. Sisters, OR: Multnomah. I n clinical psychology there is a well-known irrational cognition that prompts dysfunctional emotions such as anxiety and depression and ensuing maladaptive behaviors. The impaired belief or cognition is that: "I must [emphasis mine] be loved or approved by practically every significant person in my life—-and if I am not, it's awful [emphasis mine].
The dire need for approval, as in the case of other irrational beliefs, dis-affirmative emotions and faulty behaviors, lead to a cascading domino of untoward problems. Such need for approval undermines being able to overcome obstacles to attain desirable goals and very often leads individuals to set high standards that are so perfectionistic as to be practically unattainable all with accompanying increasing dysfunctional emotions mentioned above. The demand characteristic of the dire need for approval can at times be called by different names.
In the Hebrew Sacred Scriptures the wise Solomon notes: "It is better to be rebuked by a wise man, than to be deceived by the flattery of fools.
Flattery is an attempt to pander for the approval of others. The Buddhist tradition would have us consider that if we "care about other people's approval and you will be their prisoner. Do your work, then step back. Flattery is an art by which Satan lieth in wait to deceive and to puff up the human agent with high thoughts of himself.
Looking at this from the point of view of the flatterer, it could be considered enabling the person who needs approval to continue to be dependent on such approval from others. On the other hand the advice of the Sufi-Islam writings on this matter can be heeded: "It is not permissible for anyone to flatter The Holy Fathers of the Eastern Church would consider the dire need for approval to fall under the guise of vainglory. John of the Ladder v informs us: "It is the height of vainglory when a person, seeing no one near him to praise him, puts on affected behavior.
The connection to the dire need for approval can be seen, as 'affected behavior' is speaking or behaving in an contrived way as to make an impression [on others], aka gain their approval. The untoward psychological and spiritual consequences of the dire need for approval are succinctly described by the contemporary holy Elder Paisios of the Holy Mountain vi , when he tells: "Many people torment themselves because they do not succeed in being glorified with vain honors Overcoming the dire need for approval can begin on two fronts.
Psychologically one can re-structure their personal rule system from must or should to would like. Thus a more effective way of interacting with others would be to think: 'that it's definitely nice to have people[s love and approval—-but even without it I can accept myself. Isaac the Syrian vii : "There is hope [trust-confidence] in God that comes through the [commitment] of the heart which is good, and which one possesses with discernment and knowledge.
Poetically he puts it this way: "As a grain of sand cannot counterbalance a great quantity of gold, so in comparison God's use of justice cannot counterbalance His mercy. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart. The Ladder of Divine Ascent. Isaac the Syrian, Ascetical Homilies of St. Isaac the Syrian.
The Creation of Mankind. Clearly, the Church Fathers teach that intellect and reason are highly valued characteristics in man. It is important to note that intellect does not mean high intelligence. It refers to the spiritual perception of the principles of the Divine. The Greek term dianoia refers to the ability to reason, distinguish, create, and all the qualities associated with it. Further, there is a moral imperative implied in the assessment of the Church Fathers.
Since the intellect and reason is a gift from God, we must exercise reason to the best of our ability. Failure to responsibly apply our intellect and reason in our lives means we are not conforming to the will of God. One area where the intellect must be applied is in the contemplation of life around us. Where does the ultimate meaning of the creation and our place in it come from: science and its offshoots, including medicine and psychology — or God? Science is empirical; it measures material objects and defines material processes.
The now universally accepted scientific method involves the faculty of reason. However, it did not become a systematic field of study until almost years after Christ, and the early Church could know little of its methods as a comprehensive approach. Nonetheless, two factors tie Christianity with psychology as we know it today. The tradition of spiritual direction and spiritual fatherhood is laid out by St. As Metropolitan Kallistos Ware Hausherr, , p. Penance imposed after confession of sins is viewed as a tonic to assist in recovery, not as a punishment. Christians are, therefore, to use their intellect, reason and free will in their interacting with the world.
These non-Apostolic denominations and communities collectively called Protestant, such as the Anglican Communion, Episcopal Communion, the Evangelical communities, various community groups etc. Their founders and subsequent successors put their personal individual interpretations on these writings as the ultimate authority of their teachings. The Apostolic Churches collectively know that Tradition, the teachings of Christ and His Apostles were first oral they years later written and centuries later canonized by the Holy Spirit inspired Church. Breck, The simple term Sacred Scripture used by many among the Apostolic Churches, is truer to the real understanding the place of the Scriptures in the Churches.
This includes the rejection of modern science, and its findings. Evolution would be a good example. In previous writings I have indicated there is no inherent contradiction between evolution and the Church. God can create nature with any laws He wants. Interestingly, recently, Pope Francis I, wrote on a similar theme.
This is seen by many denominations and their leaders endorsing such evils as abortion, euthanasia, gay female ordination, same-sex and even multi-partner marriage Morelli, ; Morelli, G. Beck, J. Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. NY: The Guilford Press. Put another way, they are making demands about people and events.
let the bright seraphim Manual
A similar message is known among various religious traditions. Erroneous views are of this world. Correct views transcend this world. Don't see the right and wrong in others. From anger arises delusion; from delusion arises confusion of memory; from confusion of memory arises loss of discrimination buddhi ; from the loss of discrimination the individual perishes.. An interesting perspective on demandingness comes from Austrian Jewish psychiatrist Viktor Frankl , p.
After all, it is precisely the religious man who should respect the freedom of such a choice because he is the one who believes man to be created free. The Fathers of the Eastern Church consider renunciation of self-will to be an aid in overcoming our demandingness of others and of how we think events should turn out. To do this, we have to recognize that demandingness is an illness.
Thus we can see the synergy, the working together, of psychology and spiritual tradition for aiding in the healing of dysfunctional thoughts, emotions and behaviors. It were better for him, that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should scandalize one of these little ones Lk The major goal of good parenting is to provide the milieu and guidance their children need to become the 'most they can be' in all major domains of life.
Tomos 1 -. Suspended —47 tomos 19 covers — Beginning with v. Has supplement: Hellenike theologike vivliographia. Calendarul credinta. Faith almanac. Issues for — have English title: Faith almanac. In Romanian and English. Continues Calendarul ortodox credinta. Church and Theology London: Thyateira House.
Greek title: Ekklesia kai theologia [ekklesiastike kai theologike epeteris tes Hieras Archiepiskopes Thyateiron kai Megales Vretannias], Text in English, French, and Greek. Kuzmission, ed. Yearbook NY: The Archdiocese Jahrbuch der Orthodoxie. Yearbook of the Orthodox Church.
Imprint varies: Verlag A. English translation, , by Nigel Kinsella. Oriens Christianus Wiesbaden: O. Im Auftrage der Gorres-Gesellschaft. Orthodox Church. Ten nos. Monthly, Jan. Orthodox Church in America. Continues Yearbook and church directory of the Orthodox Church in America. Russian title: Ezhegodnik Pravo slavnoi tserkvi v Amerike , kn.
Title varies: Etudes byzantines , — French chiefly , English, German, and Greek. Indexes: Index t. Continued by Yearbook and church directory of the Orthodox Church in America. Studia Patristica: Papers Presented to the. International Conference on Patristic Studies Held at. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag V. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur; 63—64, 78—81, 92—94, —, —, Quadrennial. Indexes: Author index: v. Beginning with the 7th Conference, selected papers also published in the series: Nag Hammadi studies.
Main series: Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur. Founded in Arabic as Al Kalimat, Jan.
Founded in English as The Word , Jan. Title on added t. Ainalov, Dimitrii Vlasyevich. The Hellenistic Origins of Byzantine Art. Brill, Nicholas P. History of Russian Church Music, — Bloomington, IL: Brill, Brumfield, William Craft. Christianity and the Arts in Russia. Brumfield and Milos M. Cambridge: University Press, A History of Russian Architecture. Text and photographs by William Craft Brumfield. NY: Cambridge University Press, Bychkov, Victor V.
Preface by Robert Slesinski. Byzantine Churches of Thessaloniki. Chatzidakis, Manolis. The Great Meteoron: History and Art. Athens: Interamerican, Thetis Xanthaki, trans. Athens: National Bank of Greece, Chatzidakis, Nano. Athens: Benakai Museum, William C. Brumfield, Milos M. Chrysaphes, Manuel, fl. Text, translation, and commentary by Dimitri E. Vienna: Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Monumenta musicae Byzantinae. Corpus scriptorum de re musica; v.
English and Greek. Greek title: Peri ton entheoroumenon te psaltike techne kai on phronousi kakos tines peri auton. Conomos, Dimitri E. Byzantine Hymnography and Byzantine Chant. The Nicholas E. Kulukundis lectures in Hellenism. Thessalonica: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, Dumbarton Oaks studies; Coomler, David. The Icon Handbook. Springfield, Ill. Dionysios, of Fourna, ca. Paul Hetherington, ed. Translation of Hermeneia tes zographikes. Divine Liturgy. Dumbarton Oaks. Handbook of the Byzantine Collection.
New edition of handbook. Washington, Introduction by Ernst Kitzinger. Art of the Icon: A Theology of Beauty. Translated by Fr. Steven Bigham. Four Icons in the Menil Collection. Edited by Bertrand Davezac. Houston: The Collection, The Menil Collection monographs; v. Giakalis, Ambrosios. Foreword by Henry Chadick. Leiden: E. Golden Light: Masterpieces of the Art of the Icon. Catalog of an exhibition held in Grabar, Andre. Beginnings of Christian Art, — The Arts of mankind; v. Originally published as Le Premier art chretien — Paris: Gallimard, Byzantine Painting: Historical and Critical Study.
Translated by Stuart Gilbert. Geneva: Skira, The Great centuries of painting. Byzantium: Byzantine Art in the Middle Ages. Translated from the German by Betty Forster. London: Methuen, The Arts of mankind. Translated from the French by Terry Grabar. The A. Mellon lectures in the fine arts, Translated by Stuart Gilbert and James Emmons.
NY: Odyssey Press, The Arts of mankind, v. Translation of Le Premier art chretien — Bibliography: p. Mosaics and Mural Painting, A. Grabar; Book illumination, Carl Nordenfalk. NY: Skira, New York, Odyssey Press, Mural Painting, A. Grabar; Book Illumination, Carl Nordenfalk. NY: Skira Gennadios Limouris, comp. Geneva: WCC Publications, James, Liz. Light and Colour in Byzantine Art. New York: Clarendon Press, Kalokyres, Konstantinos D. The Byzantine Wall Paintings of Crete. New York: Red Dust, The Essence of Orthodox Iconography. English translation by Peter Chamberas. Translation of He ousia tes Orthodoxou eikonographias.
Kartsonis, Anna D. Anastasis: The Making of an Image. Kitzinger, Ernst. Edited by W. Eugene Kleinbauer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Report on a Dumbarton Oaks symposium. Reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corp. Portraits of Christ. With sixteen color plates and fourteen black-and-white illustrations and a text by Ernst Kitzinger and Elizabeth Senior. The King Penguin books.
Mosaics at Nikopolis. Kollias, Elias. Manolis Chatzidakis, gen. Athens, Greece: Melissa Publishing House, Byzantine art in Greece. Mosaics, wall paintings. Translated from the Greek. Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture. Revised by Richard Krautheimer and Slobodan Curcic. The Pelican history of art. Three Christian Capitals: Topography and Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press, Kuopion ortodoksinen kirkkomuseo. Treasures of the Orthodox Church Museum in Finland.
Kuopio, Finland: Kustannuskiila, Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts. Edited by David Drillock, Joh n H. Mango, Cyril A. Apse Mosaics of St. Mango and Ernest J. Augustin, Art of the Byzantine Empire, —; Sources and Documents. Sources and documents in the history of art series. Byzantine Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, History of world architecture. Materials for the Study of the Mosaics of St.
Sophia at Istanbul. Washington, D. Dumbarton Oaks studies, 8. Mosaics of St. Mouriki, Doula, ed. Byzantine East, Latin West. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Hymns of the Eastern Church. Ouspensky, Leonide. The Meaning of Icons. Ouspensky and Vladimir Lossky; translated by G. Palmer and E. Revised ed. Translation of Der Sinn der Ikonen. Theology of the Icon. Translated by Anthony Gythiel with selections translated by Elizabeth Meyendorff.
Both were translated originally from the Russian. Ousterhout, Robert and Leslie Brubaker, eds. Sacred Image East and West. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, Papaconstantinou, Helen Protopapadakis. Athens: [s. Makris, Graphic Arts. Text in English and Greek. Patmos: Treasures of the Monastery. Athanasios D. Koninis, gen. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon, Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. Imago Dei: the Byzantine Apologia for Icons. Bollingen series; XXXV, Mellon lectures in the fine arts; Pokrovskii, Nikolai Vasilevich.
Petersburg, Russia: Appanage Press, Appears to be a typescript copy of the translation of the text of Evangelie v pamiatnikakh ikonografii preimushchestvenno vizantiiskikh i russkikh , without pictures and tables. Quasten, Johannes. Translated by Boniface Ramsey. NPM studies in church music and liturgy. Quenot, Michel. The Icon: Window on the Kingdom. Translated by a Carthusian monk. Includes bibliographical references p. Editor, Ch. Hernen, Holland: A. Bredius Foundation, German, French, and English. Rice, David Talbot.
Byzantine Icons. London: Faber and Faber, The Faber gallery of oriental art. David and Tamara Talbot Rice. Icons and Their History. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, Russian Icons. NY: Penguin Books, The King Penguin Books. Romanus, Melodus, Saint, 6th cent. Kontakia of Romanos, Byzantine Melodist.
Translated and annotated by Marjorie Carpenter. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, —72; v. The basis of the translation is the Oxford ed. Maas and C. On the Person of Christ. On Christian Life. Runciman, Steven. Byzantine Style and Civilization. NY: Penguin, Includes bibliography p.
Savas, Savas J. Minneapolis: Light and Life, Schork, R. Gainesville: University of Florida, Seaman, Gerald R. History of Russian Music. Oxford: Blackwell, Contents: v. From Its Origins to Dargomyzhsky. Sherrard, Philip. Constantinople, Iconography of a Sacred City. Sirota, Ioann B. Wurzburg: Augustinus-Verlag. Ostliche Christentum; n. Heaven on Earth. Sparathakis, Ioannis. Studies in Byzantine Manuscript Illumination and Iconography.
London: Pindar Press, Studies in Eastern Chant. General editors, Egon Wellesz and Milos Velimirovic. Imprint varies: v. William Tronzo and Irving Lavin, ed. Dumbarton Oaks papers; n. Touliatos-Banker, Diane H. Thessalonica: Patriarchikon Hidryma Paterikon Meleton, Analekta Vlatadon; Treasures of Mount Athos; Illuminated Manuscripts. Miniatures, Headpieces, Initial Letters. Philip Sherrard, trans. Pelekandis, P. Christou, Ch. Tsioumis, S.
Translation of Hoi Thesauroi tou Hagiou Orous; eikonographemena cheirographa. Translated by Robert Erich Wolf. NY: Abrams, Civ p. Translation of Ikone sa Balkana. Trubetskoi, Evgenii Nikolaevich. Icons: Theology in Color. Translation of Tri ocherka o russkoi ikone. Velimirovic, Milos M. Dumbarton Oaks Papers Washington , n. Virionides, Christos. Walter, Christopher. Art and Ritual of the Byzantine Church. Preface by Robin Cormack. London: Variorum, Wellesz, Egon.
Ancient and Oriental Music. Edited by Wellesz.
Related Collections (20)
New Oxford history of music, v. A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, Zibawi, Mahmoud. The Icon: Its Meaning and History. Allen, Joseph J. Grand Rapids, MI: W. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Amis, Robin. A Different Christianity. Anderson, Isabel. Building to Last. South Canaan, PA: St. Arseniev, Nikolai Sergeevich. Mysticism and the Eastern Church. Translation of Ostkirche und Mystik. Aumann, Jordan. Aumann, Thomas Hopko, Donald G. Chicago: Priory Press, Institute of Spirituality. Special lectures, v. Beck, Hans-Georg. Theoria: ein byzantinischer Traum?
Beck, Februar Bloom, Anthony [Metropolitan Anthony of Sourozh]. Beginning to Pray. NY: Paulist Press, Deus books. Courage to Pray. London: Darton, Longman and Todd, Translation of La priere. Meditations: A Spiritual Journey. Denville, NJ: Dimension Books, Blum, Richard. Blum and Alexander Golitzin.