Simon, W. Sokal, R. Freeman, San Francisco, Vann, E. Heath, Lexington, Baxter, W. Population Studies Volterra, V. Ullyett, G. Memoir Entomol. Africa, Pretoria. Lotka, A. Keyfitz, N. Kuczynski, R. Ehrlich, P. Kojima, K. Andrewartha, H.
Biophysical Ecology - David M. Gates - Google книги
Cavalli-Sforza, L. Goel, N. Wilson, E. Cole, H. Greville, T. Meadows, D. Williamson, M.
Arnold, London, Thermodynamic Considerations Katchalsky, A. Linford, J. Prigogine, I. Morowitz, H. Glandsdorff, P. Grodins, F. Riggs, D. Milsum, J. DiStefano, J. Hassenstein, B. Taxonomy Gregg, J. Sokol, R. Jardine, N. The Brain von Neumann, J.
Biophysical Ecology (Dover Books on Biology)
Arbib, M. Kabrisky, M. Stevens, C. Eccles, J. Ecology Kershaw, K. The word ecology is derived from the Greek words oikos , meaning house or place to live, and logos , meaning science or study. In America, the field of ecology became active about the turn of the century. In , Henry Cowles, of the University of Chicago, published his classic ecological study of the sand dunes of Lake Michigan. Soon after that, ecology was recognized as a distinct professional discipline. In , Victor Shelford, of the University of Illinois, reported on succession among communities of tiger beetles in direct association with plant succession.
An excellent summary of the history of ecology is given by Kendeigh and of plant ecology by McIntosh The definition of ecology makes it clear that it is a science which necessitates understanding of the physical environment, involving the fields of physics, meteorology, geology, chemistry, and so forth, combined with an understanding of biology, including systematics, community dynamics, anatomy, physiology, genetics, and other subjects. The science of ecology, by its very nature, is among the most complex of all the sciences and, because of this inherent complexity, must draw upon knowledge from the other sciences.
Ecology is done poorly if either the biotic or abiotic aspects of the subject are not treated in a fully correct and rigorous scientific manner. Each ecological process or event must be studied in its full complement of physical and biological components. This requires that the physical principles of ecology be dealt with by the ecologist as thoroughly and correctly as the physicist deals with physics and the chemist with chemistry.
At the same time, the ecologist must have a competent understanding of physiology, genetics, systematics, and other branches of biological science. This is a difficult order, yet a necessary one. Mathematical skills are also needed. Ecology, to be done well, must involve all the techniques of modern science. Fortunately, the modern computer is a very sophisticated instrument, capable of enormous data storage and complex mathematical manipulations. All of life involves energy flow and material flow.
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Not a single animal or plant lives or breathes without the transformation of energy. The most microscopic change within an organism involves utilization of energy. Energy is involved whether it is the coursing of blood through the veins and arteries of an animal, the transfer of electrons in the photosynthetic process of plants, the division or expansion of cells, the beating of a heart, the flying of a bird, or simply the bending of a branch in the wind.
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Fundamental to the study of ecology is an understanding of energy flow and of energy transfer from one form to another within the biological and physical systems. Also fundamental to ecology is an understanding of mass transport within the environment.
Life is not a static process within the organism; every cell, tissue, and organ is at all times chemically and physically active. An ecologist cannot remove him- or herself from understanding these factors, for they are often important in determining how an organism will respond to the forces and factors of the environment. Biophysical ecology is basically, therefore, an approach to ecology founded upon a thorough understanding of the sciences of energy and fluid flow, gas exchange, chemical kinetics, and other processes.
This understanding is enhanced by using mathematical formulations of physical processes and relating them to the unique properties of organisms. If we look about the world we live in, it is obvious that there are fairly distinct communities of organisms, such as those comprising a forest, prairie, pond, or stream. Not only are there a variety of communities in the world, but each community has a distinct set of edaphic environmental features. The term ecosystem is a convenient concept first proposed by Professor A.
Tansley in to describe the collective sum of biotic and abiotic components of a segment of the landscape. The definition of the term used here is that proposed by J. Marr : "An ecosystem is an ecological unit, a subdivision of the landscape, a geographic area that is relatively homogeneous and reasonably distinct from adjacent areas. It is made up of three groups of components—organisms, environmental factors and ecological processes. The ecosystem includes interactions between the plants and animals in an area with the climate and physiography of the region.
In order to understand the response of a particular organism to its environment, however, knowledge of the climate and physiography of a region is not sufficient. The microclimate and physiography in the immediate vicinity of the organism must be known as well. Traditionally, ecologists have preferred to study ecosystems from a macroscopic standpoint by attempting to describe the community structure, identify the species present, and understand the distribution and association of plants and animals, population dynamics, and the general interaction of climate with the plant and animal community.
Other ecologists have been concerned with understanding the trophic levels within ecosystems and the flow of energy and nutrients among the various trophic levels. Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Energy and Energy Budgets 3.
Application to Plants 4. Application to Animals 5. Radiation Laws, Units, and Definitions 6. Solar Radiation 7. Longwave and Total Radiation 8. Spectral Characteristics of Radiation and Matter 9. Conduction and Convection Evaporation and Transpiration Energy Budgets of Plants Energy Budgets of Animals Time-Dependent Energetics of Animals Photosynthesis Temperature and Organisms Appendixes. Rating details.