Manual Daniel Whedons Commentary on the New Testament - Volume 13 - 1st Corinthians through 2nd Timothy

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Usually a being present, presence. A coming, arrival, advent. A technical term for the visit of a king. William F. Arndt and F. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, , p. Presence … the proofs of his presence. Coming, advent as the first stage in presence. Horst Balz and Gerhard Schneider, eds. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Geoffrey W.

Bromilay, ed. Act the King James Version and Act Colin Brown, ed. Presence with certain effects following …and arrival, someone coming in order to be present. Ethelbert W. A being present, presence.

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Classical Gk. New Testament Usage. Paul…illustrated this same understanding when he contrasted his presence parousia with his absence apousia [ ]. Personal presence…. Cross, ed. Davies, St. Matthew S. George C. Divry, ed. Divry, Inc. Walter A. Elwell, ed. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright, eds. David Noel Freedman, ed. The Greek word parousia is used in the New Testament to speak of the arrival or presence of someone.

It is also used as a technical term to speak of the arrival or presence of Christ in glory…. Being present, presence. Coming, arrival. William H. Genty, ed. James Hastings, ed. Alvah Houg, ed. Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, by John A. Clark, V2, p. Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, eds. Presence — to be present. Appearing — to have come. Lampe, ed. Arrival, appearance, personal visit, advent. Presence, of persons. Note, many ancient Greek writings are cited for these conclusions. Johannes P. Louw and Eugene A. Paul Kevin Meagher and Thomas C. Allen C. Meyers, ed. Revell Co.

Their question was one, as they asked it, and expressed in His hearing all the puzzling emotions of their minds. When they said to Him, "Tell us, when shall these things be? The new life in Christ is enriched with a new value and a new power. There is a deeper knowledge of God, a clear vision of the treasure of His Word, and fuller expression of all these in the life. Truly he is a rich man. Rich in faith, rich toward God.

A Call to Patient Waiting. Waiting for the Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

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The Christians at Thessalonica had this gift 1 Thessalonians , We should be thankful that this gift is being freely bestowed on God's people in these days. A Call to a Blameless Life. Our lives must be affected by our prospects. How say you then that there is no good in looking for His Coming? A Call to Fellowship. Brethren, what a high calling this is! Called into partnership with God's Son in seeking to save the lost and in the building up of His Church, and in the hastening of His Kingdom.

In all this we are to be—not sleeping partners, but—active "co-workers together with Him. And from this fullness have we all received. A Call by a Faithful God. This holy calling does imply serious responsibility. We might well tremble when we think of our own poverty and ignorance and weakness. But then, it was by the God who is ever true to His promise that you were called.

Hear what the apostle says to the merciful Philippians: "My God, so great in His wealth in Christ Jesus, will fully supply every need of yours" Philippians Only believe! The preaching, or message, of the Cross, is treated in these days much in the same way as Christ Himself was treated in the days of His humiliation and sorrow v. The worldly wise sneered, and official dignity denied Him. By the preaching of Christ crucified the Cross is still making its appeal.

To them that are Perishing it is Foolishness v. A man must be sinking into the blackness of final despair who thinks God's method of salvation is "foolishness. To them that are being Saved it is the Power of God v. To them who are being plucked out of the fire, like brands from the burning, and being delivered from the dominion of sin, and translated into the Kingdom of His dear Son, and being taught by His Holy Spirit and satisfied with His grace it is the power of God.

To the Jew it is a Stumbling block v. The poor Jew, blinded by unbelief has been stumbling over the Cross ever since Christ rose from the dead. The Cross of Christ lies right across his path. He cannot possibly get it out of his way. Some of the things spoken of by this prophet have been literally fulfilled by the life and death of this Man called Jesus, the Christ Isaiah 53 , whom they crucified. They as a nation will go on stumbling until the Lord Comes, and they look upon Him whom they have pierced Zechariah To the Greek it is Foolishness v.

The Greeks seek after wisdom, but the message of the Cross, which is the embodiment of the wisdom of God, is to those worldly-wise ones "foolishness. There are many in our own day, like those Greeks, who are earnestly seeking after wisdom, and yet deliberately pausing by Him who is the wisdom of God v. The Gospel of Christ is the power of God to save to the uttermost of man's need, and the wisdom of God to satisfy to the uttermost man's search for truth.

To know God as revealed in His Word is to be made wise unto salvation. Our view of Christ in relation to God may be a great thing, but God's view of Christ in relationship to us His people is a much greater thing. It is with His reckoning we have specially to do. For by the reckoning of Almighty Grace Christ is made of God unto us—. The quality of being wise belongs more to character than to thought. He has given us capacity to understand spiritual things.

He can make us to abound in this wisdom Ephesians , so that we might be filled Colossians This righteousness comes not by the "works of the law," but by the reckoning of grace. Set apart, not as a recluse, but as a worker-together with Him. Jesus said: "On their behalf I consecrate Myself, in order that they may become perfectly consecrated in truth" John , Weymouth. We are not saved as a miser saves his money, but as a wise father saves his son, by giving him fitness for his life's work.

This promise may well put cheer and confidence in our hearts, that He will work deliverance for us, whether as tempted and tried pilgrims, or as warriors for the truth. This Revelation cannot Possibly be the Invention of Men. The eye of man's carnal mind has never seen it. The ear of man's worldly wisdom has never heard it.

Neither has it ever entered into the heart of man apart from the Holy Spirit the things which God has prepared for them that love Him v. The world by wisdom knew not God chapter It is a Revelation from God. God only could reveal the mysteries of His suffering Son. This is the glory of the Gospel message, that it is as true and as gracious as the God who gave it Galatians What this Revelation Is. It is the unveiling of the mystery of Christ and Him crucified v.

The revelation of the fact that He died for our sins, and rose again for our justification, and that He is coming again for our final deliverance Hebrews It is a revelation of His abounding grace to sinful men, and of His power to save to the very uttermost all that come unto Him. How this Revelation is Made Known. It has come from God, and it comes home to the believing heart by the Spirit of God. For "the Spirit searches the deep things of God. The Holy Spirit is the minister of the things of Christ 1 Corinthians He is the "Spirit of Truth," and He shall teach you all things bearing on the revealed will of the Father, "for He shall receive of Mine and shall show it unto you" John Oh, that all His people were so taught of God.

With such a "Teacher, come from God," there is no excuse for spiritual poverty. How these Things should be Preached. Without this power, preaching is without authority—"sounding brass. You ministers of His, "Tarry you until you be endued with powers from on high" Luke In Corinth there were many contentions, as there are in the world everywhere today. But Paul knew that the one thing needed by all was the power of the Gospel of Christ. The worldly, in their wisdom, would call this narrow-minded; but it is the wisdom of God to offer the Divine remedy for all the world's woes.

The whole counsel of God radiates from the "Christ and Him crucified. Paul, as a master builder, is here dealing with some fundamental facts concerning the Christian's life and work. A Foundation has been Laid.


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A foundation was needed, first, by God Himself, in which to build the structure of His redeemed Church; second, by man, on which to build his hopes for this life and the life to come. This foundation has been well and truly laid by the hand of infinite wisdom. Laid as deep as the grave, and as stable as the Eternal Throne. A Superstructure is Being Raised. Here are two different classes of builders—. The Wise Builder. Who builds "gold, silver, and precious stones.

He is careful about his doctrine, that the things he teaches in God's Name are in harmony with His Word. He is careful also about his manner of life. In 2 Peter there is laid down before us a whole load of suitable material for a wise builder. The Foolish Builder.

He uses "wood, hay, and stubble, or timber, hay and straw. He thinks that as long as you believe in the foundation it matters little what you build upon it, and so false teaching becomes easy, and the vain philosophies of the proud in heart become attractive. He is careless and indifferent in practice, his faith in Christ has brought no change in his life and outlook.

He still believes in building with "wood, hay, and stubble. A Testing Time is Coming. The foundation has been already tried Isaiah But the work done that has been associated with His Name will be tried with the fire of God's searching judgment. If the proud and the workers of iniquity are reckoned as stubble, so also are the works of the proud self-seeking Christians.

This fiery test is not to reveal whether we are Christians or not, but whether cur works as Christians are worthy of Christ or not. Will He own them, or will He burn then? That depends on their own intrinsic character, whether they are gold, or wood, silver or hay, precious stones or stubble. What they are will determine their destiny. Some Rewarded.

He is not rewarded because he is a Christian. Salvation is not a reward for good works. It is the gift of God. The reward comes for the good works done in His Name, that are well pleasing in His sight; works that are consistent with the character of the Foundation. True and good, precious in. His eyes, and that bear the stamp of eternal value. Some Not Rewarded. If his work is burned up it is because it is as wood, hay, and stubble, fit fuel for the fire. He may have a saved soul, but he has a lost life. Such will be the poorer through all the coming ages, as the result of his present ignorance and folly.

The wages of this sin is also death. Death to the prospect of being rewarded for faithful service at the Coming of the Lord 1 Peter , who shall try every man's work of what sort it is. For we must all of us appear before Christ's judgment, set in our true characters, in order that each may then receive an award for his actions in this life, in accordance with what he has done, whether it be good or worthless 2 Corinthians He cannot mistake the hollow, heartless, worthless hay and stubble service for the faith, love and works of the consecrated life.

Let every man take heed how he builds thereupon v. At this time the Corinthian Church was unstable in doctrine and factious in fellowship. Some things are specially emphasized by the prefix: "Do you not know" or "Know you not. Know you not that—. The Saints shall Judge the World v.

Daniel, in his vision, saw the Ancient of Days come, and the time that the saints possessed the kingdom Daniel , Jesus said: "You which have followed Me in the times of regeneration, when the Son of Man shall be enthroned, you also shall sit upon thrones judging" Matthew They lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years Rev.

It is a small matter for His saints to be judged of men now. Their day is coming. Your Bodies are the Members of Christ v. Know you not that these bodies of yours belong to Christ as really as your souls? The Lord is for your spirit, He also is for your body. Your body is a visible working member of Christ. The temptations of the Devil often come by way of the body. Keep it in subjection, lest by any means it might lead to uselessness 1 Corinthians Your Body is the Temple of the Holy Spirit v.

The Church of God is also His temple. We are all one in Christ, as a corporate body, it is the temple of God. But the body of each individual believer becomes a temple of the Holy Spirit. This is a more humbling, searching, and inspiring thought than that God dwells in His Church. Your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit Right in the center of this temple, in the Holy of holies, the heart, the Holy Spirit broods and works, bringing comfort and guidance in life, and power for testimony. God in the midst. Is this freedom or bondage? It is both. It means the freedom of the sons of God, the liberty of the Spirit; and the bondage of a conquered love.

Independence is an impossibility. To be independent we must be without a country, without a body, and without a God. Christ is much more than an Example for us, He is our Ransom. Having been bought by His Blood, you belong to Him; therefore, "you are not your own," and should "glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's" v.

The love of Christ ought to constrain us, that we who live by His redeeming grace should not henceforth live unto ourselves, but unto Him who died for us and rose again 2 Corinthians , 15 , that we might show forth the praises of Him who has called us out of darkness into His marvelous light 1 Peter The apostle is here vindicating both his ministry and his method, and there are suggested some qualifications for a successful ministry.

He had a Personal Experience of Jesus Christ. He had both seen Him and heard Him, and knew the transforming power of His revelation. He could truthfully say: "I know Him whom I have believed. How can we say, "We speak that we do know," if we have no personal experience of His saving power? He had Faith in God for the Supply of his Need. Although he asked nothing from those to whom he ministered the Word, but showed them that if he sowed spiritual things it was no great thing if he should reap their carnal things v.

The Gospel of Christ is without charge, and he would put no price on it for his own advantage v. He could say: "My God will supply all your need" Philippians It is a sorry service that can be bribed with money. He has Enthusiasm for the Gospel. This is not that kind of enthusiasm that can be worked up for a special occasion; not a convulsive effort that may be produced by a torrent of words. It is the result of the holy fire from the altar of the Cross blazing in the heart, where the "wood, hay, and stubble" of all self-seeking has been burned up, and where the Holy Spirit has taken possession of the life, and focused the energies of the soul in Christ and Him crucified.

He has Humility of Spirit. He was ready to take the lowest place that he might, if possible reach the lowest down. Like his Master, he took the towel of humility and girded himself, that he might wash the feet of others John , 5. He has the Power of Adaptation in Method. To them under the law, as under the law, that I might win them that are under the law" vv.

He declares further: "That I am made all things to all, that I might by all means save some. And this I do for the Gospel's sake" vv. In all this we may be assured Paul never condescended to pander to that which was evil, or encourage customs and practices which were dishonoring to the Name of Jesus. He simply and lovingly stooped down far enough to get a hold of them, that he might lift up into God's salvation.

No weakling in the faith should attempt this. It takes a strong man to swim against this tide. He is Self-denying that he might Keep Physically Fit. The body is a sacred instrument for the work of God. In eating and drinking, in work or in physical exercise, let us remember that the body is for the Lord, and the Lord for the body 1 Corinthians Paul assures us here twice over vv. We, like them, are pilgrims and strangers on the earth, enjoying great spiritual mercies. They had the "shadows," we have the realities. The Moving Cloud. The cloud of shelter by day, and of fire by night as their protection and guide Exod.

The cloud was the symbol and evidence of the Divine Presence, in itself a mystery. When it moved they moved. It seemed to move easily, but nothing on earth outside could move it. What a suggestive emblem of the revealed Word of God! They all were under it, and God was in it, and all were baptized into the one name Moses , their leader and law-giver v.

They were infallibly led by the God-created cloud, just as we can be by His unerring Word. To move without the cloud was to go in their own name, wisdom, and strength, which would mean for them confusion and failure. This is what it means for us when we choose our way, and act without His authority. It was because they believed and followed the cloud that they were able to go into the midst of the sea upon dry ground Exod. It is because we have believed and acted on the "Word of the Lord" that we have passed from death into life, from the place of bondage into the liberty of the land of the promises.

Keep on believing. Keep your eye on the God-inspired cloud. The Daily Manna. Those who follow the Word of God will surely be fed by the "Bread of God. It was the Gift of God. Of course all bread is God's gift, whether it comes out of the earth or out of the Heavens; but the wilderness could do nothing by way of producing it.

So Christ was God's gift to a starving world John It was Suited for All. All alike found it what it pretended to be: something to satisfy the craving of hunger. What Christ has to give is just what all the sons of men need, that which exactly suits them, the forgiveness of sins and grace to help in every time of need. Satisfied with His abundance. It was Offered to All. From the youngest to the oldest, without money, without price. The rich and the poor alike needed it. In this offer of Heaven's bread, God is no respecter of persons, for all have sinned.

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So Christ as the "Living Bread" from Heaven is offered, in God's grace, to any man who will eat this bread John , promising that he who eats shall live forever. It was Personally Used. To be personally profited there must be a personal appropriation. We may possibly gather much knowledge about Christ, and yet receive little strength and satisfaction from it, if the truth is not assimilated in our own spiritual life. The Rock that Followed Them. Like Christ, this Rock was Revealed by God.

It may only have taken God a few moments to show Moses this rock in Horeb, but it took Him over thirty years to show the Rock, Christ; for all the years of His earthly life was an unveiling of His character as the Chosen One. Like Christ, this Rock was Divinely Possessed. At Christ's baptism the Holy Spirit rested upon Him. There was to be no mistaking Him as the God-appointed medium of blessing to His trusting people. The Israelites might say, "How can any good come out of this rock?

Love: The Greatest Thing (1 Corinthians 13:1-3)

But they could say later on: "Of His fullness have all we received" John Like Christ, this Rock must be Smitten. The rock was not smitten for itself, but for the salvation of the people. He was wounded for our transgressions, the rod of God's judgment fell upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed Isaiah O wonder of wonders, that from His smitten Son there should come forth streams of redeeming mercies, out of the great depths of God's eternal purpose.

In that day in which Christ was pierced, there was opened a fountain of cleansing for a sinful world. Like Christ, this Spiritual Rock followed Them. They drank of that Spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ" v. This water from the Rock was to them an abiding blessing. It followed them. Something to satisfy all the way. Jesus said "The water that I shall give him shall be in him a well, springing up into everlasting life" John And, "Lo, I am with you, and will never leave you nor forsake you. They went up out of Egypt a mixed multitude Numbers , but not a man of them saw Caleb and Joshua enter into the promised possession Numbers What a warning we have here against secret sin, which leads to backsliding and to final overthrow.

Saved out of Egypt. They passed through the sea, and knew something of the God of Deliverance. They had identified themselves with the ransomed host.

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Baptized into the Name of the God-appointed leader, acknowledging his authority, and professedly his followers. In Full Communion.


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  7. They did all eat of the same bread and drank from the same Rock vv. What privileges were theirs, but how hollow their profession. Their Failure. It was great, and brought fatal results. The character of their failure as backsliders may be seen in that they—. Displeased God. With many of them God was not well pleased v. God's displeasure may not be apparent for a time, as He is slow to anger, but if not repented of will certainly ripen into judgment.

    Missing the Mark. The mark was the Land of Promise, but they missed it because of their unbelief Jude 3. They failed because they lost their faith in God. Premature Death. Every one of them died, we might say, before their time. God was willing to bring them into the "good land," but evil slays the wicked Psalm Those who wander in heart away from God scarcely realize how they are cutting short their lives. The Causes of Failure. They are many, but all have their root in heart-departure from the Living God, by ceasing to honor and obey His Word.

    Their sins are the sins of many in our own day, who have turned aside in heart from following the Lord. They Lusted after Forbidden Things v. The pleasures of the old unregenerate life are longed for, the bread of God has become stale Numbers , God Himself has become unreal. They Worshiped Other Gods v. When any other object is loved and honored more than the Lord our God, then we are idolaters, whether it be our business, our pleasures, our children, or ourselves.

    They Indulged in Social Impurity v. This secret, soul-withering sin is without a covering in the eyes of God. They Murmured at the Providence of God v. They murmured against Moses, against Aaron, against God's method of dealing with them, and became discontented even with the manna from Heaven Numbers When a professing Christian begins to murmur against God's servants, and to criticize and find fault with God's Word and message, be sure that in heart they are estranged from God, if they ever truly knew Him.

    The Present Application. These things are all examples unto us vv. All sins, secret or open, have still the same effect in separating the soul from fellowship with God, and overthrowing the testimony of the life as a witness to the power of Christ. Discontent with the provision and promises of God is the blighted fruit of a doubting heart.

    Brethren, let us labor therefore to enter into that "rest of faith," lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief Hebrews This ordinance is the heirloom of the Christian Church. The emblems are of a most simple and homely character— "Bread and Wine. The bread, "My Body;" the wine, "My Blood.

    His Incarnation. A body have You prepared me. He took on Him not the nature of angels, but the "likeness of sinful flesh" Romans He took the body prepared for Him by the Father, that He might have somewhat to offer as a visible sacrifice for the sin of the world. The taking of the bread as a symbol of His body was a voluntary act, for He made Himself of no reputation when He took the form of a servant Philippians His Devotion.

    He took the bread, emblem of His body, and gave thanks to God for it. Think of it!