Using carnivalesque ghosts ra ther Clitandre's La Cathedrale du mois d'aoiit o; The Cathedral ofthe August than horrific ghouls, more Halloweenesque than phantasmagoric figures, Heat, , a text in which the Gothic elements parodied in Depestre's Depestre in this parade summons three centuries of Haitian history: Indian Hadriana reappear as vehicles for the reaffirmation not of the sorcery of the caciques, Elizabethan corsairs, barons and marquises of Louis XIV's court, bokor but of the life-affirming and revolutionary qualities of Vodou itself. But th is Raphael, the novel is above all a metaphorical tale of a lost people's desperate carnivalesque celebration of death exploits the traditional classlessness of struggle to recover their history and, with it, the source of precious water the carnival festival to deny the deeply rooted differences that divide Haitian that can restore them to fertility and bounty.
It celebrates hope and renewal people along class and race lines. In this indiscriminate parade, all historical through its emphasis on the carnivalesque and its faith in the regenerating figures, regardless of the nature of their historical role, the relative value and revolutionary power of Vodou.
The text abounds in images spawned from political terror: crushed reduces to a senseless game of disguises crucial aspects of Haiti's class and hands, burnt bodies, cut-off penises, roasted testicles, sores, the blood that race divisions. The novel Haitian people to "the category of human cattle, malleable, pliable to one's treats individual deaths not as signaling an irrevocable end but as natural will" Hadriana, p.
Death ultimately asserts life, thus history of struggle against natural calamities, dictatorship, and repression ensuring the indestructible immortality of the people. During the Haitian husband freely against the people's struggle to elect a candidate committed people's open revolt against the repressive authorities Clitandre, Catbedrale, to social justice. Both will be denied this right. Montero never dwells on the p.
Her individual fate is not Montero's retrieve their lost history of struggle and revolt. The description of the massacre has too much trade unionists. Raphael, killed during the revolt, articulates the message of of a connection to historical realities to be read as merely literary: the Petro loas in the legacy of historical memory he leaves behind: "He had scraped it [into the old cannon] with the blade, as if he wanted to remove Appolinaire slowed down. He noticed the half-severed necks and arms and concluded they had been killed by machete blows..
Some men were on the blue Caribbean Sea, should not be forgotten" p, He Even more recently, Mayra Montero, in her short story "Corinne, returned to his house near dawn, avoiding the soldiers piling up bodies on muchacha amable" "Corinne, Amiable Girl," ,36 returns to the Gothic tarpaulin-covered trucks.
Corinne, the daughter of a white priest and a prostitute, another chapter in the narrative of the Haitian people's ongoing struggle is coveted for a beauty that owes much to her being partly white. But she for freedom from political and economic oppression. Montero denies the is engaged to marry a politically active deaf-mute, aptly named Dessalines people's zombification through the very materiality of their butchered bodies, Corail, and is disdainful of the love-sick Appolinaire. Her zombification their "half-severed necks and arms.
As in Jane Eyre, the young nurse falls in love with the master of the spite the enmity that has existed between the countries for centuries. In estate, and the romantic triangle is eventually dissolved through the death this, her most purely Gothic novel to date, she tells the disturbing tale of of the zombie, who is shown to have been an unfaithful wife.
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The world conjured up by Montero as a backdrop to this symbiosis which governs the lives of the central characters. The struggle, played out through the casting of spells meant oppression through its representation of the realities of plantation life, it is to torture, maim, and kill, becomes more horrifying when the laas, those visually dependent on the Gothic conventions that represent Vodou as that capricious Vodou gods, use the worshippers they possess during rituals as which is only half-comprehensible and half-frightening.
The film's longest their puppets in bloody dramas of their own, with even more disastrous and most haunting scene offers a catalogue of Gothic motifs as it follows results. Betsy and Jessica through the rustling cane fields to a Vodou ceremony, a true In Tu, la ascuridad ; In the Palm ofDarkness, Montero returns voyage of penetration into a strange and foreboding world punctuated by to the production of horror that served her so well in "Corinne, Amiable the increasingly spellbinding beating of drums. In the volatile and bloody setting a zombie "who materializes with disquieting suddenness on their path.
Awakened by tion and violence, senseless murder, sexual violence, and religious turmoil. Earlier in the film the cinematographer has underscored the film's sexual imagery when he captures Betsy waking Long before Montero, though, I Walked with a Zombie, a Hollywood in the middle of the night to listen to the sound of Carrefour's shuffling film directed by Jacques Tourneur and loosely based on Charlotte Bronte's footsteps. As she lies in bed, she is framed behind the ornate iron grille that Jane Eyre, was the first of man y cinematic rerenderings of British Gothic protects her window, with Carrefour's phallic shadow standing threateningly texts set against a Caribbean background.
Its young protagonist, Betsy, a against the wall that also holds a painting of a menacing, decaying Gothic Canadian nurse, comes to the fictional island of San Sebastian to care for fortress in the Udolpho tradition. The failed family the colonized nation to allow for recovery. His obsessive haunting persists only peat slogans he himself knows to be pointless. He dreams of becoming a until his death, when the marriage of the surviving heirs of Earnshaw and "hero," the embodiment of the fictional hero about whom he himse lf is Linton restores an illusion of happiness and proper English complacence.
In writing a novel, the feared and respected protagonist of a ground-shaking Jane Eyre too, where the death of the mad colonial wife is a prerequisite for revolt whose exploits would resound in the England he has left behind. In the bitterness of his Heathcliff-like sense of dispossession, meant to lead are pointless gestures. The revolt, when it finally comes, is ground in the works of the Bronte sisters. In Guerrillas, as Michael Neill has argued, "matching Naipaul's richness capable of being recreated in the lush and threatening Caribbean indignation at the destructive legacy of imperialism, [there] is a deepening landscape.
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These atmospheric correspondences are almost palpable in the despair at the seemingly irremediable confusion left in its wake. It implies, Gothic renderings of the Caribbean natural environment that we find in in its way, a critique of imperialism even more radical than [others]: for West Indian novels set in Dominica, for example. Yet she responds to what she perceives as their refusal refuses to grant it. He wants to be feared, relevant, but from the opening to obey her commands by packing their necks with mud, forgetting them in pages of the book the text and its characters seem intent o n depriving him the space where she has trapped them and killing them in the process.
For of significance. I think he just likes the name" p. Kincaid, in conceiving this tale of a daughter of tural and symbolic. Guerrillas mirrors Bronte's text in its examination of a Carib foundling who has died in childbirth and a man of mixed African the outsider as catalyst, and of his ultimate downfall as representative of and European race who is torn apart by his legacy, refuses to inscribe Xuela's colonial despair, but the author's vision of the Gothic in this text is no t tale in the world of romance, romance being "the refuge of the defeated" stylistic.
The Gothic tifs of Gothic fiction as an aid to his narrative as he is with larger structur es is better suited as a vehicle for Kincaid's stance of denunciation, linked as of meaning. Jamaica Kincaid, in her turn, deploys all the traditional elements it is to her literary model, Bronte's Heathcliff, and affording her a clarity of of Gothic fiction in The Autobiography of My Mother in a more elabora te vision which Heathcliff would have envied. The mother whom Xuela has never met, for example, haunts the book history.
Gifted with knowledge beyond reaso n, ing a ladder, only the hem of her white dress visible. Xuela, after a tortuous she, like Heathcliff, can hear the unhearable - the sounds of ghosts, sp irits, abortion that leaves her in a nightmarish daze, embarks on a phantasmagoric and djablesses in the deep of the night - and understand the deep-seated voyage of possession along the periphery of her home island, Dominica, a cruelty of colonial and postcolonial relations.
It is in her ability to de tach journey which she describes as her claiming of her birthright of the villages, herself from the passions surrounding her while paradoxically nurturing her rivers, mountains, and people. Kincaid, as Cathleen nothing" p. Critics have found the ramifications of the relationship which fills his body with pus and emerges from his leg just as he dies.
Rhys's "violation" of of the defeated - must assume the task of building a positive sense of self Bronte's text, it has been argued, results in the breaking of the integrity of out of the remnants of colonial destruction. Of expressive richness it achieves in postcolonial adaptation. Wide Sargasso Sea is the narrative of literary traditions with little or no Gothic elements of their own. Antoinette Cosway, eventually the madwoman in the attic of Bronte's work. Nowhere has the Gothic mode homage to Rhys's pioneering literature, writing a tale which, although very crossed oceans more powerfully or in more of a sharp dialogue between the much her own, resonates with echoes from Wide Sargasso Sea.
Rhys and postcolonial and the English Gothic. Rochester of jane Eyre chal societies. The problems of such a tra nsfer the colonized, appropriated, reinvented, and in that way very much alive in manifest themselves vividly in the text thro ugh Ferre's highly Baroque prose worlds far beyon d western Europe and the continental United States. What delights in this text is, above all, how well 2 For a discussion of Charlotte Smith's "The Story of Henrietta" in the context Ferre is able to incorporate into it, in ways quite Creolized and Hispanicized, of West Indian Obeah, see Alan Richardson, "Romantic Voodoo: Obeah and a broad range of traditional Gothic elements that add texture and depth to British Culture, " in Sacred Possessions: Vodou, Santeria, Obeah, and her critique of Spanish colonialism and American neocolonialism.
Lowden, , p.
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Malchow in Douglas A. Lorimer, "Gothic Images of Race mulatto in the corruption and exploitation of a postcolonial system - is also in Nineteenth-Century Britain Book Review ," Victorian Studies summer an act of identification with similarly placed Creoles of dubious racia l and : There is a passage in No Telephone to 9 ibid. Her impulse to ident ify with Jane's plight - with "Jane. Central Africa," Representations 43 summer : All Bertha. All Clare. London: T.
Lowndes, , II, in the midst of her own Gothic tale, is a powerful reminder of how th e 45 , Gothic, especially in the Caribbean, has become a part of the language of 19 C. Frank N. NJ: Salem Press, , p. Ellen victim to H oll ywood 's craving for sensa tionalism w here zo mbies are concerned. I' m not dead! Fernandez O lmos and Paravisini-Ceberr, pp.
The various western horror genres may have made of the zombie a terrorizing, murder- ing creature, as evident by the number of horror films that have made the zombie the most recognizable Caribbean contribution to the Gothic genre in film and literature.
Haitians, on the other hand, do not fear any harm from zombies, yet they may live in fear of being zombified themselves. It is also the quest for a revitalising salt capable of restoring to man the use of his imagination and his culture. If such legacies of the Haitian Revolution form the master-narrative for the Gothic representation of slave revolt in the Caribbean, the tale of Marie M.
Her coffin was dug up, and in it was found the wedding dress in which she had been buried, but the remains proved to be those of a man. She was disinterred by a Vodou practitioner and recalled from her state of apparent death three days after the funeral. She is alive today and lives abroad. In despair, her parents placed her in a convent in France, where she died many years later. In Port-au-Prince she had been a beautiful, light-skinned, upper-class girl who had fallen in love with a mulatto young man of low birth but ample for- tune.
Brimming with lust, he gives her the zombie poison to inhale in her wedding bouquet, and she collapses during her wedding ceremony, recovering her mobility when she is disinterred and the antidote is administered.
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Alexis makes the most of the entrapment motif to convey the claustrophobic psychology of Gothic space in this tale, both through the imprisonment of his narrator in a convent and through her prior confinement in a coffin and subsequent captivity. Fictional versions of the story of Marie M. This racial tension, this fear of miscegenation and interracial desire, has been an element of the Gothic since the earli- est days of the genre. In a colonial setting, in an environment where racial differences have had profound social, political, and economic repercussions, they acquire greater meaning and significance, becoming yet another element through which the Gothic enters into the critique of colonialism.
There are plenty of Gothic motifs in the text, but they appear in their parodic form, carnivalized and thereby distanced from their traditional connection to horror and evil. But this carnivalesque celebration of death exploits the traditional classlessness of the carnival festival to deny the deeply rooted differences that divide Haitian people along class and race lines.
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In this indiscriminate parade, all historical figures, regardless of the nature of their historical role, the relative value of their deeds or misdeeds notwithstanding, are granted equal significance. These contradictions negate the conviction of the existence of iniquity and vice that gives to the colonial Gothic — as seen through the symbolic representation of the zombie — its potential for historical and social signification.
It celebrates hope and renewal through its emphasis on the carnivalesque and its faith in the regenerating and revolutionary power of Vodou. These im- ages blend with Gothic, frightful images of the body as a mutilated, rotting corpse. The text abounds in images spawned from political terror: crushed hands, burnt bodies, cut-off penises, roasted testicles, sores, the blood that soaks and fertilizes the scorched earth. Death haunts the text, and the peo- ple are represented as subject to ever-threatening plagues, natural calamities, and repressive terror.
The Gothic resonance of these images notwithstand- ing, death and the dead body are depicted as stages in the renewing of the ancestral body of the people, not as the limbo of zombification. The novel treats individual deaths not as signaling an irrevocable end but as natural and necessary phases in the cycle of life. Death ultimately asserts life, thus ensuring the indestructible immortality of the people.
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The Petro rites in Vodou, born of the rage against the evil fate suffered by Africans transported to the new world and the wrath against the brutality of displacement and enslavement,35 fulfill a function in this text similar to that of the Gothicized Obeah of British fiction of the eigh- teenth and early nineteenth centuries: that of fomenting and sustaining the desire for revolt among slaves and exploited peasants.
Corinne, the daughter of a white priest and a prostitute, is coveted for a beauty that owes much to her being partly white. But she is engaged to marry a politically active deaf-mute, aptly named Dessalines Corail, and is disdainful of the love-sick Appolinaire. Both will be denied this right. The description of the massacre has too much of a connection to historical realities to be read as merely literary: Appolinaire slowed down. He noticed the half-severed necks and arms and concluded they had been killed by machete blows.
When he turned the cor- ner, without having the time to avoid it, he found himself facing a mob that was suddenly upon him, dragging him along little by little. Some men were sobbing loudly, their faces covered with blood and their clothes torn. He returned to his house near dawn, avoiding the soldiers piling up bodies on tarpaulin-covered trucks. The world conjured up by Montero as a backdrop to this struggle is terrifying in its festering hatred, self-destructive greed, and sex- ual jealousy.
The struggle, played out through the casting of spells meant to torture, maim, and kill, becomes more horrifying when the loas, those capricious Vodou gods, use the worshippers they possess during rituals as their puppets in bloody dramas of their own, with even more disastrous results. As in Jane Eyre, the young nurse falls in love with the master of the estate, and the romantic triangle is eventually dissolved through the death of the zombie, who is shown to have been an unfaithful wife. Dressed in a robe reminiscent of that of a vestal virgin being offered for sacrifice, she steps into the vortex.
The black bodies rustle past her as did the canes, their near-touch eroticized as emblematic of the forbidden, while her passivity makes her unable to forestall the taboo touch. In the bitterness of his Heathcliff-like sense of dispossession, Jimmy plans a revolt whose futility will only confirm the ultimate power- lessness and irrelevance of the resourceless islands of the Caribbean. One motivation may be the vivid imagery and evocative environment of the Yorkshire moors as presented in Wuthering Heights and to a lesser extent in Jane Eyre , an atmospheric richness capable of being recreated in the lush and threatening Caribbean landscape.
These atmospheric correspondences are almost palpable in the Gothic renderings of the Caribbean natural environment that we find in West Indian novels set in Dominica, for example. Jamaica Kincaid, in The Autobiography of My Mother, conjures up the world of Dominica not to recreate it in its physical or social nuances but to inscribe in it a casual cruelty, to superimpose on it a world in which the ghosts of colonialism still haunt the relationships of contemporary men and women.
The failed family romance of Wuthering Heights, the placid English domesticity temporarily shattered by the intrusion of foreign elemental passions, we must remember, lasts only as long as Heathcliff does. His obsessive haunting persists only until his death, when the marriage of the surviving heirs of Earnshaw and Linton restores an illusion of happiness and proper English complacence. He wants to be feared, relevant, but from the opening pages of the book the text and its characters seem intent on depriving him of significance.
Naipaul is less concerned with deploying the conventions and mo- tifs of Gothic fiction as an aid to his narrative as he is with larger structures of meaning. Jamaica Kincaid, in her turn, deploys all the traditional elements of Gothic fiction in The Autobiography of My Mother in a more elaborate and systematic critique of postcolonial society.
In Xuela, her female version of a Caribbean Heathcliff, she returns to the model of Wuthering Heights, a seminal text in her own formation as a writer, to inspire the passionate intensity and atmospheric power of her nightmarish vision of Caribbean history. Xuela, fierce and fearless, is a defiant figure endowed with remark- able prescience and farsightedness.
Gifted with knowledge beyond reason, she, like Heathcliff, can hear the unhearable — the sounds of ghosts, spirits, and djablesses in the deep of the night — and understand the deep-seated cruelty of colonial and postcolonial relations.
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Yet she responds to what she perceives as their refusal to obey her commands by packing their necks with mud, forgetting them in the space where she has trapped them and killing them in the process. In The Autobiography of My Mother this narrative of symbolic denuncia- tion is rendered through the interrelated Gothic themes of motherlessness, lovelessness, miscegenation, and the differences between the languages of the colonizer and the colonized. The mother whom Xuela has never met, for example, haunts the book as she haunts her daughter, appearing frozen in a recurring dream, descend- ing a ladder, only the hem of her white dress visible.
Xuela, after a tortuous abortion that leaves her in a nightmarish daze, embarks on a phantasmagoric voyage of possession along the periphery of her home island, Dominica, a journey which she describes as her claiming of her birthright of the villages, rivers, mountains, and people. The characters surrounding Xuela, liker her father, per- form their particular versions of evil out of a bitterness and hatred rooted in their plight as colonized and exploited victims. Her half-brother, weak and irresolute, dies from a debilitating parasitic worm, which fills his body with pus and emerges from his leg just as he dies.
Her half-sister, an emotionally crippled, vengeful, envious, sad, and embittered woman, bears the crippling injuries she sustains after a freak accident as a mirror of her psychic scars. The Gothic nuances of The Autobiography of My Mother allow Kincaid to compose with vivid hues a fictional world in which the colonizer and his mimics are validated at the expense of the colonized, a world in which those like Xuela, clear-sighted enough to understand the evil impact of the process — to grasp it visually from watching its Gothic signs on the bodies of the defeated — must assume the task of building a positive sense of self out of the remnants of colonial destruction.
Nowhere has the Gothic mode crossed oceans more powerfully or in more of a sharp dialogue between the postcolonial and the English Gothic. Wide Sargasso Sea — a text remark- able for its evocation of landscape, its treatment of Obeah and the presence of colonial ghosts, its recasting of the haunted Mr.