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Allegory is not distinctive to Christian exegesis of the Old Testament. It was used by Greek literary scholars in the ancient world to interpret the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, and it was employed by Jewish thinkers—for example, Philo of Alexandria—to interpret the Pentateuch. Christian allegory has similarities to this kind of allegory, but what sets it apart is that it is centered on Christ.

Allegory in Christian usage means interpreting the Old Testament as a book about Christ. Therefore Jesus Christ brings about the unity of Scripture, because he is the end-point and fullness of Scripture. Everything in it is related to him. In the end he is its sole object. Consequently, he is, so to speak, its whole exegesis. As the historical study of the Bible gained ascendancy in the twentieth century, however, the Old Testament came to be understood chiefly within the framework of ancient Near Eastern history, culture, and literature.

The books of the Old Testament were, of course, written before the coming of Christ; one task of interpretation, therefore, will always be to set them within the context in which they were first composed. The first Christians, however, recognized that these books were not simply documents from the past but living testimonies to the marvelous things that happened in their own time and continue to happen.

This book of the Bible contains all the mysteries of the Lord and proclaims him as Emmanuel born of a virgin, as a worker of glorious deeds and signs, as having died and been buried and rising from hell, and, indeed, as the Savior of all the nations. In calling Isaiah an evangelist and apostle, Jerome reflects the practice of the New Testament.

In his humiliation justice was denied him. Who can describe his generation? For his life is taken up from the earth. It was not only Isaiah, however, that spoke of Christ; the books of Moses, Ezekiel, and Jeremiah, the Minor Prophets, the Psalms, and the wisdom books also spoke clearly of Christ. The Epistle to the Hebrews begins with seven quotations from the Psalms and other books of the Old Testament and applies them directly to Christ.

The Old Testament is a large book, and it is not obvious how everything in it derives its meaning from Christ. Just as St. He is glorious in his apparel. The heavenly powers, strong and wise and filled with heavenly glory, were looking upon Christ, even in the flesh, as a mighty one, thoroughly invincible, who manifests his divinity as well as his humanity to them. Although this interpretation of Isaiah 63 may be foreign to current readers, it was almost universal in the early Church. A different kind of example can be found in an ancient paschal homily preached in the second century by Melito, bishop of Sardis in Asia Minor.

Look also at the sheep which is slain in the land of Egypt, which struck Egypt and saved Israel by its blood. Some books—Proverbs, for example—do not yield readily to allegory. This Syriac edition with English translation is the historic first printing of such an edition of the manuscript available to European scholars. The unusual nature of Syriac monks translating the work of the Greek heathen Plutarch give this document inherent historical value. By Theodore Appel.

Series: Kiraz Theological Archive 9. In this painfully honest study, Appel describes the trials behind the early stages and the eventual success of the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Church in the United States. Appel analyzes the circumstances from Christianity and History By Adolf Harnack. Series: Kiraz Theological Archive 8.

On the Unity of Christ

Both the concepts of personality and history are closely examined. Harnack asserts that historical criticism causes no real damage to authentic Christianity. Series: Kiraz Theological Archive 5. Three miniscule gospel codices held by the General Theological Seminary in New York are published in partial facsimile form, along with thorough collations and descriptions. Codices Gregory , , and are included. Tristram was among the earliest scholars to attempt a documentation of the physical landscape of the Holy Land. This study describes the geography, geology, meteorology, zoology, and botany of the land of the Bible, as experienced in the nineteenth century.

Series: Kiraz Theological Archive 3. Brooke Foss Westcott, noted scholar on the canon of the New Testament, presented this series of devotional instructions as a result of a lecture series he delivered in Beginning with the state of the Catholic Church in Sweden prior to , Anjou traces the history of the Swedish Church up through the Council of Uppsala in Acts of Saint George By E. Series: Analecta Gorgiana 8. The classic hagiography of Saint George is presented here by E.

He gives a critical edition of the Syriac accompanied by an annotated English translation of the Acts. Ancient Liturgies of the East By C. Bringing together into one volume the classic liturgical studies of C. Hammond and F. Brightman, this edition provides a valuable source of comparison on the liturgies of the church. The Acts of Pilate By F. The Acts of Pilate is an apocryphal document of uncertain date.

Conybeare offers an introduction to and a critical edition of this text based on a Greek recension compared with two Armenian versions. Rackham publishes here a critical edition of the Canons of the Council of Ancyra In his comments on the text he evaluates the manuscripts available for this edition and provides the Syriac and Armenian versions for comparative purposes. The remarkable discovery of a fourth-century list of the books of the Old and New Testaments and the writings of Cyprian is related in this essay. The canon and order of the biblical books are discussed and the stichometry of the lists is also explored.

Series: Kiraz Theological Archive 4. This book traces the history of American foreign missions of all denominations. Following a historical survey of the missionary activities, the author gives the biographies and works of twenty-nine men and women missionaries. Numerous portraits are included. This book is a critical examination of his writings on the subject, analyzing what he said about the Eastern Christian Churches and highlighting his insights into key questions.

The book concludes by comparing Fortescue's perspective to later advances in theology and historical scholarship in order to ascertain the long-term accuracy of his writings. By Gregory Abulfaraj Bar Hebraeus. Bar Hebraeus, a celebrated Syriac writer of the thirteenth century, wrote on nearly every subject imaginable. The Book of Ethics is a manual of discipline and etiquette covering secular life as well as spiritual life.

Fathers of the Ante-Nicene Era

The Book of the Dove is the ascetical guide composed by Bar-Hebraeus for aspiring hermits. It concerns the training of the body and the soul for ascetical life. The spiritual rest of the perfect is also described, along with a spiritual autobiography of Bar-Hebraeus himself. By Paul Bedjan. Paul Bedjan produced this catechism to advance the knowledge of Catholicism among Aramaic-speaking Christians of the Middle East. The book is written in Modern Aramaic, in the dialect of Urmia. The book is of interest not only for pedagogical purposes among the Aramaic speakers, but also will give the Neo-Aramaic scholar a literary text from the late nineteenth century.

The Catholic Church of the Third Millennium has retained many of its medieval images and formulations making its message incomprehensible for modern people. The book suggests different ways for modern Catholics to speak about Scripture, hierarchy, Jesus, the afterlife, sacraments, sin, redemption, sacrifice, supplicating prayer and other issues. His study seeks to be a faithful translation, advanced by modernity, of the same message that was previously transmitted in traditional medieval language.

By David A. Who was Jesus, really? That question has been debated by academics for the last two centuries, and contributions to this important issue in the history of Christianity are still making an impact on public opinion.


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Jesus the Galilean takes soundings in the life of the historical Jesus based on four readings from the Gospel of Mark which represent some of the most controversial issues in the current scholarly discussion about the historical Jesus. This book explores what can be known about the historical Jesus in the historic Galilee. Series: Gorgias Eastern Christian Studies 2.

This unique study brings together the best of contemporary exegesis with the tradition of Eastern Christianity and illustrates the biblical roots of the Eastern Church's understanding of grace as the energy of God. The book presents, in lay terms, the shape for an Orthodox biblical theology for the 21st century and will be of interest to all Christians for whom the Bible is divine revelation and for whom tradition continues to be creative. By Gregorios Bulus Behnam.

Syriac sources portray her as a woman of sublime character and decorum, the daughter of a Syriac priest. This historical play outlines her character according to the Syriac tradition. In writing the play, Bishop Gregorius Boulos Behnam portrayed Theodora as a virtuous lady who won the heart of Justinian, who made her his Augusta and co-regent of his empire. Behnam reveals her extraordinary devotion to her faith and piety as she strives to protect the Fathers of the Syriac Church who stood against the declarations of the Council of Chalcedon and were persecuted for it.

Now available for the first time in English, this edition translated by Matti Moosa stands counter to the view of Theodora as portrayed by Procopius in his version of the story, as it is popularly known in Western Christendom. Series: Judaism in Context 5. Josephus Overbeck. A useful source for Syrian documents generally hard to find, this compendium of the writings of St. Presented in Syriac, they are available now as a handy resource.

By Lois M. This study portrays Cyril of Alexandria as exegete and theologian through an examination of his Commentary on the Gospel John. It begins with an attempt to place Cyril and his commentary within their context. This work argues that Cyril wrote his Commentary on the Gospel of John early in his writing career, almost a decade before becoming bishop.


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The commentary also focuses on the nature and work of the Holy Spirit: the indwelling of the Spirit is the beginning of the newness of life. Scheindlin Edited by Jonathan P. Decter ; By Michael Rand. This volume contains contributions, in English and Hebrew, on the following topics: Biblical criticism, Medieval Biblical lexicography, Classical and Post-Classical piyyut, Medieval Hebrew poetry and science, Judeo-Arabic poetry and epistolography, Classical Arabic poetry and prose, and the history of Jewish Studies in America.

Written by F. Burkitt, A. Meillet, and L. Magnus, the articles consider the patristic period and modern European literary usage of Hebrew scripture and tradition. By Steve A. Series: Gorgias Ugaritic Studies 2. Asherah is one of the most popular goddesses known from the ancient world. To date, this monograph contains the only full-length treatment of the Ugaritic material on Asherah in addition to a comprehensive examination of the textual sources from the Hebrew Bible, ancient Mesopotamia, Epigraphic South Arabian and Hittite sources, as well as the intriguing Hebrew inscriptions that perhaps mention the goddess.

In this book the Syriac texts along with translations of the tales of the martyrs themselves as well as the miraculous deliverance of Euphemia are introduced by Professor Burkitt with a commentary focusing on the historicity of the different accounts. By Jason S. Series: Gorgias Biblical Studies Profound in its conclusions and targeted toward the exegete, this volume offers a clear method for establishing flow of thought, text hierarchy, and literary macrostructure in biblical Hebrew prose.

The study contributes both to hermeneutical theory and to the study of Deuteronomy by arguing for the application of discourse linguistics alongside stylistic and semantic analysis in the interpretation of OT texts. It includes a brief literary-structural and theological commentary on Deuteronomy 5—11 that models the text grammatical approach and shows its benefits for exegesis. By Harrison Gray Otis Dwight.

This work provides a summary, short author biography, and reference to editions or translations of all the works of Armenian provenance known to the author. It concludes with works of Greek Church Fathers and secular literature preserved in Armenian. By William Romaine Newbold. Epiphanius, the great fourth century heresiographer, included in his discussion of the Valentinians an excerpt from a manuscript, of which Newbold here provides the Greek text and the Syriac original, along with his translation, textual notes and commentary. The Testament of Solomon By F. An excellent translation follows a critical essay, which argues that the Christian elements of the text do not point to a Christian author, but rather indicate that this work is a Christian recension of a Graeco-Jewish original.

By George Moore. This work is indispensable to the student of Jewish-Christian dialogue. A compelling discussion of the origins and authorship of the Odes of Solomon, this work provides great insight into the person of Bar Daysan as well as the research surrounding the text of the Odes of Solomon. By Otto Lichti. Christian Demonology By F. This work is concerned primarily with the treatment of the demonic within early Christian literature, but also incorporates evidence from various other world religions, especially early Judaism and paganism.

An Introduction to Cyril of Alexandria | Union Resources

Reviewing the relevant Jewish and Christian literature the author demonstrates that though there is no mandate for ascetic practice within early Judaism, there is a deep respect there for an ascetic way of life. By Sidney Adams Weston. Herein a 13th century Alexandrian Jewish convert to Islam records his understanding of the truth of Islam over Judaism. Sidney A. Weston edits, translates and comments on this text making it accessible to the scholar and enthusiast alike.

This study explores the Emperor Julian's actions in regards to the Jews, especially his advances toward rebuilding the Jewish Temple. Textual evidence regarding the ancient Near Eastern goddess Ishtar is carefully cataloged, transliterated and translated. This is a great resource for anyone interested in the languages and religions of the ancient Near East or Biblical Literature. A philological study of the usage of Memra, Shekinah, and Metatron in Tragumic and Cabbalistic literature that combats nineteenth century Christian attempts to read these as references to the Second or Third Persons of the Trinity.

In this book the Syriac texts along with translations of the tales of the martyrs are introduced by Professor Burkitt with a commentary focusing on the historicity of the different accounts. Series: Kiraz Commentaries Archive 1. This piece provides an introduction, translation and commentary to a previously unstudied lectionary text, which provides deeper insight into early liturgical practice and the conception of the canon; and includes an index of the lessons according to books of Scripture.

Zoroastrianism A Concise Introduction. This work is an excellent, concise history of the development of the Zoroastrian religion. Special attention is given to the historical development of the religion from monotheism to a dualistic system, with particular emphasis on ethical and eschatological teachings. This work focuses on the literary and textual concerns of the Georgian and Armenian recensions of the Barlaam and Josaphat legend, and provides translations of all that remains of the Georgian text and the relevant Armenian parallels.


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By Paul Haupt. This work is a compilation of three articles by Professor Haupt on the Book of Canticles, also known as the Song of Songs. It is an excellent resource for study, both for the layperson and the scholar. This work is a compilation of two articles by Professor Haupt on the book of Micah. Together, these articles provide an excellent resource for the study of the book of Micah, both for the layperson and the scholar. This essay takes a text critical approach to the comparison between the Septuagint and Massoretic texts of Hosea.

St Cyril of Alexandria, Champion of Our Lady

Its reproduction seems timely as Septuagint studies have seen increased interest in recent times. William Scott Watson. The three essays in this volume address the physical, historical and literary features of what were at the time two of the very earliest clearly datable manuscripts of the Pentateuch known to exist. Presenting an original translation with introduction and commentary as well as an edited Hebrew text along with critical notes, this is an excellent resource for the study of the book of Nahum, both for the layperson and the scholar.

By Paull Franklin Baum. Philosophical Hermeneutics for the Church. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, These readings are numerically listed at the end of this syllabus, and are cited throughout the course schedule below. Regular attendance and informed participation in class discussions. The page should also include graphics, perhaps links to video or primary works, and a brief bibliography.

Oral report in class approx. Include printed summary to be distributed to class members. One comparative exegesis paper approx. Analysis of a biblical text as interpreted by two exegetes from two different historical periods or contexts. Final exam. Three critical reflection papers approx. Due dates: Sept. Final examination. If you have completed the accommodation request process, please contact me the professor of this course to discuss the implementation of the accommodations I received from the office of disability services.

If you would like accommodations but have never submitted a formal request, contact Heather Jackson at , hjackson milligan. Justin Martyr, excerpt from the Dialogue with Trypho 2nd century 3.

Nestorius and Cyril take turns in rehab

Melito of Sardis, excerpt from Homily on the Pascha late 2nd century 4. Origen, Homily 2 on Genesis 3rd century 6. Origen, Homily 27 on Numbers 3rd century 7. Ellen Davis and Richard Hays, pp. Origen, excerpt from the Commentary on John 3rd century 9. Origen, excerpt from the Commentary on Matthew 3rd century Athanasius, excerpts from the Discourses 2 and 3 against the Arians 4th century Cyril of Alexandria, excerpt from the Commentary on John 5th century Theodore of Mopsuestia, excerpt from the Commentary on Zechariah early 5th century Theodore of Mopsuestia, excerpt from the Commentary on Galatians early 5th century Pamela Bright and D.

Arnold, pp. Augustine, excerpt from On Marriage and Concupiscence early 5th century Pelagius, excerpt from the Commentary on Romans early 5th century Ambrose of Milan, Hexaemeron, Book 1 Homilies 1 and 2 John Cassian, Conferences 14 early 5th century Gregory of Nyssa, excerpt from The Life of Moses 4th century Maximus the Confessor, To Thalassius 17 early 7th century Ephrem the Syrian, Hymns on Paradise 4th century Romanus the Melodist, excerpts from the Kontakia on the life of Christ 6th century Peter Abelard, excerpt from the Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans 12th century Nicholas of Lyra, excerpt from the Commentary on Revelation on Rev.

Origen, Prologue to the Commentary on Song of Songs 3rd century Bernard of Clairvaux, Homily 1 on the Song of Songs 12th century Erasmus, excerpt from the Annotations on Romans early 16th century Richard Muller and John Thompson, pp. Martin Luther, excerpt from the Lectures on Genesis on ch.

Still Stand against the Fanatics 16th century John Calvin, excerpt from the Commentary on Genesis on ch. Rudolph Bultmann, excerpt from the Commentary on John 20th century