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There have been numerous events in history that have shown disapproval of Black hair styles, some of which have transcended into present day. Black hairstyles that are straight and more reserved seem to be the more accepted styles. Other hair styles may face scrutiny due to their vast difference to the White beauty idealistic hair.

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The idea of accommodating this White beauty ideal has a strong presence in everyday life, but more specifically the workplace. The station threatened to take Tolliver off the air until the story caught national attention. KGO called her hairstyle "inappropriate and distracting". After two weeks of a public dispute, an NAACP demonstration outside of the station, and negotiations, Reed and the station reached an agreement.

The company paid her lost salary, and she removed the colored beads. She returned to the air, still braided, but beadless. Sherman was criticized by some in the community, who thought that the book presented a negative stereotype although it won three awards , but she was supported by most parents of her students. Imus apologized two days later, after receiving widespread criticism. Her slide show included her negative comments about Black women wearing natural hairstyles in the workplace, calling them "shocking", "inappropriate", and "political".

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Both the law firm and Glamour Magazine issued apologies to the staff. In , Chris Rock produced Good Hair , a documentary film which addresses a number of issues pertaining to African-American hair. He explores the styling industry, the variety of styles now acceptable in society for African-American women's hair, and the relations of these to African-American culture. The Kenyan model Ajuma Nasenyana has criticized a trend in her native Kenya that rejects the indigenous Black African physical standards of beauty in favour of those of other communities.

In a interview with the Kenyan broadsheet the Daily Nation , she said,. It just shocks me. It's not OK for a Caucasian to tell us to lighten our skin [ I am natural. People in Europe and America love my dark skin. But here in Kenya, in my home country, some consider it not attractive. In November , the American actress Jada Pinkett Smith defended her daughter Willow 's hair on Facebook after the girl was criticized for an "unkempt" look. In , Stacia L. Brown relieves her story of feeling anxious about how her hair was styled prior to walking in for a job interview in her article, My Hair, My Politics.

A couple months after her big chop, she entered the Job market and she became very nervous about how her hair would appear to job interviewers. Luckily, none of the interviewers acknowledged her hair in a discriminating way. Then she made a comparison between her natural hair, which is easier to style, and her relaxed hair, which is more accepted.

Stacia also incorporated examples of workplace discrimination toward Black hair styles. She recalls how, "the Congressional Black Caucus took the U. The perception of afro-textured hair, in the eyes of one with this hair type, may prefer to style their hair in a way that accentuates their racial background or they may conform to a more European hair style. The results showed that "only, Published in , the article entitled, African American Personal Presentation: Psychology of Hair and Self Perception , gave the rundown of an experimental procedure conducted in America, using data from five urban areas across the country and females ages 18— A questionnaire was administered which determined how "African American women internalize beauty and wearing of hair through examination of locus of control and self-esteem.

American women have a feeling of empowerment when it comes to wearing their natural hair. Toni Morrison , Nobel Prize —winning American author, with dreadlocks. During the 19th century, throughout the West Indies , the teachings of Jamaican political leader Marcus Garvey encouraged an active rejection of European standards of beauty.

The resulting Rastafari movement of the 20th century has maintained that the growth of freeform dreadlocks is related to spiritual enlightenment , largely informed by the Biblical Nazirite oath. The Rastafari movement has been so influential in the visibility and subsequent popularity of dreadlocks, throughout the Caribbean and in the global African diaspora, that the term "rasta" has become synonymous with a dreadlocked individual.

Over the years, natural hair styles and trends have varied from media influences and political climates. Numerous salons and beauty supply stores cater solely to clients with natural afro-textured hair. The Afro is a large, often spherical growth of afro-textured hair that became popular during the Black power movement. The Afro has a number of variants including " afro puffs " a cross between an Afro and pigtails and a variant in which the Afro is treated with a blow dryer to become a flowing mane. The " hi-top fade " was common among African-American men and boys in the s and has since been replaced in popularity by the waves and the Caesar haircut.

Other styles include plaits or braids, the two-strand twist, and basic twists , all of which can form into manicured dreadlocks if the hair is allowed to knit together in the style-pattern.


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Basic twists include finger-coils and comb-coil twists. Dreadlocks , also called "dreads", "locks" or "locs", can also be formed by allowing the hairs to weave together on their own from an Afro. Another option is the trademarked "Sisterlocks" method, which produces what could be called very neat micro-dreadlocks. Manicured locks—alternatively called salon locks or fashion locks—have numerous styling options that include strategic parting, sectioning and patterning of the dreads.

Popular dreadlocked styles include cornrows , the braid-out style or "lock crinkles", the basket weave and pipe-cleaner curls. Others include a variety of dreaded mohawks or lock-hawks , a variety of braided buns, and combinations of basic style elements. Natural hair can also be styled into "bantu knots", which involves sectioning the hair with square or triangular parts and fastening it into tight buns or knots on the head. Bantu knots can be made from either loose natural hair or dreadlocks.

Other styles include the "natural" also known as a "mini-fro" or "teenie weenie Afro" and "microcoils" for close-cropped hair, the twist-out and braid-out in which hair is trained in twists or braids before being unravelled , "Brotherlocks" and "Sisterlocks", the fade , twists Havana, Senegalese, crochet , faux locs, braids Ghana, box, crochet, cornrows , bantu knots, custom wigs and weaves or any combination of styles such as cornrows and Afro-puffs.

A majority of Black hairstyles involve parting the natural hair into individual sections before styling. They have also been known to cause ailments such as alopecia , balding at the edges of the scalp, excessive dry scalp , and bruises on the scalp. Keeping hair moisturized, trimming ends, and using very little to no heat will prevent breakage and split ends. Grammy-Award winning American artist India. Arie , also known for singing about afro-textured hair in her award-winning song " I Am Not My Hair ".

Dancer at the Tribeca Film Festival. Brazilian singer and professional dancer Luciana Mello. Afro-Colombian children. Brazilian Teodoro Fernandes Sampaio. Lead singer Lisa Kekaula of the rock band The Bellrays. Afro-Brazilian politician Luiza Helena de Bairros. Boney M performer Bobby Farrell , Afro-Brazilian singer Larissa Luz. A Fijian Melanesian mountain warrior. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A hair texture. Himba girl with styled afro-textured hair. This section includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. African-American woman wearing styled textured hair. A young African-American woman wearing styled textured hair.

Fats Domino with natural afro-textured hair. Play media. Nigerian football player Isah Eliakwu. Afro-Brazilian actor Darlan Cunha. Swedish artist Ayesha Quraishi. Singer Lenny Kravitz. Retrieved From Grandma's Kitchen. Archived from the original on Maibach eds. Ethnic Skin and Hair.

New York: Informa Healthcare. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. Hair Science. ScholarWorks Georgia State University. Georgia State University. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. Shaving is accomplished with bladed instruments, such as razors. The blade is brought close to the skin and stroked over the hair in the desired area to cut the terminal hairs and leave the skin feeling smooth.

Depending upon the rate of growth, one can begin to feel the hair growing back within hours of shaving. This is especially evident in men who develop a five o'clock shadow after having shaved their faces. This new growth is called stubble. Stubble typically appears to grow back thicker because the shaved hairs are blunted instead of tapered off at the end, although the hair never actually grows back thicker.

Waxing involves using a sticky wax and strip of paper or cloth to pull hair from the root. Waxing is the ideal hair removal technique to keep an area hair-free for long periods of time.

It can take three to five weeks for waxed hair to begin to resurface again. Hair in areas that have been waxed consistently is known to grow back finer and thinner, especially compared to hair that has been shaved with a razor. Laser hair removal is a cosmetic method where a small laser beam pulses selective heat on dark target matter in the area that causes hair growth without harming the skin tissue. This process is repeated several times over the course of many months to a couple of years with hair regrowing less frequently until it finally stops; this is used as a more permanent solution to waxing or shaving.

Laser removal is practiced in many clinics along with many at-home products. Because the hair on one's head is normally longer than other types of body hair, it is cut with scissors or clippers. People with longer hair will most often use scissors to cut their hair, whereas shorter hair is maintained using a trimmer. Depending on the desired length and overall health of the hair, periods without cutting or trimming the hair can vary. Cut hair may be used in wigs.

Hair has great social significance for human beings. Hair is most noticeable on most people in a small number of areas, which are also the ones that are most commonly trimmed, plucked , or shaved. These include the face , ears , head , eyebrows, legs , and armpits , as well as the pubic region. The highly visible differences between male and female body and facial hair are a notable secondary sex characteristic.

The world's longest documented hair belongs to Xie Qiuping China , at 5. She has been growing her hair since , from the age of Healthy hair indicates health and youth important in evolutionary biology. Hair color and texture can be a sign of ethnic ancestry. Facial hair is a sign of puberty in men. White hair is a sign of age or genetics, which may be concealed with hair dye not easily for some , although many prefer to assume it especially if it is a poliosis characteristic of the person since childhood.

Male pattern baldness is a sign of age, which may be concealed with a toupee , hats, or religious and cultural adornments. Although drugs and medical procedures exist for the treatment of baldness, many balding men simply shave their heads. In early modern China, the queue was a male hairstyle worn by the Manchus from central Manchuria and the Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty; hair on the front of the head was shaved off above the temples every ten days, mimicking male-pattern baldness, and the rest of the hair braided into a long pigtail.

Hairstyle may be an indicator of group membership. During the English Civil War , the followers of Oliver Cromwell decided to crop their hair close to their head, as an act of defiance to the curls and ringlets of the king's men. Recent isotopic analysis of hair is helping to shed further light on sociocultural interaction, giving information on food procurement and consumption in the 19th century.

Female art students known as the "cropheads" also adopted the style, notably at the Slade School in London, England.

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Regional variations in hirsutism cause practices regarding hair on the arms and legs to differ. Some religious groups may follow certain rules regarding hair as part of religious observance. The rules often differ for men and women. Many subcultures have hairstyles which may indicate an unofficial membership. Many hippies , metalheads and Indian sadhus have long hair , as well many older indie kids. Many punks wear a hairstyle known as a mohawk or other spiked and dyed hairstyles; skinheads have short-cropped or completely shaved heads.

Long stylized bangs were very common for emos , scene kids and younger indie kids in the s and early s, among people of both genders. Heads were shaved in concentration camps , and head-shaving has been used as punishment , especially for women with long hair. The shaven head is common in military haircuts, while Western monks are known for the tonsure.

By contrast, among some Indian holy men, the hair is worn extremely long. In the time of Confucius 5th century BCE , the Chinese grew out their hair and often tied it, as a symbol of filial piety. Regular hairdressing in some cultures is considered a sign of wealth or status.

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The dreadlocks of the Rastafari movement were despised early in the movement's history. In some cultures, having one's hair cut can symbolize a liberation from one's past, usually after a trying time in one's life. Cutting the hair also may be a sign of mourning. Tightly coiled hair in its natural state may be worn in an Afro. This hairstyle was once worn among African Americans as a symbol of racial pride. Given that the coiled texture is the natural state of some African Americans' hair, or perceived as being more "African", this simple style is now often seen as a sign of self-acceptance and an affirmation that the beauty norms of the eurocentric dominant culture are not absolute.

It is important to note that African Americans as a whole have a variety of hair textures, as they are not an ethnically homogeneous group, but an ad-hoc of different racial admixtures. The film Easy Rider includes the assumption that the two main characters could have their long hairs forcibly shaved with a rusty razor when jailed, symbolizing the intolerance of some conservative groups toward members of the counterculture.

At the conclusion of the Oz obscenity trials in the UK in , the defendants had their heads shaved by the police, causing public outcry. During the appeal trial, they appeared in the dock wearing wigs. Women's hair may be hidden using headscarves , a common part of the hijab in Islam and a symbol of modesty required for certain religious rituals in Eastern Orthodoxy. Russian Orthodox Church requires all married women to wear headscarves inside the church; this tradition is often extended to all women, regardless of marital status. Orthodox Judaism also commands the use of scarves and other head coverings for married women for modesty reasons.

Certain Hindu sects also wear head scarves for religious reasons. Sikhs have an obligation not to cut hair a Sikh cutting hair becomes 'apostate' which means fallen from religion [65] and men keep it tied in a bun on the head, which is then covered appropriately using a turban. Multiple religions, both ancient and contemporary, require or advise one to allow their hair to become dreadlocks , though people also wear them for fashion. For men, Islam, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Christianity, Roman Catholicism, and other religious groups have at various times recommended or required the covering of the head and sections of the hair of men, and some have dictates relating to the cutting of men's facial and head hair.

Some Christian sects throughout history and up to modern times have also religiously proscribed the cutting of women's hair. For some Sunni madhabs , the donning of a kufi or topi is a form of sunnah. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hair disambiguation.

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For the epithet, see List of people known as the Hairy. For other uses, see Glabrousness disambiguation. Scanning electron microscopy image of Merino wool top and human hair bottom showing keratin scales. Section of skin , showing the epidermis and dermis ; a hair in its follicle; the Arrector pili muscle; sebaceous glands. Main article: Human hair color. Main article: Human hair growth. This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Human evolutionary genetics. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: Hair diseases. Main article: Hair care. Main article: Laser hair removal. See also: Ponytail. See also: Hairstyle. Chaetophobia — the fear of hair Hair analysis alternative medicine Hypertrichosis — the state of having an excess of hair on the head or body Hypotrichosis — the state of having a less than normal amount of hair on the head or body Lanugo Seta — hair-like structures in insects Trichotillomania — hair pulling.

Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. UNSW Press. Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 28 June Disease and Its Causes. The Biology of the Skin. CRC Press. Retrieved on 18 May Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 12 February Scientific American. Biology Letters. Journal of Applied Physiology.

Journal of Human Evolution. Archived from the original on 8 May February Bibcode : Sci The Hindu. Bibcode : Natur. The vertebrate integument, Vol I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. An introduction to the study of mammals living and extinct. New York: Cornell University Library. Retrieved 8 June Flat scutes, with the edges in apposition, and not overlaid, clothe both surfaces of the tail of the beaver, rats, and others of the same order, and also of some insectivores and marsupials. Scholarpedia of Touch. Retrieved 21 February The most important rules to follow are:.

Keep your curls in tact over night. If you're going to spend time diffusing the curls, you'll want the gorgeous results to last for days on days on days. The best way to keep 'em in tact is by " pineappling " your hair on top of your head and twisting it into an old, soft cotton T-shirt. This will keep your curls neat and reduce friction while you sleep. Apply products to your hands like hand cream. When you think about it, applying product to only 50 percent of your hand surface area doesn't make sense. By rubbing products all over your hands, you're making like Drake and hitting all the spots that you ain't even know was there when you run your fingers through your curls.

In other words, it ensures an even distribution of product when coating your strands. Part your hair back only halfway back. Vernon explained this concept to me like this: "With curly hair, it's like you're at a party and you never want to be standing around while people dance. You want to join in and turn up. What he meant by this is that when you part your hair all the way back to the crown, it flattens the volume.

Instead, you should be embracing the va-va-voom of your texture by parting it only halfway down your head, which instantly adds volume to the back sections of your roots and is flattering to the face.