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I, 6, p. Lu de balm, comme le relevait M. Nous relevons li titre d'exemples :. XIV, 1, p. T, 5, p. II Substantif et adjectif. Nos auteurs confondent substantif et adjectif. Composition nominale. Comme en cambodgien l'adjectif suit le nom. Confusion des cas. Tout se passe comme si la langue maternelle des auteurs exigeait en ce cas une construction directe.

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DBU, et V, 1, p. DBU, et V, 5, p. DBU, et V, 12, p. Confusion des genres. Les confusions portant sur le genre sont nombreuses dans ce texte. Martini sous Vf, p. Le nombre. Il en est ainsi en cambodgien, et aussi en siamois et en vietnamien :. Singulier par con lamination de l'expression :. VIII, 1 b, p. VIII, 2, p. VIII, 3, p. Dans les textes d'origine indo- chinoise comme en cambodgien nagara est souvent synonyme de rattha.

VII, 1 , p. Les pronominaux. Mais dans le cas qui nous concerne, il s'agit d'une habitude grammaticale. Maspero, art. Atlan 3e, et Dh. Saddam ti, p. Donne-les moi. Si je les mange tous deux.

Ce que révèlent les intifadas à la française - Liberté d'expression

Le temps des verbes. On dira par exemple : khfium pan sukh citt. Il existe en sanskrit un emploi prohibitif du futur avec ma. DBU, X, 1, p. Le mode des verbes. Alors le roi. N'ayant vu nulle part de bateau au bord de la mer. Pour sampattim, ci". XI, La jeune fille ayant pris sa chevelure. La voix des verbes. Le fait que le verbe dissati peut avoir soit le sens actif, soit le sens passif, explique la phrase :. Les exemples les plus marquants se trouvent dans ce texte. Temps periphrastiques. Et cf. Kl cl. Morphologie du verbe. CPD, art. DPL, art. L'auteur de ce texle confond les formes actives et passives : sampalicchiyamana [DBU, 63 et XI, 2, p.

XI, 1, p. Les mois invariables. Imam me nagaram rammam, B, Imam me pacchimam deva, B, 99b. Ubho mayam piyapultam, B, Kattha ratlhe ca dese ca, B, B, Taya rajjam mama rajjam ekam yeva duve bhave, K, Tasma pandito naro, B,. Tasmini chadantadahe pure, K, Te tamhi nagare n'atlhi, K, Mayam sabbe maharaja, K, Maya saddhim ehi bhadde, B, Yo poso devate pivo, B, Balthe ca padese c'eva , K, Sace mahiddhiko devo, K, Implications for subjective contour theory and generic view theory are considered.

In this paper, I will consider the natural difficulties in dealing with spatial information in biological visual systems. Chief amongst these are the exponential number of potential spatial comparisons and the need for external metrical calibration. A theory of spatial representation is proposed that avoids most of these difficulties, being based on reliable statistics of natural images. In this theory, qualitative neighbourhood operations at various spatial scales and orientations can serve to provide all the information that is necessary for basic spatial representation.

It will be demonstrated how such a theory illuminates existing psychophysical data. Biographical and scientific data supporting a relationship between mood disorders and creativity will be presented. Hypothesized explanations for such a relationship will be discussed. Treatment and ethical implications will also be discussed. A characteristic feature of musical creativity is that compositional styles tend to change over time.

This generalization holds for almost every type of music, whether jazz, rock, or pop. Stylistic changes are especially pronounced in classical music, as is evident by comparing compositions by composers widely dispersed in historical time e. Moreover these stylistic changes can often be observed within the careers of individual composers e. Computerized content analyses of music in the classical repertoire have indicated how these stylistic changes occur.

Fifteen eminent architects and thirteen fine artists were studied at two points in time 23 years apart , with the goal of assessing changes in personality and stylistic expression. The mean age of the architects at time of follow-up was 72 years while that of the artists was 59 years. Changes in intellectual organization competence , social presence, and availability of creative resources were minimal.

Stores of libidinal and aggressive energy drive were virtually undiminished, and interest in creating was high. The two groups remained significantly different from each other in how they drew on and used creative resources.

Inside the American Nightmare: Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho and Its Cultural Context

A psychological approach to art history is described. Hypothetically, the main trends in the history of art arise from artists continual necessity to produce novel works in order to counter the effects of habituation. This pressure leads to monotonic increases in the arousal potential or impact value of artworks. It indirectly causes oscillations in content indicative of primordial cognition. These oscillations correspond to generally agreed upon changes in artistic style. Quantitative studies of a number of poetic and artistic traditions are supportive of the theory.

In accordance with information theory, various branches of our spiritual life have to oscillate synchronously over periods of 50 years, in which the dominance of analytical features is interchanged with the dominance of synthetical ones. Clements and Perner demonstrated that in the traditional false belief task, children consistently look at the place where the protagonist mistakenly thinks a desired object is a year before they can say so explicitly by pointing to that place. Variations of the task e. Children's looking behavior seems to be a genuine sign of "implicit" understanding.

The question to be discussed is what kind of implicit understanding, for it is unlikely to be implicit in the sense of children's inability to express themselves verbally, unlikely to be procedural, unlikely to be using a primitive visual-link, or using an unconscious visual pathway, etc. Intention is a useful domain to search for preverbal roots of theory of mind because it is closer to the action, farther "downstream" than other mental-state concepts. I investigated whether infants understand people as acting intentionally. In one study, infants saw a person perform failed acts.

To an adult, it was easy to read the actor's intention. When given an opportunity to respond, infants imitated what the adult intended to do rather than the behaviors she did do. Evidently, infants, like adults, differentiate between intention and outcome. The implication is that infants have already adopted a fundamental tenet of common-sense psychology.

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Studies of normally developing children indicate that preschoolers have a complete representational understanding of mind. In this presentation we provide evidence that in autism, the neurocognitive mechanisms serving theory of mind are specifically impaired, but that a minority of autistic adolescents may use knowledge of syntactic complementation to bootstrap their understanding of mental states. In contrast, our studies of children with Williams syndrome suggest that this is a spared cognitive domain in this population.

Thus, these two neurodevelopmental disorders provide a double dissociation in theory of mind. How can the young brain attend to mental states, when mental states cannot be seen, heard or felt? One currently popular answer is that children construct a theory much as scientists do, using general intelligence. An alternative view is that children employ a specialized cognitive mechanism that is specifically adapted for this task.

I shall review some ideas about the nature of this "theory of mind mechanism" ToMM and some of the relevant neuropsychological evidence. Reading pervades almost every realm of human activity. Inference processing, by coordinating text information and general knowledge, is central to comprehension. The present studies inspect the inference processes that establish coherence among the current clause, the prior text, and general knowledge.

They explore whether these inferences predominantly focus on surface and ideational representations or include the situational level. Computer simulations of several traditions are applied to the refinement of our understanding of these comprehension processes. The validation hypothesis states that before a reader accepts the tentative causal inference that bridges the sentences of Laurie left early for the birthday party, She spent an hour shopping at the mall, the inference is validated against relevant world knowledge.

Experiments that probe numerous inference conditions and reading tasks confirm that people need less time to answer questions about validating knowledge, such as Do birthday parties involve presents? These effects are simulated by instantiating the validation model as a construction-integration analysis Kintsch, Psychological Review, of causal comprehension. Prior research, including our own, suggests that successful readers attempt to maintain anaphoric and causal coherence as they proceed through a text.

They do so by inferential processes that include reinstatement of prior text and activation of background knowledge. The result, we propose, is a fluctuating landscape of activations. After presenting empirical evidence that on-line activations indeed resemble such a landscape, we describe how the fluctuating activations provide the basis for the construction of a stable memory representation.

This description is implemented in a connectionist model and found to predict frequency as well as order of recall. According to the minimalist hypothesis, readers focus primarily on the maintenance of local coherence; integration at the global level occurs only when there is a local coherence break or when global information is "readily available.

Results from several recent studies are described demonstrating that readers maintain global coherence, even when a text is locally coherent. Results are discussed within the context of a resonance framework in which global information becomes readily available through a fast-acting, passive, resonance process. In this paper, I argue that text processing in the service of producing a coherent understanding is necessarily selective. Selectivity in processing has been shown with respect to referential ease focus , degree of semantic processing, the determination of relationships supporting cohesion, and the extent of elaborative inferencing.

The bulk of the paper will concern interrelations between these types of selectivity, addressing the extent to which they can be unified under a single umbrella notion. I shall argue that these aspects of selectivity may be understood within the Scenario-mapping and focus framework of processing. Inferences were traditionally viewed as the generation, validation, and storage of individual propositions in memory. Recently, distributed multi-level representations of the wording, propositional contents and the referential situation of a text have been shown to be empirically more adequate than localist memory representations.

Rather than by the strengths of individual propositions, inferences must consequently reside in the connection weights among various memory nodes. I will first present the signature results from two different experimental paradigms and then show how the generation, maintenance, and modification of connectivity patterns can provide a unified account for inference processes in text-comprehension.

As modern society develops at a faster pace than ever before, economic and technological progress have brought about environmental and social changes. However, modernization has often been achieved in developing countries at the expense of traditional values and patterns of behavior that are important aspects of a country's cultural heritage. Some of the changes are: living conditions, social values, family structure, the role of woman, and education of children.

The manifestations of environmental and social changes are described for some developing countries, and ways to maintain traditional cultural values and to minimize the destructive consequences are discussed. Climatic and other environmental changes are a major concern of current social planning and of social and natural science research. Substantial increases of annual near-surface air temperature will result in shifts of climate zones with far-reaching impact on human life conditions. In this contribution, the Human Dimensions Program HDP in the field of global environmental change is presented with illustrative results from behavioral and questionnaire studies of human activity contributing to and becoming affected by global climatic change.

Latin America has undertaken very rapid social change in the last few decades. This change has affected the individual, the family, small and large groups, and has had implications on the quality of life. The most important change has taken place in the role of women, that in some cases has passed from very traditional to very advanced. The implications for patterns of child rearing and in the world of work have been very important. The phenomenon of rapid social change is clearly shown in many contemporary cultures, especially those transforming from rigid state-controlled systems to more flexible and privatized ones.

In the present study, the idea of psychological control is elaborated. An analysis of the concept of social control is first presented. Social control, like physical control, is external.

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The concept of psychological control is internal. Internalization of control is the basic and immediate task of socialization agencies. Psychological controls are the mechanisms that regulate human behavior. For psychological controls to be effective in rapid change context, paradigm shifts should be emphasized: i. Life in modern society and communities has brought a great deal of change. The characteristics of life in urban communities are: population growth, modernization of high-technology, new socio-cultural values, limiatations of space and time.

These factors influence the pattern of life in the family, life should be very hard and competitive. They also influence the growth and development of the child, the home has become a "house" for the child. Various aspects of family life in modern Indonesian society and environmental influences on children are discussed. Modernization has often been attempted in developing countries at the expense of traditional values, and patterns of behavior that are unique and indigenous and form an important sector of a country's cultural heritage.

This development need not be achieved at such a price. This paper will give testimony to this viewpoint by illustrating how the traditional art of Chinese calligraphy has been researched by psychological methods, which has not only established its scientific nature and significance, but also a new branch of behavioral medicine for the treatment of a number of behavioral disorders.

This paper will demonstrate the value of modernizing selected traditional heritage for the service of humankind. The outcome of the rapid transformation of China to a democratic and market-oriented society involves not only political and economic changes but crucial psychological factors as well. These changes will enable Chinese psychologists to take a more proactive stance in advancing the scientific study of psychology and promoting its application in social and personal contexts. Research needs to be directed towards: 1 meeting human needs and expanding participation of people in political, economic, and social processes, and 2 finding ways to minimize destructive consequences of rapid social change.

This symposium examines recent empirical and theoretical developments in the study of instrumental learning based on animal research. These developments include the analysis of underlying associative structures and the role of incentive learning in the motivational processes governing the performance of such actions, which has clarified the distinction between purposive action and habit. The implications of such behavioural research for understanding the neural substrates of learned actions are now being explored.

The goal of conditioning-based explanations of behavior has been a specification of how the strength of behavior is determined by events contingent on that behavior. This approach tacitly assumes that individual responses can be ordered in terms of their strengths, which are determined by their individual contingencies.

This assumption stands in contrast to the cognitive view that animals acquire veridical knowledge about the objective relationships in their experience. This presentation will assess the behavioral position based on recent data, from both choice and contrast, in which obtained reinforcement contingencies predict very poorly the strength of a particular behavior relative to its competitors. Under many natural instrumental contingencies animals have to perform one action in order to bring into operation a contingency between another action and an outcome.

In the laboratory, such a relation typically holds between a free-operant action and magazine behavior. Animals are sensitive to the hierarchical structure of these chain contingencies and the control of different links of the heterogenous chain can be dissociated by motivational variables.

Motivational processes do not directly control instrumental performance, but do so indirectly through their influence on the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. Thus, a post-training shift in motivational state only affects subsequent instrumental performance if rats are given the opportunity for consummatory contact with the instrumental outcome in the new motivational state.

This incentive learning effect appears to be general to a range of motivational shifts: manipulations of hunger, thirst, thermoregulatory and sexual demands. Further studies have indicated that incentive learning influences performance through two processes: motivational determination and motivational control of the incentive value of the instrumental outcome. In an analysis of the role of incentive learning in instrumental performance, rats were trained to perform an action under low fluid deprivation and were subsequently shifted to high deprivation.

God of War - Raising Kratos - "Making Of" Documentary

This shift increased performance only with prior exposure to the reinforcer under high deprivation. A further experiment used a concurrent training procedure with two actions. Pre-exposure to a reinforcer under high deprivation produced greater performance of the action upon which it was contingent during training following a shift from low to high deprivation. Thus, instrumental performance following a post-training shift in water deprivation depends on incentive learning.

For 20 years, our concepts of neural mechanisms of reinforcement have centred on the role of the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmentum and their projections to the ventral striatum. This paper will discuss the implications of a recent discovery of a nucleus in the pontine tegmentum in which lesions appear to block learning reinforced by pure incentives, but the effect is overcome by conditions which induce a drive state.

Lesioned animals trained in a deprived state seem to be insensitive to the magnitude or quality of the reinforcer, while remaining sensitive to manipulations of the drive state. We explore some exciting new possibilities for analyzing experimental data in psychology that are suggested by recent advances in data collection and computing technology. We look at techniques in the time domain such as vector ARMA and state-space models and at frequency domain methods generalizing analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and principal components to stationary series.

Applications to the analysis of vector magnetic resonance imaging FMRI series, observed under various experimental treatment combinations, will be used to illustrate some of the new methodology. The hypothesis is that change in dysfunctional beliefs toward body sensations precedes improvement during treatment still has to be demonstrated. Multivariate Time Series MTS analysis was performed on data recorded daily by 12 subjects during 15 weeks of cognitive behavior therapy. All subjects were panic-free at post-treatment. The existence of two different treatment mechanisms is discussed. The application of multivariate ARMA analysis is demonstrated using daily ratings from twenty cancer patients.

Time-lagged relationships between well-being, pain-intensity, suffering and coping-expectation were analyzed. With few exceptions simple lag 1 models with one to three significant coefficients predominate. Most of these coefficients are autoregressive in the sense that it is a variable's own past which influences its present value. The most frequent time-lagged interrelationship between two distinct variables was from coping-expectations to well-being.

Thus, multivariate ARMA analysis revealed few but consistent and interpretable relationships between variables. Schmitz, B. This study tested a model of how perceived control functions regulate children's performances. Data, collected daily in the classroom over four months, was organized around children's graded assignments. For each homework, children provided information about their effort, performance and expected control over the next assignment.

Multivariate time series analyses were conducted for single subjects. Results supported the model. Nevertheless, marked differences between specific intraindividual links in the model were found. HLM parameters of those trends are then related to several outcomes and to pre-treatment characteristics. Mean weekly PTSD symptoms decreased immediately after disclosing victimization memories in group. Those who improved the most on three outcomes showed more substantial drops in weekly PTSD symptoms following disclosures.

Those who showed the least improvement on two outcomes showed substantial increases in PTSD symptoms following disclosures. Prior individual therapy predicted decreases in PTSD symptoms following disclosures. The clinical usefulness of multivariate time series analysis is illustrated using a case study of a patient with type II diabetes.

Observations of blood glucose, perceived stress, and caloric intake were modeled. Reliability of the obtained model was demonstrated using forecasting. Causality tests followed by model simulations showed that perceived stress did not have a direct effect on blood glucose levels.

Perceived stress had a positive lagged effect on changes in consumed calories, which in turn resulted in an increase in blood glucose levels. For this patient, perceived stress had an indirect and delayed impact on metabolic control. Nine psychophysiological and nine psychometric measures of anxiety were obtained from groups 40 each of neurotics NT , hospitalized psychotics HP , discharged psychotics DP and normals NM.

Discriminant analysis of the data produced three discriminant functions. The centroids of the groups revealed that NM, HP and NT had high negative loading on the first, second and third functions, respectively. Two experiments are described in which French-speaking adults were shown pairs of adjectives and asked to choose as quickly as possible which member of each pair BEST or LEAST described them.

Experiment 1 involved epicene adjectives, while Experiment 2 involved inflected adjectives. Results revealed a a clear symbolic distance effect on both RT and response accuracy, b faster responses with BEST than LEAST, and c a full but largely asymmetrical congruity effect on response latencies. Schnotz, W. Grzondziel, H. Information obtained from pictures and diagrams can frequently be visualized in different ways. The paper presents a framework for analysing comprehension of visualisations and for instructional decisions on which kind of visualisation is most appropriate for specific purposes.

Comprehending visualisations is considered as a mapping process between a visuo-spatial structure of a picture or diagram and an internal structure of a mental model. Several experiments are presented which demonstrate that the structure of visualisations affects both the structure of mental models and the computational efficiency of these models.

Implications for a theory of visual learning are pointed out. The relationship between visual and motor components in mental paper folding was examined. Vividness and size of a completed image, and time for mental folding were analyzed. The results showed that imaging time was prolonged by visual and motor interference stimuli. In poor imagers, visual interference stimulus dimmed vividness when motor interference stimulus was concurrent, but there was no effect without motor stimulus.

Such an interaction was not found in good imagers. The image size was estimated to be larger when motor component was available than when not available. These results indicate that two components are interactive in imagery processes. Experiments were conducted to examine how three-dimensional mental models were constructed from viewing two-dimensional displays.

Results indicated that a subjects were more likely to use a constructive strategy when viewing orthographic projections of less complex objects; b the constructed mental models were not much affected by the viewpoint biased by the order of viewing sequence; and c three-dimensional models preserved more structural details at the focal attentional region than in an unfocused area.

Raphel, C. Barraud, P. A model of tactual image formation emphasizing interactions between brain and body structures and processes is presented. Ongoing reproduction of the signatures of object-skin interactions at the site of the interaction and the special role of corticofugal pathways are central features. Support for the model is drawn from neuroanatomical evidence, sensory physiology, neuroelectric coding, principles from materials science, and the authors' research on passive and active touch done in Russia and the West.

The model's relevance to direct realist approaches to perception and the relative contributions of parallel and serial processing are discussed. Describing spatial layouts, people may use several strategies to solve the problem of linearly sequencing multidimensional space.

One of these strategies is to describe layouts along the way one encountered them. If people encounter space along two opposite routes they choose the route they first experienced. Two experiments are described to show this linearization strategy anchor effect , and to prove the effect of route direction within the spatial priming paradigm.

VI. Samuddaghosajâtaka. Conte pâli tiré du Pannâsajataka

This effect indicates that the anchor effect is part of the knowledge structure about route knowledge. We discuss these results with respect to represented points of view. Presenting the information in frequencies instead of probabilities made the difference. Based on these findings, a computerized program taught subjects to "translate" probability information into frequency representations.

The long-term effect was analyzed one week and five weeks after the training. The effect was stable and even increased in some cases. A systemic view on affect has been designed as a guideline for clinical purposes. Seven basic emotions including non-emotion are hypothesized: silence, love, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and depression. A rationale is given based on multimodal grounds why these emotions are considered basic.

Existing theories on basic emotions are discussed from this multimodal systems perspective. This has implications for the clinician who operates within a cognitive-behavioral framework when tackling emotional disorders. Negative emotional dispositions have been variously interpreted. To clarify the issue, we had 47 pairs of university room-mates respond to 12 measures: self-report scales of dispositional anxiety, depression, and anger; global self-ratings on these attributes; peer-report scales of trait anxiety, depression, and anger; and global room-mate ratings on these qualities.

Three factors emerged: personal distress self-referent anxiety and depression measures ; personal anger self-referent anger measures ; and peer negative affectivity all room-mate referent measures. Psychometric, intrapersonal, and interpersonal implications are discussed. This paper provides a general framework for the understanding of emotional intensity. It indicates the major intensity variables and their correlation with emotional intensity. Two major groups of variables are proposed: the event's impact, which includes the variables of the strength, reality, and relevance of the event, and background circumstances, which includes the variables of accountability, readiness, and deservingness.

A positive correlation between each variable and emotional intensity is suggested. The proposed framework has important implications for the understanding of the emotional process and for emotional management. This presentation presents a typology of affect and a review of relevant research. Biological affects happiness, sadness, fear, anger are associated with specific neurochemical systems. Social affects pride, love, guilt, shame, envy, jealousy, pity, scorn are based biologically in attachment and require social experience to become effective.

Cognitive affects curiosity, surprise express effectance motives. They are based biologically in expectancy systems involving reward and punishment. Moral affects are based upon social and cognitive affects, requiring both social experience and cognitive development to become maturely expressed. It has been suggested that the length of a neuro-pathway may be one of the primary reasons why emotion leads many behaviours LeDoux, This paper posits that many emotions exist at the subconscious level Campbell, If recent brain organisation theories are correct, then the potential of these neuroemotional centers is strengthened.

Summarily, a review of various cognitive appraisals and resources, specifically stress processing Lafferty, et al. This paper addresses the problem of the measuring of "emotion" in everyday life. Our approach is that primitive concepts are constructed out of the observation of behavioral regularities. The behavioral regularities required for characterizing emotion concepts, together with a level at which the regularities are described, are examined. We argue that the concepts of "emotion" and "desire" are one and the same, and we define the concept of desire or action tendency in a formal language.

Within this theory of emotion, the concept of emotion intensity is elucidated uniformly. According to Fischer et al. With the progressive mastery of these skills, this vulnerability would tend to decrease. In order to test this hypothesis, boys and girls from grade 6, 8, and 10 were asked to describe on four occasions a recent emotional experience. Their level of cognitive development was also measured. Preliminary analyses showed clear differences in the emotional experiences of young adolescents and pre-adolescents, indicating greater complexity and vulnerability in adolescence.

Fussing, crying, and directing towards attachment figures in response to stress are forms of external emotion regulation among one-year-olds.

The lack of open distress behavior despite the presence of mild stressors might either reflect well functioning internal emotion regulation or the absence of stress. To decide between these alternatives 33 infants were video-taped during their adaptation to a daycare center. Additionally, heart rate data was recorded.

Behavioral and physiological stress indicators only partly support the notion of internal emotion regulation. Various approaches to treatment of the paraphilias have been used. An alternative model using an experiential approach is proposed. Its goals, methods and outcomes are described and contrasted with those of the prevailing paradigms. Advantages of this approach include restoration of choice and awareness of choice. Two case illustrations are presented involving voyeurism and "sexual addiction" in individual and marital therapy.

A theory is presented which describes a capacity for homoerotic responsiveness in humans as a domain-specific, cognitive mechanism forming a component of the lovemap which guides human sexual behavior. The concept of a functionally-specialized mechanism for homoerotic responsiveness may be a useful paradigm for understanding the pervasive historical and cross-cultural manifestations of homoeroticism. A parallel between evolved cognitive capacities for homoeroticism and language is drawn.

An example of the way in which environmental forces could affect the development of schemas regulated by the mechanism is presented based on cultural elements in classical Greek and Roman societies. The sample is made up of 79 patients from years of age, distributed in two groups, with organic or psychogenic problems. A correlational study was carried out. These changes differed in phenomenology, intricacy and degree of realization. The investigation has revealed both various behavior disturbances having negative consequences and positive phenomena in personal and social aspects cultural advance, preoccupation with work, etc.

The obtained results enable a conclusion about illegality of a one-sided approach which can sometimes be observed, as if sexual disturbances can lead only to a worse showing in work and a reduced creative potential. The beliefs and attitudes toward AIDS according sexual behavior and locus of control in adolescents are described.

Results showed that adolescents who had more beliefs and negative attitudes toward AIDS presented high risk sexual behavior and their locus of control was external. Adolescents who had fewer beliefs and positive attitudes toward AIDS presented low risk sexual behavior and their locus of control was internal.

In a country such as Brazil, sexual behavior of adolescents is related to poverty and intergenerational repetition of behavioral patterns. Adolescents, of both sexes, aged from 14 to 19, answered a questionnaire concerning information on and availability of methods of contraception, sexual experience, opinion about abortion, experience with pregnancy and abortion. Results showed that hazardous consequences of abortion is a factor of repetition of unwanted pregnancy. Sexual experience and gender influence opinion regarding abortion. Gender also plays a role in the practice of contraceptive methods.

Results of studies on social and contextual aspects of heterosexual conduct related to risk and health patterns of sexuality are being discussed. A qualitative analysis of sexual behavior interviews and focus-groups discussions in several European regions is done. Differences in risk perception and personal responsibility concerning in particular HIV between countries with dominating individualistic vs collectivistic cultural values are expected.

The relationship between sexual disorders of the pedophiles and clinical symptoms measured by MMPI had been examined in a study of 30 homosexual, 30 heterosexual pedophiles and 30 control subjects. While the only significant difference between homosexual and heterosexual pedophiles was higher paranoia scores for homosexual pedophiles, there were multiple differences between pedophiles and control subjects, including but not limited to: relationship with others, self-esteem, and emotional expression.

Simmons, C. The development of the concept of the adolescence in twentieth century Europe and North America is traced to social change and especially to growth in universal secondary and mass tertiary education. Additional starting points are the ideas of Rousseau and G. Stanley Hall and the growth of the Reformed English Public Schools and legislation in the areas of work, delinquency and education.

Comparisons are drawn with Japan where there is no language equivalent for "adolescent" and no tradition for regarding teenagers as a special group with special problems. Recommend this book to a librarian. Editors A. Georgoudis , A. Rosati and C. Animal production and natural resources utilisation in the Mediterranean mountain areas. Description Full-text Mediterranean inhabitants depend on natural resources for their livelihoods.

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