Guide Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition)

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition) book. Happy reading Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Das Spannungsverhältnis von Medien und Militär am Beispiel des Irakkrieges (German Edition) Pocket Guide.

Dieses Argument ist sehr ernst zu nehmen. Marginalisierungen der Shoa sind in keiner Weise hinzunehmen. Nationalsozialismus und Faschismus werden also getrennt von einander betrachtet. Jedoch gilt es hier festzuhalten, dass Faschismus radikalen Nationalismus als Kern seiner Ideologie hat. Was ist Faschismus? Die faschistische Ideologie bleibt aber im Kern erhalten. Rassismus ist immer Bestandteil von Faschismus. Allerdings nahm er im italienischen Fall einen anderen Stellenwert als im deutschen ein.

Er postuliert in der Bewegungsphase antikapitalistische Phrasen. Die faschistische Ideologie rechtfertigt diese Ausbeutung und Ausgrenzung. Absicht dieser Zeremonien war die Einbettung des Individuums in die Bewegung. Die Gewalt diente dazu, durch die Gemeinschaft den Geist des patriotischen Krieges aufrecht zu erhalten. Die squadre Kommandos der italienischen Faschisten bildeten sich bereits und gingen somit der Partei voraus. Ihre erste Hochburg war die italienische Stadt Triest im slowenischen Hinterland. Ihre Funktion war dieselbe wie die der squadre. Die faschistische Ideologie wird personalisiert.

Sowohl in Deutschland als auch in Italien blieben viele alte Staatsstrukturen bestehen. Daraufhin sammelten sich hunderttausende streikende Arbeiter in Buenos Aires und forderten seine Freilassung. Dabei gilt, dass es keine eindimensionale Ursache geben kann. Die Fragen nach den Ursachen des Faschismus und einer auch heute noch anhaltenden Bedrohung durch Faschismus sind also nicht voneinander zu trennen. Da der Faschismus in Italien und Deutschland besonders erfolgreich war, liegt es nahe, die Ursachen in der italienischen oder deutschen Geschichte zu suchen.

Die modernen Wissenschaften wollten Alles kategorisieren und hierarchisieren. Die Vorstellung von der Ungleichheit der Menschen verbreitete und verfestigte sich. Adorno und Max Horkheimer an. Sie ist in zwei Landtagen vertreten und schaffte den Einzug in viele Kommunalparlamente. Antisemitismus und Rassismus sind weiterhin bis weit in die Mitte der Gesellschaft verankert.

Nun war dieser Terror staatlich legalisiert. Ihr Kampf gegen die Linke bekam damit den Charakter von Staatsaktionen. Am Der Brand des Reichstags am Februar diente als Vorwand einer neuen Welle des Terrors. Noch in der folgenden Nacht wurden allein in Berlin 1. S ke Lin e aktiv bei Di der den die ersten Konzentratiund Mitglied Historischen onslager eingerichtet. Am r Partei Kommission de 6. Die kommunistischen Abgeordneten konnten an der Sitzung schon nicht mehr teilnehmen: Wer von ihnen nicht in den Untergrund gegangen war, war bereits verhaftet worden.

Mit der Zerschlagung der marxistischen Arbeiterbewegung hatten die Nazis ein erstes Ziel erreicht. Spontan erhoben sich daraufhin aber Millionen von Arbeitern gegen den rechten Putsch. An vielen Orten bildeten sich Arbeitermilizen, die monarchistische Armeeeinheiten angriffen. Unter der Wucht dieser gemeinsamen Abwehraktion der gesamten Arbeiterschaft brach der Putsch nach wenigen Tagen zusammen. Zuvor war die faschistische Bewegung eine in verschiedene Gruppen gespaltene Randerscheinung der Weimarer Republik.

Mai Vereint gegen Krieg und Faschismus! Die Arbeitslosigkeit explodierte von 1. In nur vier Jahren hatten sie 13 Mio. Ihre Mitgliederzahl stieg von unter Gleichzeitig wuchs die SA von Viele sahen Deutschland als Opfer des Ersten Weltkrieges. Auch die SPD trug dazu bei. Sie wurde selbst zum Opfer des schwindenden Vertrauens. Von bis war die SPD an der Regierung beteiligt. Krankheiten griffen um sich, weil immer mehr Menschen sich keinen Arztbesuch mehr leisten konnten.

Nach dieser Theorie waren Faschismus und Sozialdemokratie faktisch Zwillinge. Im Gegenteil. Die Zahl ihrer Mit- glieder schnellte in der gleichen Zeit von Ihre Strategie blockierte einen effektiven, gemeinsamen Kampf gegen die Nazis. Versprichst Du, ebenfalls zu helfen, wenn die Gefahr meine Organisation bedroht?

Bei der Abstimmung stimmten 14,5 Mio. Merkur , August , Penguin, Louise Richardson. Was Terroristen wol- len. Die Ursachen der Gewalt und wie wir sie Der Held — eine Idee aus der Vormoderne in der Moderne. Niemand wird in der Isolation zum Helden. Sie sind auf die Anerkennung Anderer angewiesen. Homer schreibt die Ilias einige Jahrhunderte nach dem Trojanischen Krieg und berichtet von Helden, die alle ster- ben, und das wurde als das Ende der heroischen Zeit verstanden.

Ein Blick auf den Luftkrieg des Ersten Weltkriegs kann aufschlussreich sein. Er leitete das Ende der Heldenbildung durch Kriege ein. Eine zeit- lang bildeten die Fliegerhelden eine Ausnahme. Fliegerhelden waren in der zivilen Luftfahrt um die Jahrhundertwende aus dem Fortschrittsenthusiasmus entstanden. In Merkur Kein Wille zur Macht. Dekadenz, H. Ein Handbuch der Luftschiffahrt und Flugtechnik. Zum einen war das die Folge von Angst. Diese Furcht steigerte sich nach Kriegsende.

Dies Bild sprach von einem Triumph, der heute kaum noch zu verstehen und nicht mehr nachzuvollziehen ist. Fragt man, wie die archaische Idee des Helden ins Jahrhundert geraten konnte, so bietet der Mythos vom Fliegerhelden reiches Anschauungsmaterial. Die Helden leisteten nicht, was die ihnen entgegengebrachte Verehrung und Erwartung versprochen hat- ten. Feldhaus, O. Reuschler, A. Stolberg, O. Steffens, Hugo Eckener, N. Die Entwicklung des Flugwesens von Anbeginn bis etwa zeigen Wirklichkeitsaufnahmen.

David Lloyd George soll zu Kriegsende, am To make Britain a fit country for heroes. Die Eingliederung des Helden in den modernen Alltag gelang nicht. Die Einrichtung der Nachkriegswelt geschah nach anderen Prinzipien. Das erwies sich als ein scheiternder Versuch. Das Heldenbild kam aus dem politisch belasteten Feld staatlich forcierter Propaganda nicht heraus. Diese Figur war kein Held, sondern der Diktator, der mit dem Helden nicht zu vereinbaren ist. Die Debatten um W. Der Luftkrieg-Diskurs handelt von Opfern.

Von Helden ist nicht die Rede. Es gibt aber Grund zu der Annahme, dass sie als Wunsch- und Idealbilder im Untergrund der Wahrnehmung erhalten geblieben sind. Gegen diese Entleerung der Kriegsbilder regt sich Widerstand. Luftwaffe und Bombenkrieg im na- tionalsozialistischen Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm. In: Ebenda, S. Sep- tember In diesem Bild verbinden sich ebenso Hoffnung und Begeisterung, sondern — nach der Profanisierung durch Film und Unterhaltungsindustrie und einer Politisierung als Helden der Arbeit.

Die Piloten des Die Mu- tation des Heldischen zum Terroristischen will ich hier nur andeuten und kann den Gedanken einer Resakralisierung des modernen Helden als Terrorist nicht behan- deln. Jahrhunderts nicht verstanden werden kann. Das tradierte Heldenbild. Einige idealtypische Charakteristika lassen sich aus der Ge- schichte zusammenstellen. Er leidet, wenn ihm die An- erkennung als Ausnahmemensch verwehrt wird. Achill wehrt sich gegen den Anspruch der hie- rarchischen Ordnung, sich einzugliedern. Sobald seine eige- nen Interessen betroffen sind, zeigt er eine un- gebremste Eigenwilligkeit.

Zwei Konzeptionen des Helden. Was einst der Kritik entzogen und unangreifbar war, wurde im Zug der Rationalisierung entsakra- lisiert. Diesem Prozess war auch das Charisma ausgesetzt. In: Von Moskau nach Berlin. Denn in jedem Erlebnis wirkt bereits die Macht der kulturellen Ordnungs- und Bewertungsmuster. Charisma braucht Anerkennung. Das Schicksal der Fliegerhelden liefert ein Bei- spiel. Sein zentrales Beispiel ist die imitatio Christi.

Er hebt das Anti-Moderne am Heldischen hervor und wehrt sich gegen eine Vulgarisierung des Helden in der modernen Kunst und Litera- tur. Ernst Wicklein, Jena , S. Von der Spannung zwischen diesen zwei Heldenbildern in der Moderne soll im Folgenden gehandelt werden. Modernisierung des Heldenbildes. Jahrhunderts grundlegend. Nur dadurch wurde z. Susanne Part: Medialisierung von Krieg.

In: A. Matthias Hrsg. Krieg, Kunst und Medien, Weimar , S. An die- ser politisch-gesellschaftlichen Neuerung waren die modernen Medien von Anfang an beteiligt.

Archiv für die 'Feuilleton' Kategorie

Film und Fotografie wurden zu den wichtigsten Medien der Verehrung. Kein Ort hat mehr zum Entstehen des modernen Helden beigetragen als das Kino. Die Piloten der Kinoleinwand waren Kunstprodukte einer Medienindustrie, die kei- ne Standesgrenzen achtete und Bilder dem Publikumsgeschmack entsprechend mo- delte. Trotz des Zau- bers zeigte dies Heldenbild jedoch keine Beziehung zur Transzendenz mehr, in ihm wirkte eine innerweltliche Magie.

Die Konstruktion des modernen Helden durch die Massenmedien erlaubt oder fordert geradezu die innere Distanz und kann durch Bilder zugleich die Illusion der Anteilnahme suggerieren. Einer solchen Interpretation wohnt die Gefahr eines Anachronismus inne. Das Ich, von dem wir unter den Bedingungen der eigenen Gegenwart ausgehen, darf den antiken Helden nicht einfach unterstellt werden.

Ih- nen liegt die zeitliche Tiefe einer anthropologischen Konstruktion, die Carlyle be- tont, fern. Die ganze Geschichte des Manfred von Richthofen, Stuttgart Daran kann gezweifelt werden. Sie hat in der Bildgeschichte eine beeindruckende Spur hinterlassen. Zur Rolle des Mannes im Kulturvergleich, 2 Bde.

In: Th. Mosse: Das Bild des Mannes. In: K. M , S. In: W. Erhard, B. Hermann Hrsg. Wie das Feminine scheint auch der Dandy der Metropolen in einem Ge- gensatz zum Heldenbild zu stehen. Diese Ge- schichten wurden oft als Erfindungen abgetan. Die Modernisierung des Heldenbildes schloss auch seine 31 Vgl. Pilotinnen des Re- giments wurden mit 23 Heldenmedaillen ausgezeichnet. Bruce Myles: Night Witches. Unterschiede zwischen Deutschland und England sind in die- ser Hinsicht deutlich.

Helden und Technik. Ebenso erstaunlich ist, wie es gelang, moderne Techno- logie in das Heldenbild aufzunehmen. Die Mystik des Luftkriegs der einsamen Piloten war nach zwei Jahren Krieg ans Ende gekommen,34 und die Prinzipien der Industrialisierung und wissen- schaftlichen Berechnungen wurden dominant. Das Bild vom einsamen Helden am Himmel wurde zu einem Anachronismus. The New Warfare —, London , S. In: G. Hirschfeld, G. Krumeich, I. Renz Hrsg. Der archaische Held durchlief eine Metamorphose und wurde zum neuen Helden, weil er die Instrumente der Technik beherrschte.

Die Abstrakti- on macht diese Metamorphose in der Darstellungsform moderner Helden sichtbar. An Details zeigt sich das Besondere des neuen Flugwesens. Ihre Faszination und ihre Ikonographie waren einzigartig. Fotos der belieb- ten Idole: Ernst Udet vgl. Sein Metall, eine komplizierte Legie- rung, und seine Form, Ergebnis intensiver ballistischer Versuche, waren ein Triumph der technischen Labors.

Diese faszinierende Skulptur macht etwas von der Magie sichtbar. Aber aus einem gewissen Abstand betrachtet, wird ein Profil mit Nase und Mund sichtbar. Erste Ausgabe: Time Life Books In: N. Lepp, M. Roth, K. Vogel Hrsg. Obsessionen des From Langemarck to Verdun. In: J. Milfull Hrsg. Es wirkte tief in das literarische Leben und in die Politik hinein. Bertolli nennt die Skulptur profilio continuo. Diese Skulptur ist aus Terrakotta mit einem metallisch dunklen Farbanstrich. Nicht der Krieg erschien als die Katastrophe des Jahrhunderts: Die Schlachtfelder gaben der verachte- ten Nivellierung des Industriezeitalters eine extreme Gestalt.

Darin war das entschei- dende Desaster zu sehen, und gegen diesen Verlust sollte das aristokratische Helden- bild wieder errichtet werden. Die Rolle der Fotografie war dabei ambivalent. Sie diente nicht nur der Doku- mentation, sondern entwickelte auch Darstellungstechniken, die aus Bildern Akteure machten, durch die aus Soldaten des Ersten Weltkriegs zeitlose Krieger auch der Zu- kunft wurden. Helme, Waffen und andere Attribute des Schlachtfelds wurden, kombiniert mit aus- drucksstarken Gesichtern, etwa denen von bekannten Piloten, zu Symbolen der be- drohten heroischen Welt.

Diese Fotografien zeigten nicht die Industrialisierung des Schlachtfelds, sondern Helden mit dem Nimbus des Archaischen. Von der Banalisierung des Kriegs zum Alltag spricht er mit Widerwillen. An ihm zeigt sich die Wiederkehr des Archaischen in gewandelter Form. Ein Versuch. In: E. Ihnen stellt er den Dichter entgegen. In: Werke, Bd. Diese Dich- tung und Ikonographie entwirft ein Bild von Wirklichkeit, das dem In-der-Welt- Sein eine Weihe verleiht, die unter den Lebensbedingungen der Moderne obsolet zu werden scheint.

Stauffen- berg rief, so wird berichtet, vor seiner Hinrichtung dies geheime Deutschland an. Diese Konzeption des Helden setzt sich in einen bewussten Gegensatz zur eigenen Zeit, sei es die der wissenschaftlich-technischen Moderne, sei es die des verbrecheri- schen NS-Staates. Georges Dichtung lebt vom Glauben an diese Opposition. Diese Helden sind einerseits die Mittler zum wahren und vollen Leben, eine Elite gegen die Nivellierungen der bedeutungsleeren Gegenwart. Bei 45 Ebenda, S. Das Gedicht ist Erich Boehringer gewidmet.

In unserer Gegenwart haben wohl nur die Fundamentalisten eine Antwort auf die Frage anzubieten, wie dieses unbekannte Niemandsland vorzustellen sei.

Abbildungsnachweise Abb. Aus: Abb. Aus: Anschrift des Verfassers: Prof. Between Imitation and Simulation. Towards an Aesthetics of Fuzzy Images. Bernd Huppauf 1 Introduction What do we see when we look at a fuzzy image? Searching for the clear image somehow concealed within a fuzzy image equals denial and is the same as not seeing at all. Fuzziness ignores the common conception of the image and transcends the world of visual representation. It loosens the bond between a picture and the thing represented.

It is a visual mode for the simulation of the possible that is not only conceivable but retains rudimentary elements of the logic of the real.

Intro # by Intro GmbH und Co. KG - Issuu

At the same time, it safeguards the image against being merely arbitrary and a pure construction by maintaining a degree of similarity. The fuzzy image hovers on the dividing line between representation and the dissolution of mimetic correspondence with the signified. It creates indeterminacy and ambiguity comparable to the relationship of images, masks, idols and sculptures to reality in pre-modern and primitive cultures.

They do not represent, yet would be misinterpreted as mere fantasy. It appeals to the imagination to complete images, which are, by nature, incomplete and it prevents this process from ever being completed. Breaking the bond with the referent while simultaneously maintaining rudimentary similarities with it requires a great deal of attention of the part of the spectator. It draws the gaze into a sphere of undecidability that leads to disorientation, rattling it through insecurity, captivating and enthralling it. The dispersed gaze der zerstreute Blick that Simmel, Benjamin and other theoreticians of modernity considered symptomatic for the present is ill-equipped for the fuzzy image and will not find access to it.

It requires a wandering view that is also searching and, furthermore, language. What is intimated in the fuzziness of a picture is fugitive and can be fixed only through narrative and interpretive language. More than the sharp image, the fuzzy image is empty without the absconding content being translated into linguistic structures.

Image 1 Jorma Puranan: Shadows, Reflections and all that sort of things 17, It involuntarily searches for a clarity that makes it possible to identify recognizable shapes on the surface of the picture as elements in a visual order and through their correspondence with reality outside the image. In European cultural history the sharp image is the norm and its lack is commonly considered a deficiency and an absence of an essential quality. I would like to raise the question of whether an image that lacks this supposedly indispensable quality can be perceived and interpreted differently, not in terms of negativity and absence, but as an expansion of the familiar store of images.

Jelinek-Handbuch

Can and should the fuzzy image be understood as a dilatation of the imaged world that challenges conventional concepts of the image rather than an object of deficiency that raises regret and refusal? The relationship between sharpness and i unsharpness is an asymmetrical one.

Sharpness exists as a singular only, whereas unsharpness exists as a multitude, has degrees and shades. It exists in different varieties that can be labelled the obscure, the vague, the complex and the ambiguous polyvalent. I will deal with it as a noun that denotes a category and not as an adjective attributed to a noun and qualifying it.

This requires reference to two basic concepts of image theory, namely imitation mimesis and fantasy simulation or construction. The first has a long history as a normative term with even canonical power. It has lost this position in public discourse, yet is not obsolete and cannot be abandoned. The latter is modern and places emphasis on the connotative character of images and with it, the arbitrariness or its play with simulation. It can be made instrumental in an attempt to develop an intrinsic logic of fuzziness.

The photo, Roland Barthes argues, is the absolute opposite of the general. It is unique and repetitive of that which existed once, and only once, in the world of events. The photo is, he argues, a mechanical repetition of something that cannot be repeated in the world of experience. The photo never transcends the specific moment in favour of the general. It reduces the body to a mere physical individual. It is the absolute particularity and domination of the accidental and, therefore, it is stupid. This can only be argued on the basis of sharp images.

Barthes, and most other theorists of the photographic image, fail to consider fuzzy images. Fuzziness challenges common characterizations in particular semiotic theories of the image. It addresses the imagination, stimulating it to leave behind the particular and reflect on the general. Photography of fuzziness does not reproduce the world in terms of representing the unique moment, and a fuzzy photo can be interpreted as a sign only with great difficulty.

Its reference is one of vague similarity and undetermined analogies, dissolving the sign in an obscure gliding pane. By opening the image, fuzziness offers the perception of the general in the specific. It invests the image with the dimension of the general resulting from a degree of abstraction. He comments on a blurred photo of a giraffe and asks rhetorically whether the haziness may not give a specific quality of African mystery to this picture.

By using the adjectives fuzzy, blurred, hazy and the nouns, fuzziness and haziness, the linguistic opposition is lost. It is often overemphasized and it can only to a limited degree be associated with Saussure and Wittgenstein. It was Baudrillard who made simulation and simulacrum popular for the current debate on images.

Jean Baudrillard: Simulacres et simulations, Paris He does not refer to the hypocrisis of simulation. Reflections on Photography. New York , p. Unsharpness can only be comprehended though a logic of difference. Only if we stop identifying the fuzzy image with a failed sharp image and stop reducing blurred contours to concealed sharp ones, will we be able see the fuzzy image as genuinely different to sharp images, or to other blurred or hazy ones. Only if we see a fuzzy image for what it is will we be able to realize how such images participate in the social praxis of creating visual memory.

Looking for the sharp image hidden in the failed fuzzy image prevents the viewer from understanding a simulation of reality that does not create identity, but visual difference instead. Taking an attitude to fuzzy images that is free from the standard demand of clarity and distinctiveness is a prerequisite for their own unique contribution to an imagined world to become visible itself. They require an aesthetic of their own. Absolute sharpness is an abstract ideal and all images are constituted by a certain degree of visual indeterminacy. Indeterminacy and vagueness, I want to argue, are features not only of the imagination, but also of imaging, and we are familiar with them without taking notice in every picture.

There are no dividing lines that do not also create spaces of meeting and expanses for exchange. Yet the difference between sharp and fuzzy images is not fluid, and demonstrably fuzzy images must be understood in terms of a specific genre. Sharpness, while never free from indeterminacy, can be defined as an ideal, unsharpness cannot. It is a category that denotes a class of images ranging in types and degrees of indeterminacy and vagueness.

They contradict common and seemingly self-evident expectations, but cannot be appropriately comprehended as negativity and lack, or refusal either. Vague contains the Latin word vagus, i. This unsettled wandering of the eye through the haze of the image produces indeterminacy. Yet the hazy image requires its own way of concentration and penetration that is different from dis-engaged jumping, leaping and zapping.

It requires a distinct way of seeing. A theory of unsharpness has to confront the problem of an intrinsic contradiction that cannot be resolved. How could unsharpness as a term for vagueness, ambiguity, obscurity, or indistinctness be subjected to a process of theorizing that by definition requires consistency and precise definitions of concepts without the danger of making it disappear altogether?

Vagueness, ambiguity, obscurity, or indistinctness - all dimensions of unsharpness - are negative characterizations of an argument, a treatise or an image. They are deficient, lead to miscomprehension and consequently inappropriate action. Pragmatism of the everyday, therefore, asks for an end of unsharpness through clarification, sharpness and distinctness. However, in the arts, literature and a minority philosophical discourse the unsharp has existed in a different understanding that, in contrast to common language, associates it with productivity.

It was a rare exception when Friedrich Schlegel named fuzziness incomprehensibility and tried, thereby, to strip it of its pejorative image and elevate it to a higher ideal in the arts, literature and life This radical move was not followed. What Kant called the productive imagination is a rehabilitation of the vague and obscure, in contrast to the ideal of philosophical clarity.

Only in this sense, and not as a defect, imperfection or absence, will it be treated in this essay. The unsharp and its appeal to the imagination is neither accounted for by realist theories of representation nor by theories of cultural construction. Fuzzy images make futile an attempt to draw a dividing line between the image as a document and a construction. If we insist on drawing a dividing line, fuzziness of imagery as well as fuzzy images fall victim to an opposition and are either bad and need to be eliminated or improved , or useless images that we can do without. I want to argue that the category of fuzziness dissolves this binary opposition.

It makes it necessary to maintain both dimensions of the image simultaneously. Fuzzy images maintain a relationship between image and the imaged, insinuating its presence. Yet, at the same time, they deny this presence and explode the connection. The vagueness, ambiguity, obscurity, or complexity of a fuzzy image appeal to the imagination in an intensified manner, so that any attempt to perceive and comprehend it within the structure of a logic of representation is misguided from the start.

A distinction needs to be made between the deliberate production of fuzzy images and unintended fuzziness. The results are similar and, from the perspective of the viewer, even identical. Yet in terms of an aesthetic of production and image theory, the difference is significant.

If a photo can be understood as a sign of intention, namely, that someone has the intention to produce and send a message,6 only the intentional, but not the accidental fuzziness of the photo can be part of the image. It is the strongest form of cancelling the agreement between the image and what it is supposed to represent. Yet, it is precisely this type of failure and lack that endows the photo with a rare degree of authenticity. I will briefly summarize photographic techniques of unsharpness. If photography is seen — and this was the dominant position of the time — as nature reproducing itself, then nature portrayed itself as a fuzzy surface.

During this phase of the genesis of photography, unsharpness was not considered a problem and was sometimes supported with innocent means, for instance, by transparent paper between the photographic plate and the paper, a technique Talbot apparently applied. They preferred the fuzzy image over clear contours. They liked to make use of the distorting qualities of simple techniques, such as defocusing, blurring lenses, veils and shaking the camera.

Some developed an elaborate technique based upon achromatic lenses, which produce images of chromatic and spherical deviance. The refraction of parallel rays is different at the centre and the periphery of the lens, so that there is no one single focal point.

Combined with a blurring of the contours that resulted from an imprecise transference of the colours of the natural spectrum into the palate of a grey photo, these lenses produced favoured results. It was considered the ultimate artistic quality of photography. It can be added that this technique has in recent years become popular again among photographers who have turned their back on sophisticated photographic equipment and returned to primitive techniques. It offers an alternative between a completely, and an only partially blurred image. Blurring the entire image was considered inappropriate by many representatives of pictorialism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

These photos were denounced as murky and seen as resulting from a lack of artistic intention or technical skill. This attitude has changed in recent times and defocusing is enjoying a considerable popularity both in amateur and professional photography. When the camera is moved in front of a static object, the entire picture is blurred. The camera can follow the movement of an object so that the object remains in focus while the static background is blurred. A static camera in front of a moving object reproduces a blurred object before a sharp background.

In the recent past, turning sharp photographs into blurred images has become popular in photography and the arts, including the combination of photographing and painting.

Der Irak-Krieg Live vor Ort (Doku)

Gerhard Richter, for example, used blurred photos as the basis for paintings that were later photographed themselves and printed in a technique that intensified the blur. Darkroom techniques are increasingly replaced with electronic techniques of digital photography. What can be seen on the screen are clouds of data that require decoding by highly trained experts. They are also used by artists in different, aesthetic contexts. These blurred images have entered the public image memory. Different readings of these images provoke in a particularly challenging way the question of what we see when we look at pictures.

They do not represent visual reality, yet their practical applicability leaves no doubt that they are representing something real. In contemporary photography, the camera obscura, with and without lenses and with and without filters, as well as primitive constructions made of wood and simple and distorting lenses are used for experimental photography.

These techniques and their products lead to various basic questions in relation to our imaging of reality. We can ask, for example, what the things that constitute our reality really are. Is every object equally suited for blurring or are there objects with an intrinsic affinity for fuzziness?

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the answer was yes. Only a select class of things were considered worthy of representation and a much smaller number worthy of blurring, primarily animated things and, first of all, the human face. If not all and every 8 An example is the photographer Barbara Ess, who, as an expert and professor of photo history and theory, is undoubtedly familiar with the origin of her primitive cameras and lenses. Barbara Ess, I am not this Body. New York Aperture Foundation This has changed and in recent photography everything, including the most banal elements of the every day life - a door knob, a staircase, are considered suitable for fuzzy images.

Is this the result of a changing attitude towards the things that make up our reality, or of a growing indifference? Differences are also determined by contexts and the pragmatic use of images. For engineers and architects, for military purposes and medical analysis blurred images are dysfunctional or simply useless. The contrary is true for other contexts such as the arts or advertising. How are contexts defined that ask for techniques of fuzziness and that turn it into a productive quality?

And how do fuzzy images affect our relationship to the things of our lived world? Moreover, recent image technology in medicine and the sciences produce fuzzy images that require sophisticated theoretical knowledge to isolate the data hidden in their fog. Is this fog the true world we live in and sharp images a construction a posteriori? And finally the question needs to be raised as to whether the present is a time of turning away from the modern ideal of precision, a move for which fuzziness in photography is only the most visible symptom, but that strives, nevertheless, for an older and primitive image of the world.

The beginning of an explicit discourse on unsharpness was triggered by the invention of photography and the ensuing debate on the nature of the photographic image. However, the contrast of sharpness and its opposite, the blunt, fuzzy and vague, has existed from the beginning of transforming perceived images into abstract thought.

Latest Grahnlaw posts

This early phase of transferring blurred percepts into sharp images remains a matter of anthropological speculation and is being passed over here. In the early modern period, the relationship between sharpness and its opposite was subjected to intensive debate resulting in a fundamental change. Its former unquestioned balance was lost and sharpness and distinctiveness were elevated to the position of the exclusive ideal.

Their opposites were not eradicated, but pushed to the margin, or rather suppressed and relegated to a tabooed zone. Over the next years, a hidden discourse that cherished vagueness, ambiguity, and obscurity developed in an underground of public discourse. The discourse on blurred, unfocussed, indeterminat, obscure, vague photos and on photos as images of lost or suppressed details emerged within a theoretical framework that defined sharpness as an epistemological ideal, associated with value judgements. The controversy about clarity and the deliberate haziness of images in photographic theory of the 19th and early 20th centuries was the extension of philosophical and popular discourses on taste and the nature of true knowledge, beginning in the early 17th century.

The ideal of clare et distincte, while serving as a fundamental imperative of modernity, had never been beyond doubt and controversy. It is significant that under the ocular regime of modernity, this philosophical discourse was transformed into one of visual culture. Its genesis can be traced back to Descartes and his opponents. The privileging of the sharp concept, in opposition to the obscure and vague one, was closely related to the classical theory of the arts and, in particular, the triumph of central perspective.

Its concept of representation through images corresponded to the epistemological definition of truth as a precise mirroring. The first rule is the methodological imperative not to make a judgement on that, which is not present to the consciousness beyond doubt. In this discourse the twin adjectives clare et distincte define both method and object of cognition and are associated with images without further qualification. Only objects that can be represented clearly and distinctly can become objects of knowledge and be represented in true propositions. Sentences that do not correspond to the formal requirement of clare et distincte are obscure and therefore need to be excluded from the sphere of cognition.

Obviously, certain objects do not qualify and Kant later set out to determine the separating line that relegates these objects to a sphere of obscurity, inaccessible to knowledge. Its logic makes the claim to universality and theories of art and the imagination extended it to the realm of artistic production. It too had to comply with the logic of correspondence, lest it abandon its claim to contribute to the production of knowledge of reality, which became the pejorative characterization of a literature of fancy that was consequently branded useless. This defined the dominant position of modernity in relation to the obscure.

When the early Wittgenstein summarized an entire philosophical tradition by claiming that everything that can be said can and, by implication, must be said unambiguously, he also referred to a complementary theory in art and literature that followed the same line of reasoning. Not questions in relation to the emerging of a world of distinction, lines and things from an indistinct and hazy no-where, but only questions in relation to the how of its construction remained admissible.

The question of emergence, of the transition from amorphous blur to contoured shapes, of the point when an image appears from a shapeless plane is again posed by the contemporary photography of fuzziness. Rationalist theorists of perception had been irritated by observations of a clara et confusa cognitio and spent a great deal of reflection denouncing confusion and devaluing it as the heritage of a pre-rational past. But the identification of true knowledge with the knowledge generated in the sciences gave rise to discontent and resistance to the exclusive privileging of the imperative clare et distincte.

Its program was based on the power of the imagination that was equated with a cognitio confusa. This relationship to reality is characterized by systemic indeterminacy and fuzziness and the semantic field of this opposition was dominated by key words such as obscurity and confusion that were not associated with negative value judgement.

Another philosopher with European impact, Spinoza, elaborated a different but related approach. He placed emphasis on the emotions in the relationship to nature. His psychological approach was the counterpart to abstract theorizing of the sciences. Spinoza called conatus a faculty to respond to the openness of the incomplete world. While it was primarily his pantheism that made Spinoza popular around , his related ideas concerning perception and cognition also had considerable influence. In the late 18th century a strong opposition to the ideal of clare et distincte emerged in Germany, associated with the names of Hamann, Herder, Goethe, Schlegel and Schelling, and the movement of early romanticism.

The Spinoza reception from these years up to Mauthner and the early 20th century claimed him as the theoretician of an opposition to the ideals of clarity and distinctiveness and a critic of Descartes, as well as an opponent of Newton. Their referencing Spinoza as an admired thinker of anti-Cartesian theory was not always based on knowledge of his work. Yet it served more than any other philosophy as the point of reference for a rehabilitation of the emotion and the obscure.

The discourse on the vague emotion of the Je ne sais quoi was central for providing an umbrella for these movements. Yet it can be argued that it creates a semantic framework that combines the basic arguments of the authors. The openness of the fuzzy image is a later reflection of this indeterminacy and vagueness addressed in theoretical discourses of an earlier century.


  • Lifelong Leadership by Design: How to Do More Good for Kids and Feel Better About Your Lifes Work!
  • Intro # by Intro GmbH und Co. KG - Issuu.
  • DEMOKRATISCH – LINKS » » Mai.
  • Archiv für die 'Feuilleton' Kategorie;

Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain. New York, etc.

Karlheinz Barck et al. Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler , vol. Cox , Chap. XIII, pp. Paust, Jordan J. Asser , S. Law Journal 14 , — Purnawanty, Temp. Law 9 , — Ramcharan, Leiden J. Randelzhofer, Albrecht: Article 2, in: Simma, Bruno u. Randelzhofer, Albrecht: Article 2 4 , in: Simma, Bruno u. Rauschning, Dietrich: Article 82, in: Bruno Simma u. Rauschning, Dietrich: Article 83, in: Bruno Simma u. Reichel, Sarah: Transitional Administrations in former Yugoslavia: A repetition of failures or a necessary learning process towards a universal peace-building tool after ethno political war? Richardson, Henry J.

United States of America , merits, Urteil vom Law 9 , S. Law 16 , — Scott u. Law 13 , — Suy, Leiden J. Law, Band IV, 2. Law Review 16 , — Toole, Am. Literaturverzeichnis Aufl. JIL 35 , Winiarski, B. Turkey, Urteil vom The United Kingdom, Urteil vom Germany Application No. Germany, Slg. Turkey Appl.

United Kingdom , Ser. Sektion, Urteil vom Turkey Application No. Slovenia, Urteil vom Germany, Urteil vom Hungary, Communication No. Hungary Entscheidung v. Bolivia, Communication No. Bizouarn v.

KRITISCHE INTERNET-ZEITUNG

Bolivia Entscheidung v. Jamaica, Communications No. Democratic Republic of Congo, Communication No. Congo Entscheidung 9. Peru, Communication No. Uruguay, Communications No. Zambia, Communication No. Zambia Entscheidung v. Uruguay, Communication No. The Netherlands, Communication No.

Literaturverzeichnis

United States, case no. Joseph Kanyabashi Case No. Trial Chamber vom Urteil vom Case No. Legal Materials 35 , S. Administrative Tribunal, Gutachten vom Tribunal, ICJ-Rep. Spain , 2nd phase, Urteil vom 5.