When Leo investigates, Kuzmin shoots him down: 'Stalin tells us murder is strictly a capitalist disease. Soon after, Leo's wife Raisa Noomi Rapace is branded a traitor but the policeman refuses to disown her. Leo is determined to unmask the boy's murderer and joins forces with local lawmaker General Nesterov Gary Oldman to disprove Stalin's assertion that there can be no murder in paradise.
Meanwhile, the unlikely culprit, a factory worker called Vladimir Paddy Considine , hunts more unsuspecting victims with impunity. Based on the real life case of Andrei Chikatilo, the so-called Butcher of Rostov, who was sentenced to death for 52 murders, Child 44 is a slow burn that gets bogged down in exposition. Some of the cast are more comfortable than others with the thick Russian accents, including a couple of noticeable wobbles. Hardy is a typically brooding and emotionally conflicted central figure, who is forced to address his own transgressions when murderer Vladimir scolds: 'Hero, monster - we are both killers, you and I.
The bitter rivalry with Kinnaman's backstabbing compatriot is sketched in broad strokes while Rapace's love interest feels slightly undernourished too, although she relishes one pivotal scene in which Raisa laments the lack of free will afforded her sex.
Espinosa sustains tension, despite occasional dramatic detours that prolong the running time to a testing minutes. Ah yes, the arts. Dry and snobby arts. Remote and elitist arts. Critics with airs. Collectors with notions. Not in Dunlavin, not on your nellie. In Dunlavin, the arts fill the village once a year with laughter and excitement and occasional flashes of wonder. In Dunlavin the arts are fun. Some of the fun is serious fun.
Some of the fun is hilarious fun. But everything on the agenda for the After months and months of planning, Ireland's newest family-friendly festival will swing open its gates in Blessington this weekend. Although she was just as nervous as her classmates Planning permission for a high performance rowing centre at Burgage Moyle on the Wicklow County Council is continuing to crack down on illegal dumpers and those who break the litter laws with a series of hefty fines This is a time and place where anything can cause an arrest and anyone can be accused of treason.
People are persecuted because their clients are Westerners. Others are persecuted on the basis of unheard prayers despite their age or sex. You pray therefore you want Stalin dead, off with you! You are guilty unless proven innocence. They are flawed but sympathetic. They are controversial and ambiguous, a couple equally strong, determined, secretive and honest. As honest as they can be given the era and the circumstances.
Smith succeeded in creating protagonists that are the driving forces of the story. They are realistic, brave and intelligent without seeming fake. Even Vassili and the culprit are believable. This is what makes the difference between a proper villain and a cardboard figure. I cannot say anything about the storyline, obviously, but I can tell you that the development of the mystery, the twists and implications as well as the conclusion compose a novel that is a work of Art in its genre. The references to the hardships that people had to face on a daily basis, the fate of the accused, the small details about the fight of the Russian people against the Nazis make the narration even more vivid and enrich the historical background.
I particularly appreciated the reference to the Night Witches, the legendary female pilots who became the terror of the Nazi monsters during the Second World War. I need Child 44 to sink in and I doubt its follow-up will stand up to its predecessor. But there was nothing unusual about this kind of grief and people did not watch for long. View all 22 comments. Oct 03, Will Byrnes rated it liked it. Things like serial killers, things like crime of any sort. Thus all crime is ideological and all criminals are enemies of the state.
This is not a family trip to Disney World. Tom Rob Smith - image from his site - Photo credit: James Hopkirk Leo is a member of the MGB, state security, and has spent his adult life doing what he has been told to do, doing what is expected, whether it is drinking the ideological Kool-Aid or rousting suspected traitors at 4 in the morning for a nifty round of torture before they are disappeared.
Life is ok for him, professionally respected, married to a beautiful woman, able to access for his family goods and services not available to the less connected in this classless society. But when a child is found murdered in Moscow, the child of a fellow MGB officer, and when he treats this crime the way he would any other, he is redirected from his safe path to a dangerous route, pushed along by a jealous work competitor. Tom Hardy as Leo Demidov in Child The characters are sometimes thin, but Child 44 does not pretend to be classic literature.
Leo changes, as do some around him and we get a roller-coaster ride through a scary, dark place, learning things we might not have known about in an important time and place. An entertaining and gripping read. View all 24 comments. Shelves: liburry-book , serial-killer-dude , read I just had no clue. Living in Russia at that time was when you lived in fear of that four a. Are you an enemy of the state? It didn't really matter if you were truly innocent, once you had been named you might as well kiss it good-bye.
Leo Demidov is a former war hero who works for the MGB or state security force and had always done his job with no questioning of authority. There was a joke, popular am 3. There was a joke, popular among officers, who could tell it with impunity. A man and his wife were asleep in bed when they were woken by a sharp knock on the door.
Fearing the worst, they got up and kissed each other goodbye: I love you, wife. I love you, husband. Having said their goodbyes they opened the front door. Standing before them was a frantic neighbor, a corridor full of smoke and flames as high as the ceiling. The man and his wife smiled with relief and thanked God: it was just the building on fire. Then when Leo is forced with an impossible choice he is demoted and sent to a distant out-breach. He and his wife Raisa must start a different kind of life. He then figures out there is a serial killer targeting children all over the place.
This blows my mind but there was supposedly "no crime" so that fact must be covered up and innocent people suffered. At one point one hundred and fifty homosexual men are exposed and punished.
Catching up with Child 44 actress Noomi Rapace
Just because of their homosexuality. This book is gritty and violent but it was an awakening to a point in history that I will not forget. The writing in the book did distract me with all the conversations being done in italics but I still couldn't stop reading it. Then the ending was not what I really wanted thus the 3. There is soon to be a movie based on this book starring Tom Hardy. I hope they do this book justice. View all 16 comments. This novel, the first in a trilogy, takes inspiration from the crimes of Andrei Chikatilo, also known as the Rostov Ripper, the Butcher of Rostov, and the Red Ripper.
Chikatilo was convicted of and executed for committing 52 murders Child 44, Tom Rob Smith Child 44 published in is a thriller novel by British writer Tom Rob Smith. Chikatilo was convicted of and executed for committing 52 murders in the Soviet Union, though his crimes occurred after the Stalin era. In addition to highlighting the problem of Soviet-era criminality in a state where "there is no crime", the novel explores the paranoia of the age, the education system, the secret police apparatus, orphanages, homosexuality in the USSR, and mental hospitals.
The second and third books in the trilogy, titled The Secret Speech April and Agent 6 July , respectively, also feature the protagonist Leo Demidov and his wife, Raisa. Oct 10, Richard Derus rated it really liked it. Sorry, I know that all the caps are like having your lashes tweezed, but this is the Soviet Union we're talking about, and everything is A Slogan. The proletariat is blissfully free of the Capitalist Curse Called Crime. They're more afraid of the State than they are each other.
With good reason. There are traitors, informants, everywhere. Even in your own bed, you are never safe from the danger of being outed as a bad Socialist with the least, most offhand criticism of the Paradise. And death comes, whether quickly or slowly, to those whom the Cthulhu of the State Security apparatus notices. Leo Demidov, then, shouldn't have a job as a criminal investigator.
In fact, he doesn't. He's a well-rewarded apparatchik who, in the course of interrogating his fellow citizens, notices a disturbing pattern of murders Leo's life changes, from privileged servant of the regime to lone wolf investigator to vengeful assassin, over the course of the story.
His solution to the crimes being committed is chilling in its outlines and satisfying in its conclusion. My Review : I don't believe I've ever read so much text in italics before, and I don't think I've ever read a thriller with so little direct action before, either. The dialogue, what little there is of it, is italicized; there are few places where anyone addresses anyone else for more than a sentence or two.
Husband Leo and wife Raisa have one--that's all, one--intimate conversation, which is a new low count in my thriller reading. But what a wallop this book packs! I can't imagine the agonies of researching and writing such a grisly book, given that most writers are sensitive flowers whose emotional lives are very much up on the surface of their lives. Tom Rob Smith wrote this awful book about awful people doing awful things in an awful country to amuse and entertain us.
He succeeds in this, though sometimes I wanted to wash my eyes out with Clorox. The main character, Leo, is a nasty apparatchik in the State Security forces under Stalin. He's a man who has put his sense of rightness, fairness and justice into the hands of vile, unworthy leaders, and turned off his moral compass.
The reasons that it turns back on, and the results of Leo's single-minded pursuit of a child murderer, are Leo's past leads him to a future that I can't call bright, but at least he's able to do the right thing sometimes. I don't think this book is for everyone, but I think it's really, really interesting and quite exciting and well worth the attention of the non-squeamish. View all 11 comments. Jul 18, Carol rated it really liked it Shelves: buddy-read-susan , historical-fiction , chunkster , cultural-russia , mystery , read You can trust no one Life is Fear.
Life is Torture. Innocence does not matter. Life is a matter of Efficiency, more important than Truth. Update: September 26, Watched the movie and all I can say is that I wish I would have spent the two plus hours reading. View all 26 comments. Sep 30, Willow rated it it was amazing Shelves: mystery , russia , favorites. So of course while I was reading, I wanted to tell everybody about it, shout it to the rooftops, fighting the urge to send a recommendation to all my good GR buddies. In fact, the beginning almost reads like a horror novel. Tom Rob Smith creates this nightmarish, claustrophobic world of mistrust and fear that made me feel like I had been thrown into a horrible dystopia.
Moscow during the time of Stalin was brutal, and I think the realization that these atrocities really happened is what grabs you. I was so completely engulfed in the paranoia along with the characters that I loved it. The basic story is about a murderer traveling around Russia slaughtering children based off a true story.
But instead of trying to catch the killer, the State wants to push it under the rug. Consequently, for an officer of the Militia to honestly try to fight crime is very dangerous. In many ways the story is a lot like The Hangman's Daughter. His characters are not modern, enlightened individuals that are better than everyone else.
They are part of this society, with their own fears and rationalizations. I liked that. I like the journey that Leo has to take. And to my surprise, the suspense for Child 44 does not come from endless action scenes. It comes from the anticipation that the State can and does horrible things to innocent people all the time. What is going to happen to Leo? What will happen to his wife, his parents and anyone that helps him? I think through a good portion of this book, I was clutching the pages. Smith never forgets his premise either. The premise had to have a full arc.
The ending was a little bit too pat and easy, consequently making it the weakest part of the book. But how much gloom and doom can a reader take? I think Child 44 is excellent! I give it six stars! I will definitely read book 2. View all 41 comments. I would like to rate it 4. Let me begin by saying that this book has exceeded my expectations.
Personally, I would say that it is a tad better than Gorky Park - an excellent book about a Soviet policeman. The atmosphere of fear, desperation, tension, suspense has been used so effectively by the author. The start itself is so chilling - it is and we visit the village of Chervoy, Ukraine - then a part of the Soviet Union. Lack of food has reduced humans to ea I would like to rate it 4.
Lack of food has reduced humans to eating their pets and further degradation is portrayed when people try to eat earth. In such a setting, two little boys- two brothers set out to hunt a cat while their mother waits for them at home. Then of course, something terrible happens. Twenty years later we move to Moscow where a child's horrific murder is being brushed under the carpet by the Stalinist regime. Crime does not exist in the Soviet Union. But, there is a big difference between Leo and the others — unlike Renko and March, Leo is a true believer in the state.
He is dedicated to his country and the cause espoused by the state. Leo will kill and die for it. The horrors of living under a totalitarian regime has been emphatically stressed throughout the book. A mere slip of tongue, a silly joke, a mere suspicion is enough for a person to be executed or may be worse — be exiled to the Gulag.
Torture and forced confessions are the accepted norms of interrogation. All his beliefs, values, accomplishments go for a toss. He is demoted and sent off in the middle of nowhere. Though this is a serial killer novel, the state emerges as the bigger villain than the killer. Leo risks his life as well as the lives of his loved ones in order to expose the killer. The risk is not from the killer but from the state itself as crime does not exist in Soviet Russia and people trying to prove so are Western agents- enemies of the glorious revolution.
Leo and his wife Raisa try to catch and punish the killer and are helped by a lot of kind-hearted people, some prisoners themselves while others are complete strangers — humble citizens of the USSR. There are plenty of events and twists which would make you tense, afraid, excited etc. Do we really know and understand the people whom we love? People try to forget things which make them uncomfortable. I loved the way the relationship between Leo and Raisa evolved. The book, parts of the book at least were so faced paced that I did not realize how time went by. I would recommend this book to all lovers of thrillers — but please keep in mind the book can be a bit depressing.
Oct 09, Dem rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites , russian-history , recommended. Child 44 is one of those books that only come along once in awhile and when it does it makes you exclaim out loud. Its a book not for the faint hearted but a real page turner. You have a cause you believe in, a cause worth dying for. Set with the backdrop of the Soviet Union and the Russian communists, this brutal story follows our main character, Leo, who works as a detective, chasing a real-life murderer which this story is based on.
The research that went into this story is pretty much flawless. The author managed to accurately convey the political turmoil of the country in the s, bringing the horror of the oppression and the injustice fully to life.
So much so, that it was painful to read at times. I personally wasn't aware of the history of the Soviet Union, so in that sense this book was extremely educational. The injustice isn't new. You see this taking place on the daily, yet it was astounding to realise how disgustingly corrupt the political system was.
Everything was black and white. You were told one thing, and were ordered not to question it. The idea of the government being flawed was not something plausible. There was the sense of utopia that they didn't allow to collapse. So, instead of the perpetrator being convicted of his or her crime, it was blamed on the West, possible Nazis regrouping, the mentally ill and homosexuals.
The truth was twisted, left to die and buried. So, it's a tale of Leo embarking on this journey of self-realisation of coming to terms with the crimes of his government and his loyalty to the state being tested. It's an absolute gripping story, one that I loved from beginning to end! Jan 06, Michael rated it really liked it. This is an expertly rendered and well-executed thriller set in the Stalinist-era Soviet Union.
The plot machinations are done just right, and there is enough grim local color--including some harrowing scenes of starvation at the very beginning and the wonderfully iron-clad certainty among the Soviets that a serial killer would be impossible in their country--to lend heft to the proceedings. It's a real page-turner for those who enjoy the cat-and-mouse guessing game of thrillers. Sep 07, Ms.
To survive as a detective in s communist Russia, you have to put your country above all. Anything less is tantamount to high treason. So when he refuses to denounce his own wife as a traitor, MGB detective Leo Demidov knows that they'll both be executed. Stalin's sudden death however, grants them reprieve and an exile into the remote town of Voualsk, where they'll at least have one another.
But then his wife Raisa shocks him, by suddenly confessing that she had married Leo out of fear, and in fact hates him.
Tom Rob Smith: Novels, and a List of Books by Author Tom Rob Smith
A "routine" arrest in the case of a dead child, whose circumstances seem eerily familiar, gives Leo a new purpose. He decides to find the actual culprit, and not just allow the militia to pin it on an unfortunate scapegoat. Having previously watched the movie , I was not expecting to like the book so much.
The basic story about a disgraced MGB agent hunting a serial child murderer remains the same, but life in the cut-throat world of communist Russia, as well as Leo's past view spoiler [ and as such his connection to the killer hide spoiler ] are missing. I especially liked Leo's character development. In the movie, there is Tom Hardy who's running around and brooding handsomely, while the rest of the world is busy hating him. In the book, we see Leo's life as a dedicated MGB agent, who would not hesitate to resort to drugs in order to keep doing his job, even when this comes with severe memory loss.
It was also quite fascinating to read about Leo's inner turmoil, when it came down to actually believing the communist propaganda that he enforces. At times, it was almost heart-breaking to see him attempt to brainwash himself, by repeatedly memorizing communist slogans, when the methamphetamine-induced memory loss manifested itself. And most of all, Leo's past is what left quite an impression on me. The chilling conclusion of this first chapter is, nevertheless, an excellent way of catching the reader's attention.
Admittedly, I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the information, when it comes to detailing life in s Russia, but the manner in which it is described is definitely effective. I could barely put the book down, and even then I kept counting the hours I could pick it up again to continue. There's evidence of a possible serial killer at large but one of the propaganda "truths" is that Russia is crime free.
Leo Demidov, a member of the powerful and feared MGB predecessor of the KGB , is sent to investigate one of the murders but is instructed to classify it as an accident. It sets off a chain of events that will forever change the man and his life. I was mesmerized by this story as it offered a glimpse into an era I knew little about but is important as it provides insight into the probable foundation of current Russian culture.
Part mystery and part historical fiction, the storytelling aspect is outstanding. While Leo is the main character and most everything is seen through his point of view, that view transforms as everything he's believed in and been a part of begins to unravel as it turns on him. To challenge any of the government positions often means certain death so Leo's change doesn't happen without consequence.
The setting represents one of the most important in world history where millions of the so-called "enemies of the Soviet people" were imprisoned, exiled or executed. I've known the facts of the era but this story provided more clarity of how a system designed to provide social and economic equality could go so horribly awry. Leo is at times unsympathetic and at others heroic. The story has an emotional punch I hadn't expected and the narrator just nails everything. I highly recommend listening to this book as it contributes to its authentic sense.
My Rating: 4. That is why you hate them so much. They offend you. Check on those we trust. I didn't really like the characters at the end of the book, they are likable but they all are certainly understandable and interesting. Tom Rob Smith is de My Rating: 4. Tom Rob Smith is definitely a gifted writer who has a great way of telling his stories. It could be his non usage of quotation marks or the shifting narration, but it kept me guessing and hooked. The way the story went up and down, with the sudden turns made me unable to put the book down. I am going to read the next two books in the trilogy and I hope they would be as good as this.
I would certainly recommend this book to everyone who loves thriller mystery novels with politics and philosophical and sociological traits. Thank you for reading this. A very long time ago and far away, I used to starve myself. On purpose. I had this idea I would transform into a super model. Instead, one day I scratched my arm and tore my skin off.
Taking a deep breath, I almost broke ribs, but as it turned out, I simply pulled rib muscles. True story. Going without food is terrible. It does awful things to your body, not just to your mind. The entire Soviet Union, but mostly the Ukraine, under the dictator A very long time ago and far away, I used to starve myself. The entire Soviet Union, but mostly the Ukraine, under the dictatorial hand of the mass murderer Joseph Stalin , is starving, much as Stalin himself did as a child.
He replaced the New Economic Policy introduced by Lenin in the early s with a highly centralized command economy, launching a period of industrialization and collectivization that resulted in the rapid transformation of the USSR from an agrarian society into an industrial power. The economic changes coincided with the imprisonment of millions of people in Gulag labour camps.
The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of —33, known in Ukraine as the Holodomor. Between and he organized and led the "Great Purge", a massive campaign of repression of the party, government, armed forces and intelligentsia, in which millions of so-called "enemies of the working class" were imprisoned, exiled or executed, often without due process.
Major figures in the Communist Party and government, and many Red Army high commanders, were killed after being convicted of treason in show trial. While historians continue to disagree whether the policies that led to Holodomor fall under the legal definition of genocide, twenty-six countries have officially recognized the Holodomor as such It would appear that Stalin intended to use the starvation as a cheap and efficient means as opposed to deportations and shootings to kill off those deemed to be "counterrevolutionaries," "idlers," and "thieves," but not to annihilate the Ukrainian peasantry as a whole.
Ellman also claims that, while this was not the only Soviet genocide e. Ten-year-old Ukrainian Pavel and his brother, seven-year-old nearsighted Andrei, are starving. It is , and their village thinks it has eaten all of the rats and cats. People are chewing bark to kill the hunger. Luckily, one day the boys see what must be the last surviving cat. So they run after the single remaining cat which has slinked off into the forest.
Unknown to the boys, someone is hunting them. The children are thin, but they have on their bones good meat in the eyes of the starving, whether man or beast. The desperate hungry man following the children gets ready with his club and sack In Moscow, twenty years later, four-year-old Arkady is angry with his older brother, Jora. Jora cheated, throwing a snowball full of rocks and mud which knocks out one of Arkady's teeth.
Disbelieving and hurt, Arkady runs off towards the train yard - and he becomes a key to a mystery. The 44th key. Arkady's body is discovered, unclothed, gutted and with his mouth full of chewed bark. The Soviet Union does not, cannot, accept this. Communism is a perfect system of economics and social organization, and under Communism, nobody can possibly want to murder anyone.
The Soviet people have all been remolded by the Great Leader Stalin into a perfect society where all necessities are met; so if there has been a death, it must be an accident and anyone who speaks of the actual condition of the body must be convinced of their error of their perceptions.
Well, gentle reader, 'investigate' is perhaps the wrong word, since Leo's job is to track down social anomalies and force witnesses to retract any statements marring the picture of the perfection of Communist society. These folks who insist on deviant attitudes towards Communism and its perfection, after being made to confess their errors in seeing reality for the record, and who are then tortured for any information about friends, neighbors and work friends who might also be in error regarding the perfection of Communism and Stalin, are then shot or sent by train to the gulags.
Since they may have contaminated their families, all grandparents, children and other near relatives are also arrested, tortured and imprisoned, just in case. Leo is good at his job. He has a talent for hunting, and he, at age 30, is respected by his superiors. He actually has been rewarded with a small apartment for himself and his wife, a survivor of the last war, and he has a bit more food available to him than most. Although he lives with unending anxiety, mostly because no one around him seems to live very long without being accused and arrested for errors of either thinking incorrectly, or acting as if they are thinking incorrectly, Leo is a absolute believer in Stalin and Communism.
At least, he was. Lately, he has been noticing torture creates factual inconsistencies, and there seems to be excessive killing and torture of obviously innocent and worthy citizens.
Reports are concocted with standard boilerplate instead of facts. Not trusting anyone, including your parents, wife or child, is an awful way to live, especially in having to monitor even minute movements of body language. It is very wearing. However, even though Leo has discovered one can be a perfect Communist under Stalin's leadership and still be accused, tortured and shot, which is confusing and surprisingly, terrifying to him, he believes in the theories of Communism and in the hope of remolding people into something better in the end.
They all just need to concentrate on the Big Picture for the common good and change themselves, eliminating their obstinate personal physical desires and motivations, like for food, warmth and love. But Leo is given two cases which together shake his faith. In forcing Arkady's family to say the little boy was hit by a train and not murdered, and in the second case when tracking a 'criminal' of the state, someone suspected of errors of infected thought from contact with foreigners, results in executions which shake him to his core.
He experiences a mental dissonance, and Leo can no longer ignore his doubts. An MGB competitor takes advantage and reports him for suspicion of being a dissident. Although he is cleared by heroic actions in the capture of the runaway criminal, he is demoted anyway because he may yet possess possible philosophical deviations, which means he might be a spy according to the Marxist-based writ, slogans and rote of Stalin's rules any suspicion is enough proof , so Leo and his wife Raisa are sent away to serve in an impoverished starving village militia.
In the Ural Mountain village, Voualsk, a child is discovered murdered in the forest, being gutted with chewed bark in her mouth. Impossible, but there it is. Leo finds he is driven to find the murderer, now that his barriers against improper thinking have cracked. Luckily, he finds allies and with their help, he figures out there have been at least 44 murders of children by one man. But mistakes are made, and under the police mechanisms of the Soviet Union his suspicious activities are spotted.
The official network of the State cannot allow him to find such a person as a murderer under Communism, because murderers are an impossibility in the Soviet Union. If Leo discovers an actual murderer, it is Leo who must be executed for his knowledge. Nonetheless, he can't let it go. People are going to die, and not the guilty. Will Leo be arrested before he can find the childkiller?
This is the best thriller I have read this year! It is the type of thriller which I had to put down frequently, though, gentle reader. It is THAT kind of good. Stalin's Soviet Union is described in vividly stifling and claustrophobic horror. The state-sanctioned punishments and intended consequences for destroying anything remotely natural in human behavior are historical fact.
The author studied historical documents and read interviews given by Soviet citizens to use as background for this incredible mystery. The murderer is also based on historical fact!
"tom rob smith"
Unfortunately, so was the world of the Soviet Union. Beginning with Karl Marx: Karl Marx , grandson of Jewish rabbis, joined socialist societies, wrote articles for newspapers, and wrote first and second drafts of books which would make him an influential historical figure while starving in England. He came from money, but his views on labor and capitalism made him a pariah to many European monarchs and governments, so on the run for most of his youth, he finally settled in London. Several of his children died from poor health developed after starving in London. His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.
Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx was a deep-thinking intellectual, whose interest mainly was in alleviating economic inequality. At the time, many of his ideas were also being expressed by other intellectuals, but his books pulling together all of the untried economic ideas plus adding his own unique thought caught fire with those of the public concerned with the huge gaps in opportunity and wealth between social classes.
Anyone who reads his most famous books, The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital will see how attractive these theories were to the starving poor and me, frankly, years ago as well as intellectuals. However, they have proven disastrous when practiced, mostly because they do not take into consideration human nature itself.
As Dr. Moreau in H. Wells The Island of Dr. Moreau discovered, the animal flesh persists.