Vroeer in die Voortrekkertyd is iemand onder sestien jaar as 'n kind beskou. Seuns het sodra hulle 16 jaar oud geword het, in die au Trans-. Kinderperspektiven: Partizipation in gesellschaftlicher Praxis. Auf der Grundlage empirischen Materials wird dabei gezeigt, dass zur Untersuchung von Kinderperspektiven deren Cyber bullying among youth is rapidly becoming a global phenomenon, as educators, parents and policymakers grapple with trying to curtail this negative and sometimes devastating behavior.
Since most cyber bullying emanates from the home computer, parents can play an important role in preventing cyber bullying and in fostering a kinder online…. The experiences of AIDS orphans living in a township. Data is geanaliseer ooreenkomstig die stappe van kwalitatiewe data analise volgens Tesch in Creswell Guba se model was gebruik om die betroubaarheid van data te bepaal. Die eerste tema was dat kinders dramatiese veranderinge in hulle lewensomstandighede ervaar wanneer hulle VIGS weeskinders word.
Die tweede tema wat na vore gekom het, was hoe die deelnemers die hoop om voort te gaan met die lewe, herontdek het. Aanbevelings, gebaseer op die bevindinge, is gemaak wat verpleegpraktyk, onderrig en navorsing sal rig. Storytelling and German Culture. The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen.
For this study, research questions were posed…. Drittens wird im kontrastiven Vergleich der untersuchten Kurse eine Varianz dieser Ordnungen — in Bezug auf die Form des Wissens und Adressierung der Kinder — herausgearbeitet, die allerdings die Dominanz der schulischen Ordnung nicht bricht. Lindo, Natalya A. Teacher-child relationship building TCRB is a play-based professional development programme adapted from kinder training and filial therapy. Intended for early education teachers and students, TCRB is designed to strengthen the teacher-child relationship, improve student behaviour, enhance academic involvement and develop teachers' classroom….
Trina Solar Ltd CL Colgate-Palmolive Co. NE Noble Corp Nabors Industries Ltd. Op pad na 'n omvattende woordeboekkultuur in die digitale era. Dit is 'n omvattende oorgang in eie reg; nie net in die leksiko- grafie nie. In die leksikografie het In die They don't mind paying through the nose for the latest Ozzy Osbourne "Down To Earth". Erinevad esitajad ".
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Hut Recordings ". Freestylers "Pressure Point". Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo". T here now exists an ever-increasing gap between the Many married women now go out to work and many couples Between them, Christianity, labour migration, influx control and wage earning eroded the. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a poor peri-urban informal settlement in South Africa. Beskrywende statistiek, analise van variansie en Pearsonkorrelasies is bepaal deur die Statistical Package for Social Sciences, uitgawe Antropometriese data is geanaliseer deur die statistiese program, Anthro plus, uitgawe 1.
Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die kinders was 9. Min sinkryke voedselbronne is in die hoofsaaklik plantryke dieet waargeneem. Die gemiddelde sinkinname was 4. Data for occupancy internal heat gain calculation in main building categories. Indoor temperature, humidity level, air velocity, and clothing insulation have The results are included in my PhD thesis report entiteled 'Corporate Sustainabilty.
Evaluation of Around the Corner. Purpose The purpose of this study was to understand if inclusion of computer activities and videos for pre-K and kinder students, with opportunities to view these videos again at home, providing a repeated learning experience with language concepts and vocabulary, improved young students' early reading skill. Methods The study followed one…. The Children's House. Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations.
Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of suggests a total…. Bewegung bei Vorschulkindern: Empfehlungen und Wirklichkeit. Um diese Ziele zu erreichen bzw. Haben Sie schon gegessen? Ich habe sie in Richtung Vorbereitung auf eine kommende Essenseinladung oder zumindest auf den Vorschlag, jetzt gemeinsam essen zu gehen , interpretiert un Kaufst du noch oder streamst du schon?
Um diesen Fragen auf den Grund zu gehen , wurde im Rahmen die Jewish Survivors. Three-Dimensional post-myelographic CT reconstruction in the diagnosis and therapy planning for spinal development disorders; Dreidimensionale postmyelographische CT-Rekonstruktion in der Diagnostik und Therapieplanung spinaler Entwicklungsstoerungen. Wicht, L.
Dysrhaphia is often associated with severe osseous aberrations of the spine such as, for example scoliosis, hemivertebra, and synostosis. With the advanced possibilities of the post-processing of CT-data segmentation, three-dimensional reconstruction , post-myelo-CT is an excellent method for the evaluation of osseous structures and the myelon in preoperative planning. Mit den verbesserten Moeglichkeiten der Datennachbearbeitung Segmentierung, 3D-dimensionale Rekonstruktion stellt die postmyelographische Computertomographie vor allem bei komplexen Fehlbildungen ein geeignetes Verfahren zur praeoperativen Beurteilung der ossaeren Strukturen der Wirbelsaeule und des Myelons dar.
Von niederer Herkunft. Smartphones, aber auch eingebettete Datenverarbeitungssysteme. The authors examine if group buying schemes are a sustainable business model. By means of the Groupon case study and using a System Dynami Chronisch-dekompensierter Tinnitus: ein heterogenes Krankheitsbild mit Auswirkungen auf den Behandlungserfolg. Die Tinnitus-Belastung wurde mit Tinnitus-Fragebogen Full Text Available Der nachfolgende Beitrag diskutiert die Herausforderungen des Einbezugs von betroffenen Kindern und Jugendlichen in die qualitative Forschung zum Thema lebenslimitierende Erkrankungen insbesondere unter dem Blickwinkel der methodischen Gestaltung dieses Einbezugs.
Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1. Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem.
Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van ; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van ; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van ; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van Emotionsregulationsstrategien und aggressives Verhalten im Kindergartenalter. Effekte gewaltorientierter Computerspiele bei Kindern : Wirkmechanismen, Moderatoren und Entwicklungsfolgen.
Das Ziel dieser Studie war a unmittelbare Effekte des Spielens gewalthaltiger Computerspiele experime Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat. Today, in vitro Latin: in glass meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals.
In this article, I scrutinize and problematize this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri The political economy of imperialism, decolonization, and development. Nations have historically sought power and prosperity through control of physical space. In recent decades, however, territorial empire has largely ceased. Most states that can take and hold territory no longer appear eager to do so, while the weak are unable to expand.
Have powerful countries become ' kinder and gentler', or has something fundamental changed about the logic of empire? We offer a theory of imperialism and decolonization that explains both historic cycles of expansion and decli Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Klangfarbenwahmehmung von Vorschulkindern mit einem Klangmemory. Im Unterschied zu anderen Bereichen der musikalischen Wahrnehmung gibt es zur Klangfarbenwahmehmung nur wenige Untersuchungen.
Die Ergebnisse dieser empirischen Studie werden Welche musikalischen Vorlieben haben Grundschulkinder? Dazu gibt es in Deutschland keine aktuellen Erhebungen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchun Die bevordering van woordeskat en leesbegrip by Xhosa-moedertaalsprekers in graad in Afrikaanse skole.
Die probleem word verder vererger deurdat Xhosasprekende ouers hul demokratiese reg om hul kinders by Engelse skole in te skryf, uitoefen. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n geletterdheidsintervensieprogram te ontwikkel wat 'n verbetering kan bring in die woordeskat en leesbegrip van Xhosa-moedertaalsprekers in graad 4 tot 6-Afr The dissertation is concerned with socializing processes of pre-school children around three years of age.
The first theoretical part is globally concerned with personality socialization and highlights the significance of socialization in the healthy psychical progression of human beings, as well as the importance of understanding the problems of socialization for the pedagogical profession. This knowledge is specific and generalized in a situational context when the child comes to the kinder Modified Kidner procedure utilizing a Mitek bone anchor. The recent development of small bone suture anchors has created several potential applications in reconstructive surgery of the foot.
Mitek bone anchors are simple to insert, require less aggressive dissection and surgical time than reefing of the redundant posterior tibial tendon, and are a reliable method of tendon-to-bone fixation. Mitek bone anchors are an excellent technique for the treatment of redundant tibialis posterior tendon following a modified Kidner procedure.
In modified Kidner procedures involving an excessively large os tibiale externum, Mitek anchoring of the redundant tibialis posterior tendon to the navicular bone is an excellent means for secure plication of the posterior tibial tendon in cases involving intraoperative tendon laxity. A description of the Mitek Anchor System and technique of application in a modified Kinder procedure is presented.
The purpose of this study was to describe patient satisfaction and long-term clinical outcomes of the modified Kinder procedure with and without the Mitek bone anchoring system. A retrospective study of the modified Kinder procedure was performed with 13 patients being evaluated, seven with Mitek anchoring and six without. The University of Maryland point Painful Foot Center Scoring System was modified to be more specific to the modified Kinder procedure for assessment of subjective long-term results.
Patient overall satisfaction was rated good to excellent by Use of the Mitek anchor allowed for quicker postoperative recovery to resumption of ambulation without assistive devices average of 3 weeks vs. Flexibility is associated with motor competence in schoolchildren. Available data on the associations between motor competence MC and flexibility are limited and result inconclusive. This study aims to examine the relationship between flexibility and MC in children. The sample comprised Portuguese children Motor competence was evaluated with the body coordination test, Korperkoordination Test fur Kinder.
Cardiorespiratory fitness m shuttle run , muscular strength curl-up and push-up tests Bei aggressiven Verlaufsformen, die eine Vielzahl von Papillomabtragungen im Abstand von wenigen Monaten o The subjects were 6-year-old children boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2. Das Buch behandelt Kinderarmut als Thema der sozialen Gerechtigkeit. This book examines child poverty as a topic of social justice. The authors develop a theory of social justice for children based within the capabi Die hoofkarakter leef in 'n Suid-Afrika wat tekens van geweld They have nature, and they have not been made very De halvstuderede.
This chapter will examine the many areas where energy costs can be accounted for to provide The allocation of energy costs involved in the distribution of the documents depends upon the accounting system Corporation, December Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting - A Managerial Emphasis.
Attempting to model dissociations of memory. Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning AGL and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.
Neues aus dem Forschungsfeld Deutsch als Zweitsprache. Sammelrezension Teil 2 von Bernt Ahrenholz Hrsg. Die kliniese kindersielkundige as diagnostikus1. Dit is in die eerste keer gebruik. Die werk van die Kliniese Kindersielkunde is egter so oud as die werk van die algemene Kliniese Sielkunde, waarvan die geskiedenis gewoonlik teruggevoer word tot die begin van sielkundige toetsing vroeg in die tagtigerjare.
Zur Entwicklung eines interaktiven Verfahrens der Sprachstandsermittlung bei mehrsprachig aufwachsenden Kindern — von der Idee zu ersten Umsetzungsschritten. Das neuartige Erhebungsverfahren wird dabei in Form einer digitalen Spielumgebung App entwickelt, die eine Umsetzung der Prinzipien des handlungsorientierten Sprachenlernens erlaubt. This paper presents the implementation of a new concept of first and second language assessment for pre-school children between four and six years.
The concept is theoretically grounded in usage-based linguistics. It assesses language in authentic communicative settings in a game based app. The settings provide the children with incentives to engage in communication. As a result, the assessment tool does not evaluate formal aspects of language. Instead it relies on functional categories for evaluation. Norms for evaluations are derived from longitudinal corpus studies of authentic child language production.
Pilot studies indicate that children with L2 German appear to be more advanced than shown by traditional form-based assessment methods. Dinter, D. Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin; Koelfen, W. Paediatrische Klinik; Freund, M. Purpose: A prospective study was initiated for the correlation of the findings in the initial cranial CT with the long-term follow-up MRI in children with severe head injury.
Another aim was the evaluation of frequency and location of lesions, found only in MRI. Methods: 70 children with severe head injury and initially performed pathological CCT were followed up mean time 3 years by MRI. All 15 children with epidural bleeding had unsuspicious findings at the former hematoma. All of the contusions were found as parenchymal residual lesions. Conclusion: This study shows the higher sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in non-hemorrhagic parenchymal lesions and in 'diffuse axonal injury'.
A MRI-examination is recommended in children with severe head injury, especially in patients with normal CCT and posttraumatic neurological deficits. Methodik: 70 Kinder mit initial nach SHT durchgefuehrtem und pathologischem CT wurden im Rahmen eines Follow-up im zeitlichen Abstand von durchschnittlich 3 Jahren kernspintomographisch nachuntersucht. InterCity tilting e. Five trains with tilt mechanism will travel between Stuttgart - Singen - Schaffhausen - Zurich. For this purpose these trains are equipped in addition with swiss current collectors and safety engineering.
Dafuer wurden diese fuenf Zuege zusaetzlich mit schweizerischer Stromabnehmerwippe und Zugsicherungseinrichtung ausgeruestet. Automatische Bremsfunktionen. Ziel ist es,mit automatischen Bremseingriffen den Fahrer zu entlasten und damit mehr Komfort zu bieten. Revolution by way of technical transfer in the development of locomotive brake systems; Revolutionierung in der Entwicklung von Bremssystemen bei Lokomotiven durch Technologietransfer. Wright, E. Bereich Engineering; Sinn, R.
Bereich Elektronik und Software. With the use of components from other sectors and orientation on the technologies of other fields it has been possible to enhance the standard of electronic braking systems. The physical volume could be reduced by 40 percent and the weight by 30 percent. A diagnostics system allows repair times to be reduced to 20 minutes.
Production is now commencing and it is planned to make the first deliveries starting from January Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung einer neuen Generation von computergesteuerten Bremssystemen fuer Lokomotiven. Der Organismus der Mathematik - mikro-, makro- und mesoskopisch betrachtet. Operating experience with innovative environmental technologies; Betriebserfahrungen mit innovativen Umwelttechnologien. The MUT '99 Merseburger Umwelt-Tag discussed modern processes, technologies and plants for treatment and utilisation of waste. The conference was attended by industrial organisations and scientific institutions.
Entsprechend dem Motto dieser Tagung stellen Unternehmen, Betriebe und wissenschaftliche Einrichtungen ihre Erfahrungen auf dem Gebiet der Umwelttechnologien vor, um Entwicklungen auf diesem Gebiet einer breiten Diskussion zu eroeffnen. Dabei soll es insbesondere um die Behandlung nicht vermeidbarer Abfaelle und Abwaesser gehen.
- Quest for Kim: In Search of Kiplings Great Game!
- THE LONG JOURNEY HOME.
- Refined by Relationships (DiscipleGuide);
Die Brennstoffzelle hat aus technischer Sicht einen hohen Stand erreicht. Geschlechterbilder in Werbeanzeigen und ihre Bewertung. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag The book provides an important basis for Media Studies and Gender Sociology particularly because it also shows medial constructions of gender that are initially invisible and because it shows gender related illustrations of physicality and beauty. Franchise fees in the liberalized German electricity market; Konzessionsabgaben im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt.
Erloes und Ergebnisplanung abhaengig von Einwohnerzahl. Hoitsch, H. Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Betriebswirtschaftslehre und Industrie.
Early Childhood Development
Companies retailing electricity countrywide to end-use consumers usually do not differentiate their prices dependent on the city or region of their customers. But they have to calculate with different grid utilization charges for different customers. These differences are in Germany among other things due to local concession resp. The authors of the following article discuss possible economic justifications of varying franchise fees and their consequences with regard to competition.
Sie haben je nach Wohnort ihrer Kunden unterschiedlich hohe Netznutzungsentgelte als Kostenfaktor zu beruecksichtigen. Diese Unterschiede beruhen u. Die Autoren gehen der Frage nach, welche Auswirkungen die mit der Einwohnerzahl einer Gemeinde steigenden Konzessionsabgaben auf den Wettbewerb haben und ob sie oekonomisch gerechtfertigt sind. Climate protection policy and new jobs - a contradiction in itself? The expert opinion was to examine in various scenarios whether implementation of additional, ambitious climate protection policies and programmes may indeed have an adverse effect on the employment situation in Germany.
The experts found that under certain framework conditions, positive synergy effects will develop. Der Artikel fasst die wesentlichen Ergebnisse des Gutachtens zusammen, das u. Grootjans et al. Frauen in Philosophie und Wissenschaft. Byrams Modell der interkulturellen Prognostic impact of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in diagnosis and postoperative follow-up of newborns with biliary atresia; Prognostische Wertigkeit der hepatobiliaeren Funktionszintigraphie in Diagnostik und Nachsorge der Gallengangsatresie.
Rossmueller, B. Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Schuster, T. Kinderchirurgische Klinik; Lang, T. Beide Kinder mit gutem postoperativen Erfolg hatten primaer eine gute HE und zeigten im postoperativen Scan einen raschen und deutlichen Galleabfluss in das Intestinum. Postoperativ ermoeglicht die Leberfunktionszintigraphie eine Objektivierung der wiederhergestellten Galleabflussverhaeltnisse.
Non scholae, sed vitae discimus! Studien, wie beispielsweise die 3. Kinder -Medien-Studie, belegen, dass Kinder bereits vor dem Schuleintritt mit neuen Technologien und dem Internet Erfahrungen sammeln. Eine Arbeitsgruppe mit ExpertInnen digi. Guidelines for clockspeed acceleration in the US natural gas transmission industry. For this peer group, the three clockspeed accelerators have been benchmarked at both corporate level and gas transmission business level, using time-series analysis and cross-sectional analysis over a 6-year period The results are visualized in so-called clockspeed radargraphs.
Overall corporate clockspeed winners - over the performance period studied - are: Williams, El Paso and Kinder Morgan; MidAmerican is a close follower. The peer group ranking for the natural gas transmission business segment shows similar clockspeed winners, but with different ranking in the following order: Kinder Morgan, MidAmerican and El Paso; Williams is a close follower.
Clockspeed laggards for the natural gas transmission segments coincide with the corporate clockspeed laggards of the peer group: CMS Energy and NiSource over the performance period studied ; laggards of the past may become clockspeed leaders of the future if adjustments are made. Practical recommendations are formulated for achieving competitive clockspeed optimization in the US gas transmission industry as a whole.
Recommendations for clockspeed acceleration at individual companies are also given. Although the US natural gas market is subject to specific regulations and its own geographical dynamics, this study also provides hints for improving the competitive clockspeed performance of gas transmission companies elsewhere, in other world regions. It has tried to examine the understandings from teachers who work with children from three to four years of age with make-believe games and the kinder cultures. The tool used in collecting the data was a structured interview with questions directed to the topic of research, which is qualitative.
The data collection occurred between the months of April to June However, teachers as resources, strategies and ways of learning the content, using the activity from theater and music as solutions to develop the targeted activities, sometimes using the game of make-believe. The teachers perceive aspects from the kinder cultures brought by the children from non-institutional settings for make-believe games, primarily from the family context. Keywords: Child Education. Make-believe games. Children's cultures.
Conveying technology to new heights. In the quest for greater performance and efficiency, operators are increasingly looking for more sophisticated conveying solutions. ContiTech is developing new rubber compositions to reduce rolling resistance in its conveyor systems. ContiClean A-H is a new anti-stick conveyor belt.
Polyurethane was found to have the best coefficient of friction. A K-Kryptane polyethylene belt skinting has been fitted on a quay conveyor to a ship loader and has reduced wear considerably. This paper is the result of a participatory action research project. It expresses my experiences with nine of the fourteen families of students attending the special education school where I work.
Students are in Early Intervention years old , Kinder Garden and a half years old and the first cycle of elementary school 6 years and 6 months to 9 years old. Six of the participating families included a father and a mother, while the other three only included the mother. I met six t Children's self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers' evaluations, and parents' concerns.
The associations between physical competence, self-perceived bodily competence, parental concern for their children's motor skill development, and teachers' evaluation of their bodily competence were assessed in six- to seven-year-olds. Physical competence was assessed by the German motor Parental concern, teacher evaluation, and a high body mass index were the strongest predictors of low physical competence motor skill quotient Full Text Available Becoming a reader involves gaining the meaning of the activities involved which includes the purposes, values and roles that are part of the activity.
At home literacy is contextualised and a child becomes aware of the uses and practises of reading in his or her culture. This home based literacy is a more natural form of literacy and must be distinguishedfrom school based literacy which is a more organised, systematic literacy. Teachers need to be aware of the important role that preliteracy experience plays in a child's ability to learn to read successfully. They can then provide experiences that will help those children who come to school without the prerequisite emergent literacy skills to become good readers.
Teachers will benefit from being aware of family literacy practices and encouraging parents to become involved in their children's reading, because this will help children to make reading and general literacy activities more meaningful. Children who become successful readers associate books with enjoyment and are therefore willing to make the effort to become readers. This is more likely to happen with the support from the family.
Research indicates that a key predictor of student success is family involvement in children's education Ginsburg, Om 'n leser te word, hou in dat betekenis gevorm moet word van die aktiwiteite wat by lees betrokke is, nl die doel, waardes en rolle wat deel van die aktiwiteite. Geletterdheid word by die huis gekontekstualiseer en 'n kind word bewus van die gebruike van en praktyke vir lees in sy of haar kultuur. Hierdie huisgebaseerde geletterdheid is die natuurlikste vorm van geletterdheid en moet onderskei word van skoolgebaseerde geletterdheid wat 'n meer georganiseerde sistematiese soort geletterdheid is.
Onderwysers moet bewus wees van die belangrike rol wat voor-geletterdheidervaring speel in In kind se vermoe om suksesvol te leer lees. Hulle kan dan geleenthede organiseer wat daardie kinders. Enkele gedagtes oor Matteus se gebruikmaking van die Ou Testament immers geensins op 'n eenvormige manier nie. Om hierdie Daar is 'n When zoo became nature.
Copenhagen zoo and perceptions of animals and nature around This article points out central historical themes in the debates and arguments given by the directors of Copenhagen Zoo for the zoo as an alternative to nature. When Copenhagen Zoo was founded in , itsn purpose was divided equally between entertainment, enlightenment and symbolizing the glory During this period though, it also became possible for the Zoo to stage itself as a kinder place for animals, than "real" nature. In the early 20th century, the Zoo attracted attention from animal rights movements, wherefore the debates came to be structured around two radically different Dazu wurden insgesamt gabuni-sche Kinder den beiden Behandlungsgruppen A-P oder Placebo zugeteilt.
Die Impfungen mit den oben genannten Impfstoffen erfolgte Abscesses after appendectomy due to intraoperative loss of fecaliths; Abszesse nach Appendektomie durch intraoperativ verlorene Appendicolithen. Hoermann, M. Kinderchirurgie; Eich, G. Objective: Fecaliths appear to predispose a patient to acute appendicitis, abscess formation, and perforation. The number of preoperative radiological evaluations is increasing, although children with suspected perforation still undergo surgery immediately.
We report and discuss imaging findings and implications in children with acute appendicitis and fecalithis. Methods: Four children 3 girls, 1 boy; mean age 9 years underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Three children underwent sonography and plain radiography before surgery, 1 child was operated without radiological evaluation. After readmission, all 4 children underwent sonography and plain radiography before surgery.
Results: In 3 patients a fecalith was diagnosed initially. After uneventful recovery all 4 patients had acute abdominal pain and readmission was necessary. In all 4 patients the escaped fecalith was demonstrated with sonography and plain radiography confirmed surgically. Conclusion: Discussion about the role of imaging in acute appendicitis has concentrated on the diagnostic yield of cross-section techniques.
The importance of demonstrating a fecalith, prompting a more thorough intraoperative search has found little attention. The radiologist should also detect and localize a fecalith and should be aware of retained fecaliths as a cause of abscess formation after appendectomy. Wir berichten und diskutieren die Bedeutung der Bildgebung bei Kindern mit Faekolithen und perforierter akuter Appendizitis.
Methoden: 4 Kinder drei Maedchen, ein Junge, Altersmeridian 9 Jahre wurden wegen perforierter akuter Appendizitis operiert. Drei Kinder erhielten praeoperativ eine Ultraschalluntersuchung und ein Abdomen-Uebersichtsbild. Nach Neuaufnahme wurden nun bei allen Kindern eine Ultraschalluntersuchung und ein Abdomen-Uebersichtsbild angefertigt und neuerlich operiert. A longitudinal study. Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out and play these violent video games?
To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Editorial: Visuelle Methoden in der Forschung. Die wesentlichen Fortschritte qualitativer Methoden in den letzten dreissig Jahren sind beispielsweise vor allem mit neuen Entwicklungen im Bereich der Interpretation von Texten Interviews, Gruppendiskussion, ethnografische Verfahren verbunden.
Die Methoden zum Sprach- und Textverstehen sind relativ gut ausgearbeitet, die Methoden zur Film- und Bildinterpretation sind es im Kontext sozialwissenschaftlicher Forschung nicht. Ouditiewe aandag by die voorskoolse kind. Full Text Available Daar is met hierdie navorsingsprojek gepoog om 'n duidelike beeld te vorm van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering by die voorskoolse kind.
Aangesien ouditiewe aandagsprosessering van groot belang is vir die kind wat skool toe gaan is daar op die groep wat in die daaropvolgende jaar skool toe gaan besluit. In sy geheel gesien dui die navorsingsresultate daarop dat die basiese ontwikkelingsproses van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering op hierdie ouderdom 5;2 tot 5;8 voltooi is. Daar kon egter nie vir alle aannames wat in die literatuur gemaak word, bewys gevind word nie. To create space for these questions implies to shepherd the children, regardless of their formal religious affiliation. Driven by the diversity of religiousness in school, some brief clarification of this topic is required, before characterizing which basic expertise educational personnel need to have in order to guide children through the variety of these experiences and questions.
To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel SSC crowns. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Tukey's honest significant difference test HSD , when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth.
Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. Chirurgie angeborener Herzfehler. In Deutschland werden jedes Jahr etwa 6. Dies kann beispielsweise bei einer nicht korrigierbaren angeborenen Fehlbildung notwendig sein, bei der lediglich eine funktionelle Herzkammer vorhanden ist z.
Hierbei muss eine prothetische Verbindung zur Lungenstrombahn in der Folgezeit entfernt werden. Novel technique for rapid screening of tinnitus in rats. Turner, Jeremy G. Measuring tinnitus in laboratory animals is difficult, involving weeks or months of operant training. Preliminary data suggest that rapid screening for tinnitus in rats can be accomplished using an unconditioned acoustic startle reflex. In control animals, a gap in an otherwise constant acoustic background inhibits a subsequent startle response to a sound impulse.
If, however, the background signal is qualitatively similar to the animal's tinnitus, poorer detection of the gap and less inhibition of the startle might be expected. Fourteen animals with putative tinnitus at 10 kHz and 13 control animals were tested for gap detection using three different background signals: broadband noise, and filtered bandpass noise centered either at 16 kHz As predicted, animals with evidence of tinnitus exhibited significantly worse gap detection at 10 kHz, and were not significantly different than control animals at 16 kHz and broadband noise.
These results suggest a new methodology for rapidly detecting tinnitus in individual animals. The effect of colour in television commercials on the comprehension and memory of the child. Full Text Available From a perceptual point of view it is not clear whether, and under what conditions, the presence of colour in television commercials aids the processing of information. In this study it was argued that the way in which colour is used, would have an effect on the comprehension and memory of children regarding television commercials.
It was found that colour, when used in a "concrete" fashion, aids the comprehension process. The results of the study also show that the "concrete" as well as the "symbolic" use of colour have a positive effect on the memory of children for the content of television commercials. Opsomming Vanuit 'n perseptuele benadering is dit nie duidelik of, en onder watter omstandighede, die teenwoordigheid van kleur in televisie advertensies die prosessering van inligting positief bei'nvloed nie.
In hierdie studie is daar van die standpunt uitgegaan dat die wyse van kleurgebruik 'n effek sal he op die begrip en geheue van kinders ten aansien van televisie advertensies. Daar is gevind dat kleur, wat op 'n "konkrete" manier gebruik word, die begripsproses bevorder. Die resultate van die studie toon ook dat sowel die "konkrete" as "simboliese" gebruik van kleur 'n positiewe effek op die geheue van kinders ten opsigte van televisie advertensie inhoud het. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans.
Personal characteristics gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern und geographische Unterschiede. Methode: Es wurde von insgesamt gesunden, reifen Neugeborenen, die entweder in Fulda oder in Duesseldorf geboren wurden, eine Nabelschnurprobe gewonnen.
Das Serum wurde umgehend bei C tiefgefroren; die Analysen wurden geschlossen und verblindet durchgefuehrt. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed.
Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion.
These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Editorial: Computerspiele und Videogames in formellen und informellen Bildungskontexten. Lange Zeit haben elektronische Bildschirmspiele allenfalls sporadische Beachtung gefunden. Auf der Basis dieser kausalen Wirkungsannahmen bzw. Thermal disposal of sewage sludge: Status and trends; Stand und Entwicklung der thermischen Klaerschlammentsorgung.
Johnke, B. In West Germany, 2. According to the specifications of the TA Siedlungsabfall Technical Guide for Management of Domestic Waste , dumping of untreated sewage sludge will be prohibited from at the latest. Die mittelfristigen Erwartungen gehen von einem weiteren Anstieg der Klaerschlamm-Mengen aus, so dass in den alten und neuen Bundeslaendern mit mehr als 3 Mio. Kaiser Unternehmensberatung Tuebingen Aufgrund der Anforderungen der TA Siedlungsabfall wird spaetestens ab dem Jahr eine direkte Ablagerung von unbehandelten Klaerschlaemmen auf Deponien wegen des zu hohen organischen Anteils nicht mehr zulaessig sein.
The global market, that's the intention; Der Weltmarkt ist das Ziel. Kublik, F. Bereich Regenerative Energien. The author of the paper is Dr. He discusses very comprehensively the results of a study performed on behalf of the Shell company. The study encompasses two scenarios based on the same predicted growth of the global human population from until , and the resulting global demand for energy, but assuming different levels of market penetration and technological development of power generation from RES. Their respective final energy balance statements are very different. Beide Szenarien gehen von der gleichen Bevoelkerungsentwicklung zehn Milliarden Menschen im Jahre , gegenueber fuenf Milliarden in und von dem gleichem Wirtschaftswachstum drei Prozent pro Jahr aus, die Energiebilanz sieht jedoch unterschiedlich aus.
In beiden Szenarien werden sich die regenerativen Energien im Rahmen eines Reifeprozesses weiterentwickeln, indem sie zunaechst Marktnischen besetzen und sich dann mit unterschiedlichem Erfolg im Markt durchsetzen. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit. Contents: Einleitung P. Ewigkeit und Zeit Plotin. Was ist die Zeit? Von der Zeit Immanuel Kant. Dauer und Intuition Henri Bergson. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems Bertrand Russell.
Raum und Zeit Hermann Minkowski. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff Norbert Wiener. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff Friedrich Hund. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie Otto Heckmann. Martin Gardner. Bioindikation im Grundwasser funktioniert - Erwiderung zum Kommentar von T. Religion und Religionsunterricht in einer pluralen Gesellschaft.
Empirische Perspektiven, entwickelt und kommentiert aus protestantischer Perspektive. At the same time theologians often summon the idea of an overall decline of personal truth convictions anyhow. It evaluates the interplay between personal position-taking of teachers, their classroom practice and its constitutive factors pupils, contexts of school and schooling etc..
Traumatic injuries of the temporomandibular joint; Die traumatischen Kiefergelenkverletzungen. Puig, S. Zentrales Inst. Universitaetsklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin. Injuries of the temporomandibular joint are mostly due to injuries or fractures of the mandibular condyle. Fractures of the skull base involving the temporomandibular joint are rare. Classification of fractures refers to their anatomical positions and the presence or absence of a luxation. Further, it is important whether the fracture is intra- or extra-capsular.
The primary imaging method should be orthopantomography. As for therapy planning, especially surgery, also evaluation of soft tissue is necessary, computed tomography is the imaging method of choice. For diagnosis of complications or internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint, magnetic resonance imaging is to be recommended.
Frakturen der Schaedelbasis unter Beteiligung der Kiefergelenkpfanne sind selten. Unterschieden werden die Frakturen des Gelenkfortsatzes nach anatomischer Lokalisation und danach, ob eine Luxation vorhanden ist oder nicht. Weiter ist von Bedeutung, ob der Frakturspalt intraoder extrakapsulaer verlaeuft. Die primaere Bildgebung sollte mittels Orthopantomographie erfolgen. Da fuer eine weitere operative Behandlung auch die etwaige Verletzung der Weichteile von Bedeutung ist, bietet sich die Computertomographie als bildgebende diagnostische Methode an. Zur Abklaerung von Komplikationen bzw. New applications - theory of geometric optimisation of rotors - clearance flow; Neue Anwendungen - Theorie der geometrischen Optimierung von Rotoren - Spaltstroemungen.
A method of automatic optimisation of screw rotors was investigated with the intention of obtaining a generally applicable method also for other types of energy conversion systems. As in turbomachinery engineering, compressors and engines are developing into separate fields. For example, while the filling process is a secondary consideration in compressors, it is a key element in screw-type engines. Some of the contribution discuss the new field of power supply in automotive fuel cells. Erstmalig wird der Versuch unternommen, mit Hilfe unterschiedlicher Optimierungsverfahren in Zusammenarbeit mit der Informatik eine Methode zu entwickeln, mit deren Hilfe im ersten Schritt Schraubenrotoren automatisch optimiert werden koennen.
Ziel ist es, dieses Verfahren auch auf andere Energiewandler anzuwenden. Wie im Turbomaschinenbau gehen Kompressoren und Motoren zunehmend getrennte Wege. Waehrend zum Beispiel der Fuellvorgang in Kompressoren eher eine untergeordnete Rolle spielt, wird er beim Schraubenmotor zu einem signifikanten Problem fuer die Gestaltung und Energiewandlung der gesamten Expansion.
Kenngroessen beschreiben das vorhandene Optimierungspotential. Zu den neuen Anwendungen gehoert der zukuenftige Einsatz der Schraubenmaschine Kompressor und Expander fuer die Energieversorgung in automotiven Brennstoffzellen. Erste Ueberlegungen fuehren in dieses Thema vergleichend ein. Controllable electrochemical growth protection system based on pH variation.
Preventing growth on ships is an economic as well as an ecological necessity. The current state of the art is to use antifoulings containing organotin compounds or copper for this purpose. What makes antifoulings effective are their heavy metal components. However, these also pose a formidable hazard to the marine ecosystem. This has led IMO to issue restrictive regulations aimed in particular at the organotin component.
Alternative antifoulings based on silicone are only suitable for relatively fast going vessels. The purpose of the present project was to develop to market maturity a new, environmentally acceptable growth protection strategy that had already been tested at a small scale. The action principle of this protection consists in a discontinuous current induced pH change on the surface to be protected. Von den Schwermetallen, auf denen das Wirkprinzip beruht, gehen erhebliche Gefahren fuer das marine Oekosystem aus.
Die IMO hat deshalb speziell bezueglich des Organozinns bereits entsprechende restriktive Regelungen beschlossen. Alternative, silikonhaltige Anstriche sind nur fuer relativ schnell fahrende Schiffstypen geeignet. Im Rahmen des Projekts soll eine neue umweltvertraegliche Bewuchsschutzstrategie, die in kleinem Massstab bereits erprobt wurde, zur Praxisreife gefuehrt werden. Das Wirkprinzip besteht hier in einer diskontinuierlichen strominduzierten pH-Aenderung auf der zu schuetzenden Oberflaeche.
Denken Sie klar und handeln Sie klug! Future of mammography-based imaging; Zukunft mammographiebasierter Bildgebung. Schulz-Wendtland, R. Mammography is the central diagnostic method for clinical diagnostics of breast cancer and the breast cancer screening program. In the clinical routine complementary methods, such as ultrasound, tomosynthesis and optional magnetic resonance imaging MRI are already combined for the diagnostic procedure. Future developments will utilize investigative procedures either as a hybrid combination of several different imaging modalities in one instrument or as a fusion method the technical fusion of two or more of these methods to implement fusion imaging into diagnostic algorithms.
For screening there are reasonable hypotheses to aim for studies that individualize the diagnostic process within the screening procedure. Individual breast cancer risk prediction and individualized knowledge about sensitivity and specificity for certain diagnostic methods could be tested.
The clinical implementation of these algorithms is not yet in sight. In der klinischen Diagnostik wird sie heute schon oft durch zusaetzliche Untersuchungsmethoden wie dem Ultraschall, der Tomosynthese und ggf. Zukuenftige Entwicklungen gehen in die Richtung, dass diese Kombination aus 2 oder mehr Untersuchungsverfahren entweder in Hybrid- Aufnahme mehrerer unterschiedlicher Bildmodalitaeten in einem einzigen Geraet oder in Fusionsmethoden Zusammenfuehrung und Registrierung von Bilddaten aus verschiedenen Modalitaeten technisch professionalisiert werden.
Des Weiteren koennten an subgruppenbezogene Erkrankungsrisiken und individuelle Sensitivitaeten und Spezifitaeten angepasste Diagnostikkombinationen fuer eine Screeningdiagnostik Gegenstand kuenftiger Studien sein. Wir stellen die aktuellen Entwicklungen auf diesen Gebieten und deren momentane Relevanz fuer die klinische Praxis und. Neue Medien unter der Organisationsperspektive.
Eine empirische Untersuchung in der Weiterbildung. Wirtschaft, Politik, Bildungswesen etc. Stehr , S. Materieteilchen bekommen Geschwister aus Antimaterie. Das ist die Welt der Teilchenphysik. Wer das alles auch so spannend findet wie die Teilchenphysiker selbst, ist herzlich eingeladen, dieses Buch zu lesen. Wer glaubt, dass man ohne ein Studium in der Teilchenphysik nichts versteht, der auch. Quantenfeldtheorien, Teilchenbeschleuniger, Higgs-Mechanismus und Co werden hier Drive design. Mechatronics for production and logistics; Antriebsloesungen. Mechatronik fuer Produktion und Logistik.
Highly automated production and logistic systems require mechatronic drives. The book describes how industrial production and logistics work, and how the appropriate drive systems should be designed. The function of the mechanical and electronic elements of a drive system is described, including the required software, and the fundamentals of dimensioning are gone into.
The authors also discuss engineering, reliability and important life cycle aspects. Applications in material flow and handling technology, in continuous and clocked production lines and finishing processes are presented in twelve sections offering different drive solutions for the motor, current inverter and software, transmission system and mechanical elements.
The specific requirements and functionalities of these twelve solutions are presented. The focus is on energy conversion with controlled electric drive systems. Dieses Buch beschreibt, wie die industrielle Fertigung und Logistik arbeitet und wie die hierzu erforderlichen Antriebsloesungen aufgebaut sind.
Es wird die Funktionsweise der mechanischen und der elektronischen Elemente eines Antriebssystems einschliesslich der Software beschrieben und ihre Dimensionierungsgrundlagen behandelt. General Linguistics 9: Shankweiler, D. Sigel, I. Skinner, B. Skutnabb-Tangas, T. Slavin, R. Snow, C. In: Snow, C. Shn, J. St Pierre, R. Stanovich, K. Reading Teacher Strong, M. Sulzby, E. In: Barr, R. Sylva, K. Szagun, G. Weinheim and Basel: Beltz Taschenbuch. Tabors, P. Tomasello, M. Cognition Tracy R.
Tucker, G. Vellutino, E. Wade, B. London, UK: Book Trust. Early Years Warren-Leubecker, A. Watson, J. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott. Wehr, S. Die Bedeutung von Meta-Sprache fr den Erwerb. Wode, H. Eine Einfhrung in die Lehr- und Lernbarkeit von Sprachen. Wong Fillmore, L. Glossary Additive bilinguals: Bilinguals with high competencies in both languages see chapter 2. Language aptitude is operationalised by means of various analytical capacities and working memory, which are considered necessary for the acquisition of vocabulary and the implicit structures of a language see Caroll Balanced bilinguals : Persons with a high degree of linguistic and academic competence in both.
I goed to supermarket Oh, you went to the supermarket. Dominant bilingualism: Greater competence in one of the two languages Dysphasia: A language disorder in which there is an impairment of speech and comprehension. Wikipedia Elicit bilingualism: Bilingual children whose first language is socially recognised Expansions: The act of expanding a childs sentence, e.
This is a red cup. Identity hypothesis: Theory postulating that the first language does not influence the acquisition. Wikipedia Interdependence hypothesis: Assumes that the second language is developed on the basis of an. Interlanguage hypothesis: Views the language of the learner of a second language as an. More formally, it is a languages inventory of lexemes. The lexicon includes the lexemes used to actualise words.
A lexicon organises the mental vocabulary in a speakers mind: First, it organises the vocabulary of a language according to certain principles for instance, all verbs of motion may be linked in a lexical network and second, it contains a generative device producing new simple and complex words according to certain lexical rules.
For example, the suffix -able can be added to transitive verbs only, so that we get read-able but not cry-able. Wikipedia MLU :. Mean Length of Utterance is a measure of linguistic productivity in children. It is traditionally. A higher MLU is taken to indicate a higher level of language proficiency. Wikipedia Morphemes : The smallest linguistic unit that has semantic meaning. In spoken language,. For example, cat hat; she goes; house houses.
Morphology: The field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. Words as units in. While words are generally accepted as being with clitics the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most if not all languages, words can be related to other words by rules. For example, English speakers recognise that the words dog, dogs, and dogcatcher are closely related. English speakers recognise these relations from their tacit knowledge of the rules of word formation in English. They intuit that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; similarly, dog is to dog-catcher as dish is to dishwasher.
The rules understood by the speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. Wikipedia Neologism: A word, term, or phrase that has been recently created or coined.
Wikipedia Overgeneralisation: The act of applying grammatical rules in all situations, e. It includes. The ability to blend and segment phonemes is critical to the development of decoding and spelling skills. Phonological awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability and has, therefore, been the focus of much research. Wikipedia Phonology: The collection of sounds that form a language s Semantics: The relationship between signs words or expressions and the things they refer.
SES: Socio-economic status Successive language acquisition : The acquisition of a second language in early childhood when. The term syntax can also be used to refer to these rules themselves, as in the syntax of a language e. Wikipedia Threshold level hypothesis: States that, under certain conditions, bilingualism can have a. Time-on-task hypothesis: Assumes that success in the second language is positively related to the. According to Hopf , the learning time available to a student is limited and the offer of additional lessons in the first language reduces the learning time in the second.
Consequently, it must have a negative effect on the acquisition of the second language. Bernard van Leer Foundation P. About the Bernard van Leer Foundation The Bernard van Leer Foundation funds and shares knowledge about work in early childhood development. The foundation was established in and is based in the Netherlands. Our income. Through Successful Transitions: The Continuum from Home to School we aim to help young children make the transition from their home environment to daycare, preschool and school.
Through Social Inclusion and Respect for Diversity we aim to promote equal opportunities and skills that will help children to live in diverse. We see this both. Through our evidence-based advocacy and. Our strategy of working through partnerships is intended to build local capacity, promote innovation. The findings, interpretations, conclusions and opinions expressed in this series are those of the.
Read Free For 30 Days. Documents Personal Growth 20 views. Flag for inappropriate content. For Later. Related titles. Socio-cultural perspectives on second language learning. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Theoretical approaches to language development Chapter 2. Language development and the role of social environment Chapter 3. Language development and school success 27 Chapter 4. Models and programmes for fostering language development and literacy in 29 infancy and early childhood Chapter 5.
Conclusions: Implications and recommendations for practice 33 References 39 Glossary 51 Executive summary The ways in which children learn a language The author provides an overview of research be it their mother tongue or their second on bilingualism and its various forms, focussing language can have a strong influence on their on children who learn a second language after success in school. Researchers in linguistics and they are already established in their mother early child development have tried to determine tongue, as opposed to the less common cases of the factors that can help and hinder language children who acquire two languages from birth.
Looking in particular at research on migrant children, the paper explores the course and In this article, the author reviews the research duration of second language acquisition, as and existing theories on language development, well as the common linguistic behaviours that focusing on how pre-schoolers social environ- may arise. Conditions that influence childrens ment affects their ability to learn languages and adoption of a second language and culture their subsequent reading and writing skills. Chapter 1: Theoretical approaches to language development Linguists often give two theoretically opposed reinforcement plays the central role as a lear- explanations for the acquisition of both the ning principle.
A child who produces sounds first and the second language: the behaviourist adapts those sounds to the environment as or empirical theories, which are based on a consequence of selective reinforcement by Skinners theoretical ideas Skinner , and his or her social surroundings. Mowrer the nativist theories, which are founded on distinguishes between primary and secondary the work of Chomsky Chomsky , , reinforcement: whereas primary reinforcement , In the last few decades, however, occurs through hearing sounds in pleasant these two contrary positions have been brought situations and does not assume any kind of increasingly in line with each other.
According to Oskaar , critics basis as the precondition for language acqui- of behaviourist theories of language acquisition sition and other factors such as social environ- point out among other things that learning ment, socialisation and the general learning occurs without positive reinforcement, that mechanisms and capacities of the child. I begin speaking is not always controlled by a stimulus by outlining the theories on first language and that the concept of reinforcement cannot acquisition L1 acquisition , then those on explain the speed of language acquisition and second language acquisition L2 acquisition in the stability of acquired meaning.
Whereas behaviourist explanatory approaches 1. First language acquisition have tended to lose significance in recent years, nativist approaches can still be found in Linguistic approaches to L1 acquisition include contemporary discussions on L1 acquisition. In contrast to In the tradition of classical behaviourism based behaviourist theories, this approach does not on Watson , Skinner formulated regard language acquisition as being stimulus- his theory of language acquisition, in which controlled or external to the child.
It is, rather, internally guided; although language the process of language acquisition, which they input activates the inborn mechanism of langu- regard as being fundamentally bi-directional. Underlying the in other developmental areas. Language development of nativist theory is the assump- development is a process that begins in early tion that the language to which the child is infancy, and depends crucially on skills from exposed provides an inadequate and insuf- a variety of domains including perception, ficient stimulus for learning and cannot cognition, motor development, and socialisa- adequately explain the speed and uniformity tion.
The interactionist view includes not of the acquisition process. Empirical studies only the emergence of single words and their show, however, that the quality and quantity of meanings, but includes also the more strictly language input does indeed have an impact on linguistic areas of phonology and grammar.
Bates and MacWhinney p. Developmental psychology approaches tend According to interactionist theory, language instead to consider general learning mechanisms acquisition occurs in the context of social as key to language acquisition. Two variants, the interaction, is embedded in the process of cognitivist and the social interactive theories, socialisation and refers not only to socio- have determined the research to date Grimm communicative but also to formal linguistic and Weinert ; Klann-Delius According aspects of language.
Second language acquisition specifically human and has a biological basis, that language acquisition is not possible without In the sphere of L2 acquisition, diverse theories a language environment and that the inner and hypotheses have been developed since the preconditions contributed by the child and the s that attempt to explain the acquisition environmental factors must work together in the process. Following are a selection of hypotheses interest of a successful fit Grimm and Weinert referring mostly to successive1 L2 acquisition.
Interactionist explanatory models combine the contributions The behaviouristically oriented contrastive of various research directions and emphasise hypothesis Fries ; Lado assumes that in particular the significance of the exchange existing structures created in the learning of a between the child and the social environment in first language are employed in L2 acquisition. Successive second language acquisition occurs when learning of the second language begins after acquisition of the first language has already started.
Theoretical approaches to language development It is taken that similar structures in both be noted that the research of Dulay and languages facilitate acquisition in the second Burt, which seems to confirm the identity language because they can be transferred, hypothesis, has been criticised on account whereas the presence of different structures of methodical weaknesses and the validity gives rise to more difficulties in the acquisition of their findings accordingly questioned of the second language.
According to the contrastive hypothesis, mistakes The interlanguage hypothesis sees the langu- and difficulties that arise in L2 acquisition can age of the learner of a second language as be explained and in part predicted by the an independent and variable system, which differences between the first and the second contains elements of the first and second language. However, it has not yet been proven languages as well as its own distinctive ones. Consequently, mistakes can be both more easily than non-similar languages see independent of the first language and can Klein The assumptions of the contras- also deviate from normal L1 acquisition.
The interlanguage hypothesis combines The nativist-oriented identity hypothesis assumptions of the contrastive and identity proposed by Corder and examined hypotheses and includes both neuro- by Dulay and Burt distinguishes psychological and socio-psychological aspects, itself from the contrastive hypothesis in while emphasising the independence of the that it assumes that L1 and L2 processes are interlanguage of the second-language L2 isomorphic, i.
Communicative strategies such as as in L1 acquisition. It postulates that there the avoidance of topics, changes in meaning, is no relationship between the first and the code-switching, borrowing, gestures, facial second languages; grammar acquisition in the expression and also discourse-related strategies second language is independent of that in L1 of the L2 learner are regarded as useful forms of acquisition. Transfers and interferences, as communicative behaviour.
The interlanguage posited in the contrastive hypothesis, do not hypothesis also takes into account factors occur. Instead, existing universal cognitive external to language such as the motivational, mechanisms are responsible for the processing social and emotional aspects of L2 acquisition. It should For example, standstills in second language acquisition are traced back to unfavourable L2 learners are able to absorb the grammar of a input conditions, limited acculturation needs, second language incidentally and implicitly even the experience of insufficient acceptance by while focusing on meaning and communication the dominant culture, inadequate learning in personal interactions.
Long available input. A communicative setting where up bilingually, De Houwer puts forth the verbal input is available and verbal production theory that the two languages develop separately. De Houwer assumes that the separate the native speaker to monitor their output relative development of the two languages is supported to the native speakers output. Others see Jampert do not explain the course of learning. Instead they are regard this as absolutely necessary. They assume concerned with the preconditions for the successful that the separation of languages does not occur acquisition of a second language according to the on the basis of input but of language features.
In his study of Turkish migrant children in Germany, Jeuk discovered factors that also The threshold level hypothesis proposed by support the separate development hypothesis in Skutnabb-Tangas and Toukomaa on the the case of successive L2 acquisition. Interactionists believe that can only be achieved when the children are The hypothesis states that both languages pursue separate developmental lines. However, this does not mean that the two languages are processed in different language centres of the brain.
Theoretical approaches to language development sufficiently competent in their first language. In his hypothesis with evidence gained from their cross-sectional study, Skutnabb-Kangas and comparisons of submersion and immersion Toukomaa found that Finnish migrant children programmes carried out in Canadian schools. He assumes that spoke Swedish less well than Finnish children the second language is developed on the basis who had migrated to Sweden after the start of of an intact first language, that children who school. They concluded that the children who do not have an intact first language when they had entered Sweden before the first year of begin to learn the second language will have school were insufficiently competent in their difficulties in acquiring the second language first language, Finnish which was not further and that competence in the second language fostered in Sweden , and for this reason reached is dependent upon the level of development an inadequate level of competence in Swedish.
Findings that revealed On the other hand, children who arrived in that the communicative competence of many Sweden after the beginning of school were highly migrant children had no positive effect on competent in their first language and could build language performance at school or on IQ led on it as they learned their second language. The him to assume the existence of two dimensions two authors developed a bilingual model whose of language mastery.
By basic interpersonal lowest level, semilingualism, was characterised communicative skills he meant the basic skills by low competence in both the first and second of oral communication, which are strongly languages. Only when a threshold has been context-bound and are used and acquired crossed and competence in the first language has in everyday situations.
Cognitive academic reached the level of a native speaker can negative language proficiency CALP is achieved when consequences for intellectual development and the language is decontextualised and can be used acquisition of a second language be excluded. And in written form, thus permitting its application only after crossing a second threshold, after which as a cognitive tool Cummins, p. If a child achieves a level of additive bilingualism competence in the first language has reached characterised by high competence in both the CALP level when learning begins with languages can bilingualism have a positive the second language, this competence can be effect on intellectual development.
According to transferred to the second language and the child Skutnabb-Kangas and Toukomaa, therefore, if can participate successfully in lessons held in the first language is insufficiently developed, the the second language. But if the CALP level in the foundation for the second language is lacking and first language has not been reached when a child will then be built on inadequate structures.
For this reason he recommends beginning with language, whereby linguists tend to deal prima- general instruction in the mother tongue rily with the course and the processes of Numerous studies seem to confirm this acquisition. Among the linguistic hypotheses, hypothesis, but meta-analyses carried out in recent we find both nativist and behaviourist approa- years have criticised methodical weakness in ches: the contrastive hypothesis combines both many studies and have concluded that the positive nativist and behaviourist assumptions, while effect on the second language and on school the interactionist theory assumes that a second performance of promoting the first language has language is learned best in communicative not yet been proven see Shn a.
L2 acquisition is a result of the learners mental abilities and verbal environment, which A further important theory in this context is the enables the L2 learner to acquire communicative time-on-task hypothesis that is based on the and linguistic aspects of the target language. Caroll examined several variables ment of the target language see chapter 2. Develop- necessary learning time. The time-on-task mental psychological hypotheses concentrate hypothesis assumes that success in the second less on the processes that occur in the acqui- language is positively related to the amount of sition of a second language and more on the contact with the second language.
According to relationship between the competences attained Hopf, the learning time available to a student in L1 acquisition and the achieved or achievable is limited and the offer of additional lessons competence in the acquisition of the second in the first language reduces the learning time language. Consequently, it must have a negative effect on the acquisition of the second None of the hypotheses have been conclusively language. However, meta-analyses could not proven empirically to date. It should also be confirm this hypothesis. Shn a comes to noted that very few studies have studied language the conclusion that encouragement of the first acquisition in pre-school-aged children, and those language does not have a negative effect on the that do refer mostly to children who have grown acquisition of the second.
The studies of Jeuk and Beller et al. Input and language development degree of transparency of the structure. Studies in bilingual children who were exposed to one In the last few decades, research has demon- language more than another have shown that strated that the quantity and quality of the the children acquired certain structures earlier language input addressed to a child has an in the more frequently used language4 Mueller influence on the acquisition of language as a Gathercole and Hoff The quantity of the system.
Although the input does not influence the language input therefore has a small effect on acquisitional sequence of grammatical constructs, the stage at which grammatical structures are it is nonetheless assumed that when a child does acquired. Several studies in domestic and non- not have a critical amount of input, initially domestic settings found a positive relationship he or she can acquire at most only part of the between the quantity of the language input by relevant language structures or will experience a parents and educators and the grammatical delay in acquiring them.
It is unclear how much development of the children Bradley and input constitutes a critical amount, although it is Caldwell ; Clarke-Stewart ; McCartney related to the relative transparency or opacity of ; and NICHD Barnes et al. If opaque structures found that the quantity of the language used are to be learned, they must be presented more to address the child had positive effects on frequently than transparent structures Mueller grammar and semantics.
Huttenlocher et al. Gathercole and Hoff According to Naigles and Hoff- The language structures to be learned must then Ginsberg , the richly varied use of verbs in be available to the child as input and he or she different grammatical structures is a predictor must have sufficient exposure to these structures for syntactic flexibility in childrens use of verbs.
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They examined the number of structures 4 learned and found that the bilinguals acquired the structure earlier in the language to which they were more exposed, but later than the monolingual children, overall. Moerk vocabulary. According to their findings, the points out that maternal modelling of frequency and duration of input are in fact the childrens statements, such as expansions and strongest predictors for the development of a corrective feedback, impacts positively on the lexicon.
Their results are confirmed by Hart acquisition of grammar. Although expansions and Risley , whose study showed that the have been shown to foster language acquisition in amount of verbal interaction between parents a natural setting, Cazden and Nelson and children is the strongest influence on the could reproduce at best only a short-term effect of language development of the child. In this expansion in the experimental setting. According sample, a greater number of parental statements to Cazden some forms of interaction have was associated with a greater variety of words beneficial effects on language development only and sentences in their child ren.
Thus there in the non-experimental milieu. A typical kind of progress of their children in the language. Hampson and input in the context of childrens language Nelson were able to show that the fre- acquisition fulfils three essential tasks. First, it quency of object naming by adults is related to guarantees that childrens attention is directed an early start to language production in children. Second, it provides the data that children need A language style that stimulates conversation has to develop their knowledge of the language.
Hoff-Ginsberg verbally themselves. Interactive behaviour in found that children produced more adults, such as corrective feedback, reformulations language statements when the mother took up and expansions of the childs statements, the topic introduced by the child. But if the foster language by making optimal use of the mother continued with a topic of her own or childs attention and providing information introduced a new topic, the child produced relevant to language development Bohannon fewer language statements.
Hoff-Ginsberg also and Stanowicz ; Farrar , ; Szagun observed that toward the end of the third year The frequency of the mothers contingent of life, children took up more frequently those responses, in which a part of what a child has statements of their mothers that contributed to said is repeated, correlates positively with a the topic of the ongoing discourse. In the case of older children, the use of imperatives by According to Nelson , it is above all adults has a negative effect on the childrens the acquisition of abstract concepts and the willingness to express themselves and on their formation of a lexical system that are fostered readiness to ask questions Hoff-Ginsberg in a dialogic exchange with adults.
Children The frequency of imperatives in language whose mothers not only named new objects but use is related to educational styles. Children in also established links with their childs previous groups in which the educators exercise control, knowledge and experience demonstrated better often using briefly formulated instructions, retention than children who were offered only experience delays in language development, names.
A further factor that has a positive as has been shown in a longitudinal study effect on the retention performance of children by Beller et al. Guidance that permits is their own language activity in relation to autonomy, however, is linked with linguistically an object Nelson A vertical dialogue more complex statements and, in contrast to structure in which the participants delve into a controlling guidance, promotes more complex topic more profoundly together also favours the language and thought structures.
In contradiction to the often-quoted assumption that linguistic fine-tuning and the use The frequent use of open questions in language of simple, short sentences fosters language input has a positive influence, especially on development in children, Bornstein et al.
Grimm MLU 5 and a more complex vocabulary in the differentiates five different question forms, language statements of the mother are related the answers to which demand different levels to a more extensive vocabulary in two-year- of linguistic complexity from the child, thus old children6. On this point, Hoff-Ginsberg possibly explaining the positive effect on the advocates the interesting hypothesis development of grammar.
However, there is no possibility Research on language acquisition to of compensating for insufficient input. The studies quoted above suggest that a environmental diversity, comment on their reciprocal relationship exists between childrens childrens actions less often, seldom make refe- language development and the quality of the rences to the content of their childrens state- language input.
There is no In summary, a high level of quality and quantity evidence that the input is causal, i. But it remains a fact that the child whose structures. Grimm language acquisition, which assume that the shows that the mothers of dysphasic children input only stimulates the process of language also make too few cognitive demands on their acquisition, but that the acquisition itself children on account of their delayed language proceeds independently of the input. Rather, development, despite knowing that their the above findings demonstrate the significance children are of average intelligence Grimm of input in language acquisition.
Second language acquisition in migrant children In this case, we speak of elitist or elective bilingualism. However, migrant children usually learn a minority language one that Before launching into the issues surrounding has low social recognition at home and the acquisition of a second language in migrant countrys majority language as a second children, I would like to give a brief survey language in school.
This form of bilingualism is of research on bilingualism and examine its defined as circumstantial bilingualism and the various forms. Whereas As a rule, those persons who acquire two elitist bilinguals frequently acquire academic languages in early childhood are characterised and literacy competence in both languages, this as bilingual. Unfortunately, English language is often not the rule among migrant children terminology does not always distinguish Hakuta The differences brought to light between children who learn the languages by research in the academic achievement of from their parents in parallel to one another bilingual children depend less on the individual from birth and those who acquire the second childs cognitive and personal abilities than language later, for example on entering on his or her social environment.
Research kindergarten, which is described in German findings on bilingualism cannot, therefore, be as successive language acquisition. In English, extrapolated from one group of bilinguals to if a distinction is made these children are another Limbird Generally speaking, there have been no The phenomenon of bilingualism is complex negative consequences of bilingualism and heterogeneous, not only with regard to discovered in bilingualism research, but the point in time when acquisition of the rather slightly positive effects with regard second language begins but also with regard to intelligence and metalinguistic skills.
Nevertheless, differing or out of necessity. Children who learn a results have been found in the sphere majority language as their first language and of academic achievement in the second learn a second language in early childhood are language, although, according to Bialystok characterised as L1 majority L2 learners. Usually et al. It balanced or dominant. Persons with a high should be noted that these children are usually degree of linguistic and academic competence circumstantial bilinguals. In their case, the in both languages or with the competence first language enjoys little social recognition appropriate to their age are considered to be and they must acquire the second language in balanced bilinguals Diaz and Klinger There is little documentation on balanced Balanced bilingualism is rather unusual among bilingualism and it tends to be rare, particularly migrant children, even among those who grow in the pre-school period and in the early years at up with a parent from the majority language.
We speak The first minority language is mainly of dominant bilingualism when a person has dominant at first, but with increasing contact greater competence in one of the two languages. Cummins speaks of semi- Children with a migration background usually bilingualism when a certain threshold of compe- acquire their second language successively, tence is not crossed in the two languages. The i. The measurement of the competence pre-school or kindergarten. The following discussion looks at L2 acquisition mainly in children with a migration background, who learn a minority language at The course of second language acquisition Tabors ascertained four stages of L2 acquisition on the basis of observations of the language behaviour of migrant children in American nursery schools.
She states that formulaic expressions. In the fourth stage, they the duration is independent of socio-economic increasingly use new content combinations and status SES , the language spoken at home and grammatical morphemes. According to Paradis the country of origin of the learner. On average, L2 learners only reach a level comparable to that of L1 users of The phenomena of second language acquisition A frequently observed phenomenon in L2 acquisition that is much discussed in theory and practice is language mixing or codeswitching.
This is also termed fusion or transfer. Cummins go into the phenomenon in any As with the acquisition of the first language, detail. It is, however, referred to in the context second language acquisition occurs in the of semi-lingualism and is often negatively process of socialisation and against a cultural interpreted nsal and Wendtlandt Language paper with the exception of the contrastive acquisition does not occur in a vacuum but hypothesis consider language mixing as a runs parallel to and is intertwined with the necessary concomitant Jeuk p. Jeuk sums and forms of behaviour.
According to Oskaar, up by pointing out that language mixing can be the aims of second language acquisition are a sign of productive communicative strategies, multilingualism, intercultural communication learning strategies and developmental and multiculturalism Oskaar p. As little importance is attributed language, but also of language impairment. Cultureme theory makes it clear that and lexical features on the one hand and code- information can be mediated not only verbally mixing or code-switching on the other Jeuk but also non-verbally. According to Oskaar, p.
The interpretation of the In Oskaars opinion, culturemes are realised language mixing occurring in the utterances in a social context i. According to Jeuk , it must take gestures, facial expressions, posture , verbal 12 into account both environmental factors and words, sentences and para-verbal manner the language structures of the first and second of speaking. In addition, information is languages of the child. Specifically, this designed to answer the question of whether means that not only what is said has significance institutional encouragement of the first langu- but also how, when, where and to whom the age improves the acquisition of the second person speaks.
This is also relevant information language Greene ; Rossel and Baker ; that is transmitted, interpreted and processed. Slavin and Cheung ; Shn a. Shn This information, implicitly included in the act a concludes from the inconsistency of the of interaction, also influences language acquisi- research findings13 that, firstly, the fostering of tion, which for Oskaar is always also cultural the first language has no negative effects on L2 acquisition. It can either facilitate or impede acquisition and secondly, no consistent positive the process of acquisition. Substantial cultural effect could be proven.
In the process of an opportunity to improve comprehension by socialisation, they at the same time learn cultural means of modelling and questioning. Thus, at features, attitudes and forms of behaviour the same time it improves linguistic production associated with the acquired language. Contem- in the target language. The importance of the porary research on language acquisition in input lies in the bidirectional communication particular on L2 acquisition and pedagogic in the target language. Several studies appear practice do not take the concept of enculturation to confirm these assumptions see Beller et al.
They must at least acquaint themselves with, and partly assume, There are no studies examining the effects of the first language on the acquisition of the second in the first six years of life. Successive L2 acquisition differs in some concepts can possibly diverge more or less points from L1 acquisition, in that the children already know the basic rules of communication strongly from the forms prevalent in the second 14 and already have at their disposition the vocabu- culture and must be learned anew or adapted in L2 acquisition Oskaar They also know that the rule system of a language The individual differences between children must be acquired.
Because of their higher level learning a second language are great, even when of development, they are in a position to process the time of exposure is comparable and the larger and more complex units of language as instructional programmes are similar Paradis their information processing strategies are better ; Wong Fillmore The differences developed than at the time of L1 acquisition are probably greater among L2 than among L1 Jeuk ; Paradis In L2 acquisition, many more second language are acquired successively.
In her research on migrant children 2. Factors that influence second language acquisition with different first languages and comparable exposure to English as a second language, The great differences established by second Paradis found the same grammatical language research with regard to the learning mistakes as those made by monolingual English speed and competence level of individuals learners of the same age who had specific has led scholars to consider the factors that language impairments.
In contrast to the influence L2 acquisition. Following are acquisition of their first language, however, some of their results. It must be remarked, children learning a second language use simple however, that most of the studies in this field subject naming and short MLUs more seldomly. Socio- natural settings. Language development and the role of social environment Age of acquisition There has been intense debate on the existence of a biologically determined critical period for the acquisition of a second language Lenneberg The findings of aptitude research on L2 acquisition are not consistent.
Aptitude is operationalised 15 whether the ascertained positive effects on children are stable over time. It may well be that children with a higher language aptitude learn more quickly at the beginning , but this says little about the level of competence ultimately and year-olds. As language aptitude is also considered conscious of cultural differences. Unlike youths to be a variable influencing L1 acquisition, it can and adults, they need not fear the prospect of be assumed that persons with higher language losing existing social attachments and identity are more likely to have had a positive experience or of finding new forms of attachment and and reinforcement when learning their first identity as a result of integration see Jeuk ; language and that their language competence is Paradis These are, however, unproven more elaborated.
This positive experience could assumptions. Small children are more open to new experiences, generally feel the need to be integrated into childrens groups and to learn the language required and are less could certainly be understood as motivation for integration, whereas the other children showed less interest. On the one hand, socially open second language on the speed of acquisition and interested schoolchildren who participated and the achieved level of competence in the in many interactions in the majority language second language see chapter 2.
Research were successful in the second language. On the on bilingual children has been carried out other hand, pupils who were reserved and made mainly in the fields of phonological and few social contacts but at the same time had morphosyntactic competence. In the field of high cognitive skills and followed the lessons morphosyntactic development in particular, attentively were also successful.
Various studies the findings have been contradictory see with bilingual pupils and students who were in Paradis His and two further studies L2 acquisition has been studied mainly in of Turkish migrant children at pre-school schoolchildren and has led to varying results age come to the conclusion that in the see Drnyei and Shekan With regard case of Turkish migrant children we are not to children of pre-school age, Jeuk dealing with double semi-lingualism but provides evidence that among year-old with unbalanced bilingualism Jeuk p.
Turkish children enrolled in German pre- ; my translation; cf. Hepsyler and Liebe- schools, the successful learners made more frequent use of substitutions, neologisms Harkort ; Pfaff First language effects There has been much theoretical discussion of Input and interaction Beller et al. The sample included both concerning interactions between adults and children who had learned German as their children with language impairment suggest first language and children with a migrant that a reciprocal relationship exists between background who had learned German as their the childs language development and the second language.
There was no significant quality of the language input. In the practical interaction between the effects of the inter- sphere of language assistance programmes, vention on the language development of the this relationship is not only significant for children and their language of origin. Genesee children with delayed language development and Hamayan found that active partici- but also for children with a migration pation in lessons and active use of the second background, whose competence in their language in the classroom and during breaks second language is inferior to the competence were the strongest predictors for the L2 acqui- of children learning it as a first language.
A sition in children participating in a first-year low level of competence in a childs second school immersion programme. The not refer to the input available in pre-school encouragement of interactions in natural and school settings but to the effects of input settings in the second language provides a outside the school.
For example, Jia and highly stimulating input and at the same Aaronson discovered in two separate studies time promotes language production and that the exposure Chinese migrants had with active dealings with the environment. These English outside the school had a positive behavioural forms and learning settings effect on the growth of competence in their are considered fruitful by advocates of the second language Jia ; Jia and Aaronson interactionist approach to L2 acquisition and Contact with the second language was are accordingly encouraged see Ellis Language development and the role of social environment television consumption, reading of books cative styles of adults, research has also been in English, the number of English-speaking undertaken on other factors affecting childrens friends and the percentage of English spoken language development.
Following are several in the family home. Additional factors in language development Apart from the study of the quantity and quality of language input and the communi- first or second language acquisition. Nelson They were also difficulty in solving textual tasks in mathematics able to demonstrate that the opposite forms than children with higher SES.
There were, of behaviour such as controlling guidance, however, no differences with regard to purely rejection and laissez-faire attitudes have a mathematical calculation Jordan et al. Similar relationships were also found in the Cazden and Snow emphasise that international comparison made by the Program a genuine communicative interest on the part of for International Student Assessment PISA study the mother is an important factor in fostering with regard to the reading competence of year- the language development of the child, and this old schoolchildren as well as in the IGLU study approach seems to be more effective than the Internationale Grundschul-Lese-Untersuchung practice of special learning techniques.
The ability to describe objects in a differentiated way and to draw the in elementary schools Baumert et al. Educational style warmth, cognitive stimulation, physical punishment, rules Children in daycare centres who experience and routines. The same is true of children with an influenced the performance of the children uncertain motherchild attachment Beller in a unique way. Using the same sample A further important factor with regard see Gershoff et al. Children who have good relationships groups of differing ethnic origin. Like Marks with other children in the group and who and Garca Coll , they therefore propose participate spontaneously in group activities that estimates of these effects should be made are more advanced in their language develop- separately for individual minority groups.
Bos et or temporal distancing of adults in interaction al. They fourth-grade children. Increased language ability, emerging literacy and a literate environment qualification programmes and, secondly, that children in groups with trained educators have a more strongly developed ability to carry out intellectual operations by means of Increased language ability An important step in increased language ability is the detachment of the language from the direct context of experience and action.
The development of conversational and narrative competence is promoted by exchanges with adults who listen patiently and Middle-class parents in particular encourage ask targeted questions about any necessary their children at an early stage to abstract from missing information Andresen ; the concrete situation and context Heath Tomasello Speech [must] be offered not only in order to accompany action but also to trigger This is an important developmental step with action and ultimately to replace it Bertau and regard to the acquisition of written language Speck-Hamdan p.
Bertau and Speck-Hamdan Language development and the role of social environment Emergent literacy The developmental tasks and research findings presented above, with regard to their significance for the subsequent acquisition of written language as an advanced form of language development, refer to fundamental cognitive processes at the interface between language and thought in children of kinder-garten age. Duncan and Seymore have less literacy experience in the pre-school made similar findings in a longitudinal period than children with middle and high study of year-old children.
In every annual inquiry, they found significant differences in lexicon, in the recognition of and Purcell-Gates It is generally the development of reading competence. In this assumed that it is a language-based skill see case, however, the research situation is not Menyuk et al. Children with pre-school uniform. Lombardino et al.
Contradictory findings have been Several studies have established that phono- made, for example, with regard to the role of logical awareness generally described as the syntactic skills in the acquisition of reading ability to recognise and manipulate the sound competence. Whereas Mann ascertained structure of a language by differentiating and that they had an influence, Shankweiler et al. They skill influencing the acquisition of the written found instead that morphological knowledge language see Goswami and Bryant ; was a significant factor affecting reading compe- Schneider According to Stanovich , tence.
In their research, Vellutino et al. The significance of phonological awareness for the acquisition Various studies show that reading compre- of the written language has been demonstrated hension has an effect on school performance for several orthographic languages and even for as a whole and that it is related to SES.
Pratt and Brady et al. SES and those with a migration background The reading and writing of texts increasingly are less competent in reading than children becomes the foundation on which the lessons are of higher SES and without a migration built Kirsch et al. Blum influence reading skills, it can be said, in et al. These findings are supported influence the ability to read and the acquisition by Jordan et al. These in turn have an pupils with low SES had more difficulty solving influence on academic performance. Lower textual problems in mathematics than children levels of competence in language and literacy with higher SES, although there were no development have been found in children from differences in the case of pure mathematical socially disadvantaged families and among calculation.
In this chapter I library services. These were handed out to present a selection of intervention programmes them during a health examination for their that focus in particular on language and literacy nine-month-old children in the Health District development. For further reading about language of Birmingham. A first evaluation of the results and literacy intervention programmes, I recom- was made by means of a questionnaire, which mend an overview by Justice and Pullen Overall, the parents had tially be distinguished according to whether developed a positive attitude towards books.
The evaluation of programmes. The children in the original Bookstart group showed higher attentiveness and concentration, participated more actively, leafed through the books more frequently, asked more questions and responded more often to the questions of their parents than the children in the control In the project A Sure Start with Books Wade group.
A further comparison of the children and Moore , , which was carried out from the Bookstart group was undertaken in Great Britain, approximately parents with a newly chosen control group of 41 The percentage distribution of these parents was comparable to that of the original group with respect to the sex and age of their children, their ethnic group and the language spoken in the family and nursery experience.
The families were assigned to been selected by means of teacher ratings in the control and Even Start groups on the basis the fields of English, mathematics and the of their percentage share of participation in the natural sciences. The comparison revealed services offered, so that those families with a that the children from the Bookstart group lower level of participation were placed in the were significantly superior in all the fields.
The parents in the control group The implication of these findings is that were not allowed to take advantage of Even the Bookstart group had not only been Start project services for one year. With regard better prepared for starting school, but had to income, education and profession, all of the maintained its superiority throughout their families were underprivileged.
While Even Start first years of primary education Wade and children and parents made gains on literacy Moore p. Even Start projects, Further analyses revealed, however, that which are distributed throughout the United children who spent more time in daycare had a States, offer various services to parents: daycare higher level of literacy. Children whose parents for the children, parenting education and joint participated more intensively in the Parenting parentchild activities.
The choice of services Education programme also showed higher and the frequency with which they were taken growth rates in literacy skills. In contrast, more advantage of was left to the parents discretion. The intervener introduced into these daily old children in daycare centres in a purposeful activities forms of behaviour such as actions way by means of systematic intervention.
On the one child and among the children themselves can hand, these forms of behaviour guaranteed a increase the verbal and cognitive interaction of suitable input of richly varied language and, the child with its social and physical environment on the other, they stimulated the childs own and hence foster language development. The childrens language utterances were taken up and then modelled In the intervention, which lasted 20 weeks, and extended by means of corrective feedback a trained member of the project served as a and expansions.
The language stimulation model for the nursery teacher with regard to was accompanied by a caring and accepting language stimulation and the practice of a educational style, which took into account the democratic educational style. Trained project childrens needs and guaranteed their autonomy. The the intervention group i. In order to strengthen interventions when compared with changes in and deepen the effects of the intervention and the control group. As well, in the intervention to encourage reflection and discussion on the group the childrens language and cognition stimulation level each nursery teacher had developed significantly better than in the achieved, the intervener and the teacher made control group over the same period of time.
These from a migrant background who were learning minute video sequences were analyzed German as a second language. No evidence was and discussed with the help of the micro- found for an interaction between the effects of teaching method. The recorded scenes involving the intervention on the language development the intervener were also used to guarantee the of the children and their language of origin.
The parent-teacher could corner office setting in head start daycare contribute to extending the childrens play by centres for children from poor families ordering a pizza or writing a list, for example. I would like to briefly present this study for two reasons: A pre-test of early reading showed no the intervention could be easily and cost- differences between the three groups. Results effectively replicated and it featured two types showed that the office setting increased of intervention concerning educational style childrens literacy-related play activities from that have shown interesting results.
In the two intervention groups, they installed the In the control group, literacy-related play same play area: a literacy-enriched office setting activities remained at 3 percent. In the in the pre-school classrooms. In the office setting posttest, the children of the three groups were a telephone, a calendar, paper, pencils, differed significantly in a reading task involving a telephone book, envelopes, stamps, a mail environmental print e. Office, We are open etc. The office Children in Groups 1 and 2 had significantly was open three times a week over a five-month higher scores than those in the control group.
Whereas the office setting was the same Significant differences between the two inter- in both intervention groups, the intervention vention groups were found the role of the interactive adult contributed significantly to differed concerning the adults role. In one 24 childrens learning of environmental print. In a was instructed to sit outside the office setting and functional print task, the children from the two to observe and take notes on the childrens play. According to Oskaar , a theory about language acquisition My own experience in training workshops should refer to changes and development for educators is that parts of the threshold and be able to explain underlying processes.
Interactionist positions deriving ciently acquire either their native language or from developmental psychology contributed the target language. Most of these teachers are to a convergence of the different concepts monolingual and not able to assess the childs and were first introduced into the field of L1 native language proficiency. They simply assume acquisition, whereas interactionist theories of that the child has only semilingual proficiency second language acquisition developed later.
As I pointed out earlier This may be because theories of L2 learning see chapter 2. This of course was not the case for semilingual. The empirically unproven but L1 acquisition. With the increasing numbers of among practitioners common assumption of immigrants in the United States and Europe, semilingualism tends to consider the childs the focus on L2 learning changed and necessi- language development as pathogenetic.
The tated other methods. An important educational In chapters 2. In contrast, offering a rich acquire language faster. These findings show and stimulating environment has proven to have that measures to improve language development a positive impact on language acquisition see should focus on caregiver behaviours concerning chapter 2.
But it remains a fact that children verbal input and modelling the childs output with delayed language acquisition as well as as well as on the structural components of children in whom semilingual proficiency is group settings. An accepting, child-oriented assumed receive poorer verbal stimulation and and autonomy-granting educational style insufficient demands on their cognitive capacities.
An intervention model that rens language acquisition. Several studies see successfully improved these adult behaviours chapters 2. There is strong research evidence that input of both high quality and quantity in daily Daycare environments should provide cognitive adultchild interactions has a positive effect on stimulating material and activities, and the childrens language development.
Why did this happen? In natural set- What do you think about? Have you seen tings, effective language-stimulating behaviours this elsewhere? Daycares and complexity, stimulating the childs verbal should make available literacy activities such as production and modelling the childs outcome. A major role in daycare settings con- such as a post office and activities that foster cerns the frequency of one-on-one interactions, phonological awareness such as rhymes, finding which seem to be a successful way for the teacher objects whose name begins with a certain letter, to adapt to the childs individual development, etc.
The duration of this stage seems to in the first grades of elementary school. There be longer for younger than for older children is no research showing that these skills could see chapter 2. The individual differences be fostered in the natural daycare setting among L2 learners are great see chapter 2. But there are pre-school children seem to use different implications that these skills can be developed strategies in the process of learning the through literacy activities in a rich, stimulating target language, while less successful learners environment see chapter 2.
I pointed out above that there is no clear An accepting and child-oriented educational empirical basis for the common assumption style should afford each child the time he or that pre-school children are able to acquire a she needs, without pressuring such children second language faster than older children see to communicate verbally. However, the non- chapter 2. Developing fluency in a second verbal communicative cues of the child should language that is comparable to a native speakers be recognised and systematically transferred proficiency takes several years. These finding into verbal language by the caregiver.
For should make clear the error in believing that example, when a child is looking at something, daycare for migrant children provides sufficient the caregiver should say, for example: Do exposure to the target language to prepare you want this? Do you want me to get it for them for school instruction, even in high- you?
For children using a telegram style of quality daycare settings. These children may communicating, caregivers should mediate the be better prepared for schooling, but school childs utterance through corrective feedback instruction should also focus on fostering and expansions as for L1 learners.
It was an language development. This also applies to interesting observation in our follow-up study native language-speaking children with low-SES of the ESiA language project see chapter 4 that backgrounds. The idea of a head start for low-SES children began to use the corrective feedback in and immigrant children does not imply that their peer group conversations. As I pointed out earlier, it is important to provide age-appropriate or, even better, develop- There are only a few studies that focus on the mentally appropriate cognitive stimulation for development of the target language among children with insufficient language abilities.
Further Whereas it is important to make sure that research is needed. Caregivers verbal addresses childrens linguistic development. The frequency to L2 learners could be similar to utterances to of using the target language at home had no younger L1 learners, where important words are positive impact; of course, this may be due to stressed by intonation. This enables the child to differences in the parents proficiency in the filter the important information. Fostering the native language had no negative effect on the proficiency of the Code-switching and language mixing were target language chapter 2.
Recommendations identified as learning strategies see chapter for migrant parents include communicating 2. The common assumption that children in their native language or, better yet, in the who use single words from their native language language in which they feel most proficient to in utterances of the target language are not provide a rich and stimulating verbal environ- able to differentiate between languages seems ment for their children. Children question of whether bilingual native-language who are able to differentiate between languages education for migrant children is more effective may try to use single words as a communicative for language development and later school strategy, depending on whether the addressee is success.
There are simply no empirical studies able to understand the word and would consider examining this topic for children of pre- code-switching as a positive and welcome school age, only on language development in strategy. Caregivers who learn a few important informal education. Some studies have found words in the L2 learners primary language positive effects on target language development may send a positive sign to the child that his and school success for bilingual or native or her language is welcomed and even fruitful instruction in migrant children, although for communicating.
The parents of L2 learners some have not. Because of the inconsistency of could supply some important words in the findings and because many of the these studies childs native language, and it may also raise the lacked proper methodology see chapter 2.
Several of the studies cited pointed out activities at home, whether their children that native children from low SES backgrounds are acquiring their first or second language. As I mentioned earlier chapter 2. The relationship development in daycare settings, whether the between language development and school first or the second language is the target. This success is complex, even for native children, and approach should extend beyond daycare and a multi-method approach and further research continue to be implemented in school settings.
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