However, this happens very rarely and is rather the exception than the rule. Gregarious flowering often happens in different stages because mature stems start to produce seeds first. When the seed ripen and eventually fall off, the bamboo plant looses all its leaves and the culm starts to dry up from top to bottom until it finally dies. Gregarious flowering is easily observable when it happens because of all the dried bamboo stems straw like color and the thousands of spikes in their branches.
These spikes bare the seeds which are usually very similar in appearance to rice, wheat or barley. Apparently, once a particular species reaches its life expectancy, it will start to flower which is then followed by the development of seeds. A second explanation could be that the mother plant is creating an optimal environment for its seedlings to survive. In other words when the mother plant dies, the bamboo seedlings will have full access to water, nutrients and sunlight that would otherwise be used by the mother plant.
The mass flowering of bamboos and consequential seed setting also have economic and ecological consequences. The huge amount of seeds in forests attract large populations of rats and other rodents which may consume all available food crops and may cause severe spread of diseases in surrounding villages. Much more study needs to be done, but until bamboo reveals some of its secrets, the mystery will remain Plantation Management. Become a Distributor. Working with Bamboo. Uses of Bamboo. Free Pdf's. Peroxidase depressed prior to appearance of root and flower primordia. Ansari et al.
Root elongation and flower induction had an inverse relationship. Joshi and Nadgauda, B. Prutpongse and Gavinlertvatana, B. A potted plant flowered and survived after flowering. Lin and Chang, B. Lin C. Rooted plantlets with vegetative shoots, even though they had flowers, could survive and grow well as normal plants without hardening after transplant to greenhouse.
Flowering of Woody Bamboo in Tissue Culture Systems
Plantlet flowering in vitro survived after transferring into greenhouse. Lin et al.
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All rooted plantlets survived after transplanting in greenhouse. Seventy five percent of the pollen was fertile. Ho and Chang, B. BA was effective in inducing flowering. KT was helpful for vegetative growth. Zhang and Wang, B.
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About 10—12 viable seeds were obtained from each culture of D. Giganteus ; B. Rout and Das, D. Spikelets were narrow and long. Stamens ranged from 0 to Anthers did not dehisce. Microspores were empty. Neither the style nor the stamens elongated as in the field. No seed set.
Ramanayake et al. Pollens viable. No fertilization or seed set. Chambers et al. Kaur et al. NAA induced root and then shoot.
Gynoecium remained within. Anthers failed to dehisce. Singh et al. Flower induction In vitro : control by plant growth regulators Plant growth regulators are critical to in vitro bamboo flowering. Fertility of In vitro -induced flowers Seeds could be obtained from in vitro flowers of B. Applications of bamboo In vitro flowering—cloning of flower-related genes Bamboo flowers produced in vitro provide an important material for flower-related molecular and cell biology studies.
Moving forward Due to the flowering characteristics unique to bamboo long juvenile phase, mass flowering, and death after flowering , establishment of controllable in vitro bamboo flowering is absolutely required to facilitate timely and effective bamboo breeding. Author contributions CSL organized and prepared this manuscript. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments We thank Anita K. Snyder and Miranda Loney for English editing. Footnotes Funding. References Ansari S.
Peroxidase activity in relation to in vitro rhizogenesis and precocious flowering in Bambusa arundinacea. Morphological and molecular characterization of Bambusa tulda with a note on flowering. Morphological and molecular characterization of Thamnocalamus spathiflorus subsp.
Plant Syst. Micropropagation and in vitro flowering of the bamboo Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Munro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. Beijing: Science Press. Plant Sci. Modulation of miR to identify traits associated with vegetative phase change in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. Micropropagation and in vitro flowering of temperate and tropical bamboos , in Biotechnology and Plant Protection in Forestry Sciences , eds Raychaudhuri S.
Embryogenesis and plantlet development in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridis Young McClure. In vitro flowering of albino bamboo Bambusa oldhamii Munro regenerants derived from an eleven- year old embryogenic cell line. Acta Horticult. The control of developmental phase transitions in plants.
Development , — Why bamboos wait so long to flower. Review in vitro -induced flowering in bamboos. In Vitro Cell. Plant 35 , — Cytokinins and in vitro induction of flowering in bamboo: Bambusa arundinacea Retz. In vitro flowering associated protein changes in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii. Proteomics 15 , — In vitro flowering- a system for tracking floral organ development in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn.
Indian J. Is Shennongjia a suitable site for reintroducing giant panda: an appraisal on food supply. Environmentalist 24 , — In vitro flowering of Bambusa edulis and subsequent plantlet survival. Tissue Culture and In vitro Flowering of Bambusa edulis. Micropropagation of Bambusa edulis through nodal explants of field-grown culms and flowering of regenerated plantlets.
Plant Cell Rep. A method for inflorescence proliferation.
Improving multiple shoot proliferation in bamboo mosaic virus-free Bambusa oldhamii Munro propagation by liquid culture. Hortscience 42 , — In vitro flowering of green and albino Dendrocalamus latiflorus. New Forests 34 , — Effect of thidiazuron on vegetative tissue-derived somatic embryogenesis and flowering of bamboo Bambusa edulis. Shoot regeneration, re-flowering and post flowering survival in bamboo inflorescence culture.
Albino inflorescence proliferation of Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Plant 42 , — Effects of growth regulators on inflorescence proliferation of Bambusa edulis. Plant Growth Regul. Understanding bamboo flowering based on large-scale analysis of expressed sequence tags. The Bamboos: A Fresh Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Micropropagation of important bamboos: a review. You could even end up with a multitude of new seedlings at the base of the old plant. Even if it recovers, you will have a mess on your hands. When Otatea accuminata aztecorum flowered at the Huntington Garden near Los Angeles a few years ago, they left the whole dead plant in place.
This was quite a bold choice for the gardeners of one of Americas premier gardens. It actually looked quite striking. It seemed to be a ghost of the living plant. Generally dead bamboos look quite dreadful. One could collect seeds and start a new generation, or could also just remove any dead and dying culms to keep the planting from looking so unattractive.
It seems from our limited experience with Fargesias that some bamboos are destined to die when they flower, and growing from seed is the only way to save the bamboo. Another bamboo, Sasa megalophylla f. Rick Valley was able to get it to recover for a while by fertilization and watering but his finally perished also. The plant set seed but even though we were able to germinate some, they all were rather chlorotic and soon perished.
My recommendation is to collect some seed and try growing a new generation under a more controlled environment, and also work toward reviving the plant vegetatively. If the plant is flowering on only a few branches or culms, no intervention may be required. This could be the precursor of a more thorough flowering though. If the entire plant is flowering then measures are advised. Cutting out flowering culms, fertilizing, and watering heavily has been suggested.
But, this may not help. We suggest that you try one of the following. If the plant is large and in the ground, you should cut off any flowering culms and chop the rhizomes into sections with an ax where they are buried in the ground. This is followed by fertilization, watering and continuing care. We learned this procedure from a Mrs. Lenora Michaels who lived near Portland, Oregon. She told of doing this when her Phyllostachys bambusoides flowered, and it recovered.
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It would be interesting to learn how she knew to do this procedure. Many groves of P. If you have a smaller or potted plant, make divisions of the plant and cut off any flowering culms. Pot up the propagules in good potting soil. If any new culms start to flower remove them also. And of course, you must water and fertilize on a regular basis. Our guess is that this somehow interrupts the flow of some chemical signal allowing some propagules to quit flowering. There has been some research done on the flowering and rejuvenation of bamboo in China. Hsiung et al. Their method for fast rejuvenation was to dig up rhizomes without culms from the flowering stands and cut them into cm sections.
These were dipped in a ppm gibberellic acid solution for 5 hours and then buried in a cutting bed. When new shoots emerged, they were sprayed with the solution every two weeks. After a year, the treated culms produced more normal, non-flowering culms than the controls. Hsiung warns that ". We don't know which plants we will be able to save. So far our method seems to work with at least some of the Phyllostachys.
Some bamboos recover on their own after flowering while others may not recover vegetatively no mater what you do. The latter is more likely if the plant is small or weak at the onset of flowering, although even large and healthy, some bamboos such as Fargesias may flower and die no mater what you do. But like many generalizations, this does not always hold. Phyllostachys elegans at The Bamboo Garden has flowered sporadically every year for about 10 years while continuing to grow with moderate vigor.
It, has not been restored to a vegetative, non-flowering state, by our prune and divide strategy. It continues to flower and grow with no sign of stopping. Some species of bamboo seem to have a few plants in flower somewhere most of the time. In China there always seem to be some Moso plants flowering.
Growing from seed is exciting. It however, is not the way to save a flowering bamboo clone with variegated leaves or yellow or striped culms. These and other special clones are best saved vegetatively if possible. The seedlings will most likely return to the original type. You may though, grow a plant that is more vigorous, hardier, more pest resistant than the parent. Or, perhaps you will discover some other variation from the parent.
Perhaps you could even create a bamboo hybrid if you have more than one kind in flower at once. We have grown several bamboo seedlings that have developed variegation at the Bamboo Garden. One of our most exciting is Fargesia dracocephala 'White Dragon' The variegation on this plant was not discovered until the plant was two years old, and the variegation seems to be getting more intense with age. Some bamboo seed, such as Phyllostachys need to be fully ripened before harvest.
This is especially true if the seeds are not to be planted immediately. Seeds of some bamboos are viable and may be planted while still green. Sasa, Indocalamus, and Pleioblastus are in this group. The seeds of Melocanna baccifera, a very large seed type germinate while still on the bamboo.