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Dec flight to Cancun. Dec 27, The Yucatan. Toward Mexico, late October Toward Mexico 2, November Blog 4: November Ferdinand of Aragon was particularly concerned with expansion in France and Italy, as well as conquests in North Africa. With the Ottoman Turks controlling the choke points of the overland trade from Asia and the Middle East, both Spain and Portugal sought alternative routes. The Kingdom of Portugal had an advantage over the rest of Iberian, having earlier retaken territory from the Muslims. Portugal completed Christian reconquest in and settling the kingdom's boundaries.
Portugal then began to seek further overseas expansion, first to the port of Ceuta and then by colonizing the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores ; it also began voyages down the west coast of Africa in the fifteenth century. Following the voyage of Christopher Columbus in and first major settlement in the New World in , Portugal and Castile divided the world by the Treaty of Tordesillas , which gave Portugal Africa and Asia and the Western Hemisphere to Spain. Columbus unexpectedly encountered the western hemisphere, populated by peoples he named "Indians.
Managing the expanding empire became an administrative issue. With the Christian reconquest completed in the Iberian peninsula, Spain began trying to take territory in Muslim North Africa. It had conquered Melilla in , and further expansionism policy in North Africa was developed during the regency of Ferdinand the Catholic in Castile, stimulated by the Cardinal Cisneros.
Tripoli was taken on 24—25 July, the feast of St. James , protector of Spain; the claim was made that 10, Muslims were killed and many captured. The Spanish conquest of Oran was won with much bloodshed: a third of its Muslim population—4, inhabitants— were massacred, and up to 8, were taken prisoner. The Zeiyanid sultans of Tlemcen quickly submitted to Spanish protectorate, and the two powers soon became allies.
Cardinal Cisneros converted two mosques to Catholic use, and restored and expanded the town's fortifications. Oran, like other principal Algerian ports, was forced to accept a presidio military outpost ; it became a major naval base, a garrison city armed with traffic-commanding cannons and harquebuses. Algeria became part of the Ottoman Empire in , and the Turks expelled the Spaniards from their coastal possessions from Algiers in , replacing them with garrisons of Janissary corps.
For about years, Oran's inhabitants were virtually held captive in their fortress walls, ravaged by famine and plague; soldiers, too, were irregularly fed and paid. Spanish-held Oran resisted attacks in , , , , and , and Spanish-held Ceuta and Melilla, Moroccan sieges in —7 and , and —5 respectively. The Spaniards lost Oran in recapturing it in , but evacuating it in , as well as La Mamora in , Larache in and Arzila in The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: France.
As King of Aragon , Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king. In these battles, which established the supremacy of the Spanish Tercios in European battlefields, the forces of the kings of Spain acquired a reputation for invincibility that would last until the midth century.
After the death of Queen Isabella in , and her exclusion of Ferdinand from a further role in Castile, Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix in , cementing an alliance with France. Had that couple had a surviving heir, likely the Crown of Aragon would have been split from Castile, which was inherited by Charles, Ferdinand and Isabella's grandson. Ferdinand's first deployment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venice , where the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello Only a year later, Ferdinand became part of the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Milan — to which he held a dynastic claim — and Navarre.
This war was less of a success than the war against Venice, and in , France agreed to a truce that left Milan in its control and recognized Spanish control of Upper Navarre , which had effectively been a Spanish protectorate following a series of treaties in , , , and Portugal obtained several Papal bulls that acknowledged Portuguese control over the discovered territories, but Castile also obtained from the Pope the safeguard of its rights to the Canary Islands with the bulls Romani Pontifex dated 6 November and Dominatur Dominus dated 30 April The conquest was completed with the campaigns of the armies of the Crown of Castile between and , when the islands of Gran Canaria — , La Palma — , and Tenerife — were subjugated.
The Portuguese tried in vain to keep secret their discovery of the Gold Coast in the Gulf of Guinea , but the news quickly caused a huge gold rush. Chronicler Pulgar wrote that the fame of the treasures of Guinea "spread around the ports of Andalusia in such way that everybody tried to go there". The War of the Castilian Succession —79 provided the Catholic Monarchs with the opportunity not only to attack the main source of the Portuguese power, but also to take possession of this lucrative commerce.
Castilian fleets fought in the Atlantic Ocean , temporarily occupying the Cape Verde islands , conquering the city of Ceuta in Tingitana Peninsula in but retaken by the Portuguese , [a] [b] and even attacked the Azores islands, being defeated at Praia. However, this experience would prove to be profitable for future Spanish overseas expansion, because as the Spaniards were excluded from the lands discovered or to be discovered from the Canaries southward  — and consequently from the road to India around Africa  — they sponsored the voyage of Columbus towards the west in search of Asia to trade in its spices , encountering the Americas instead.
The two became known as the Catholic Monarchs , with their marriage a personal union that created a relationship between the Crown of Aragon and Castile, each with their own administrations, but ruled jointly by the two monarchs. Ferdinand and Isabella defeated the last Muslim king out of Granada in after a ten-year war. Castile was already engaged in a race of exploration with Portugal to reach the Far East by sea when Columbus made his bold proposal to Isabella.
In the Capitulations of Santa Fe , dated on 17 April , Christopher Columbus obtained from the Catholic Monarchs his appointment as viceroy and governor in the lands already discovered  and that he might discover thenceforth;   thereby, it was the first document to establish an administrative organization in the Indies.
Spain's claim  to these lands was solidified by the Inter caetera papal bull dated 4 May , and Dudum siquidem on 26 September , which vested the sovereignty of the territories discovered and to be discovered. These actions gave Spain exclusive rights to establish colonies in all of the New World from north to south later with the exception of Brazil , which Portuguese commander Pedro Alvares Cabral encountered in , as well as the easternmost parts of Asia.
The treaty of Tordesillas  and the treaty of Cintra 18 September  established the limits of the Kingdom of Fez for Portugal, and the Castilian expansion was allowed outside these limits, beginning with the conquest of Melilla in Other European powers did not see the treaty between Spain and Portugal as binding on themselves.
Francis I of France observed "The sun shines for me as for others and I should very much like to see the clause in Adam's will that excludes me from a share of the world. Unlike the crown of Portugal, Spain had not sought papal authorization for its explorations, but with Christopher Columbus's voyage in , the crown sought papal confirmation of their title to the new lands. Converting the inhabitants of in the newly discovered lands was entrusted by the papacy to the rulers of Portugal and Spain, through a series of papal actions.
The Patronato real , or power of royal patronage for ecclesiastical positions had precedents in Iberia during the reconquest. Eximiae devotionis sinceritas granted the Catholic monarchs and their successors the same rights that the papacy had granted Portugal, in particular the right of presentation of candidates for ecclesiastical positions in the newly discovered territories.
According to the Concord of Segovia of , Ferdinand was mentioned in the bulls as king of Castile, and upon his death the title of the Indies was to be incorporated into the Crown of Castile. According to the domain granted by Papal bulls and the wills of queen Isabella of Castile in and king Ferdinand of Aragon in , such property became held by the Crown of Castile. This arrangement was ratified by successive monarchs, beginning with Charles I in  in a decree that spelled out the juridical status of the new overseas territories. The political condition of the Indies were to transform from " Lordship " of the Catholic Monarchs to " Kingdoms " for the heirs of Castile.
Although the Alexandrine Bulls gave full, free and omnipotent power to the Catholic Monarchs,  they did not rule them as a private property but as a public property through the public bodies and authorities from Castile,  and when those territories were incorporated into the Crown of Castile the royal power was subject to the laws of Castile.
The crown was the guardian of levies for the support of the Catholic Church, in particular the tithe, which was levied on the products of agriculture and ranching. In general, Indians were exempt from the tithe. Although the crown received these revenues, they were to be used for the direct support of the ecclesiastical hierarchy and pious establishments, so that the crown itself did not benefit financially from this income. The crown's obligation to support the Church sometimes resulted in funds from the royal treasury being transferred to the Church when the tithes fell short of paying ecclesiastical expenses.
The experiment was deemed a failure, with the natives considered too new in the faith to be ordained. Pope Paul III did issue a bull, Sublimis Deus , declaring that natives were capable of becoming Christians, but Mexican and Peruvian —68 provincial councils banned natives from ordination. With the Capitulations of Santa Fe , the Crown of Castile granted expansive power to Christopher Columbus , including exploration, settlement, political power, and revenues, with sovereignty reserved to the Crown. The first voyage established sovereignty for the crown, and the crown acted on the assumption that Columbus's grandiose assessment of what he found was true, so Spain negotiated the Treaty of Tordesillas with Portugal to protect their territory on the Spanish side of the line.
The crown fairly quickly reassessed its relationship with Columbus and moved to assert more direct crown control over the territory and extinguish his privileges. With that lesson learned, the crown was far more prudent in the specifying the terms of exploration, conquest, and settlement in new areas. The pattern in the Caribbean that played out over the larger Spanish Indies was exploration of an unknown area and claim of sovereignty for the crown; conquest of indigenous peoples or assumption of control without direct violence; settlement by Spaniards who were awarded the labour of indigenous people via the encomienda ; and the existing settlements becoming the launch point for further exploration, conquest, and settlement, followed by the establishment institutions with officials appointed by the crown.
The patterns set in the Caribbean were replicated throughout the expanding Spanish sphere, so although the importance of the Caribbean quickly faded after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire and the Spanish conquest of the Incas , many of those participating in those conquests had started their exploits in the Caribbean. The first permanent European settlements in the New World were established in the Caribbean, initially on the island of Hispaniola , later Cuba and Puerto Rico.
As a Genoese with the connections to Portugal, Columbus considered settlement to be on the pattern of trading forts and factories, with salaried employees to trade with locals and to identify exploitable resources. Columbus's second voyage in had a large contingent of settlers and goods to accomplish that.
Although Columbus staunchly asserted and believed that the lands he encountered were in Asia, the paucity of material wealth and the relative lack of complexity of indigenous society meant that the Crown of Castile initially was not concerned with the extensive powers granted Columbus. As the Caribbean became a draw for Spanish settlement and as Columbus and his extended Genoese family failed to be recognized as officials worthy of the titles they held, there was unrest among Spanish settlers. The crown began to curtail the expansive powers that they had granted Columbus, first by appointment of royal governors and then a high court or Audiencia in Columbus encountered the mainland in ,  and the Catholic Monarchs learned of his discovery in May Taking advantage of a revolt against Columbus in Hispaniola , they appointed Francisco de Bobadilla as governor of the Indies with civil and criminal jurisdiction over the lands discovered by Columbus.
The successors of Columbus, however, litigated against the Crown until  for the fulfillment of the Capitulations of Santa Fe in the pleitos colombinos. In metropolitan Spain, the direction of the Americas was taken over by the Bishop Fonseca  between and ,  and again between and , after a brief period of rule by Jean le Sauvage. In , the Junta of The Indies was constituted as a standing committee belonging to the Council of Castile to address issues of the Indies,  and this junta constituted the origin of the Council of the Indies , established in Now oversight of the Indies was based both in Castile and with officials of the new royal court in the colony.
As new areas were conquered and significant Spanish settlements were established, likewise other audiencias were established. Following the settlement of Hispaniola, Europeans began searching elsewhere to begin new settlements, since there was little apparent wealth and the numbers of indigenous were declining. Those from the less prosperous Hispaniola were eager to search for new success in a new settlement. In , the Board of Navigators met in Burgos and concurred on the need to establish settlements on the mainland, a project entrusted to Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa as governors.
They were subordinated to the governor of Hispaniola,  the newly appointed Diego Columbus ,  with the same legal authority as Ovando. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown. The judgment of Seville of May recognized the viceregal title to Diego Columbus, but limited it to Hispaniola and to the islands discovered by his father, Christopher Columbus;  his power was nevertheless limited by royal officers and magistrates  constituting a dual regime of government.
Spain came across an imperial reality without finding profits at the beginning. It did stimulate some trade and industry, but the trading opportunities encountered were limited. Therefore, Spain started to invest in America with the creation of cities, because Spain was in America due to religious reasons. These imports contributed to inflation in Spain and Europe from the last decades of the 16th century.
The vast imports of silver also made local manufactures uncompetitive and ultimately made Spain overly dependent on foreign sources of raw materials and manufactured goods. The natural resource abundance provoked a decline in entrepreneurship as profits from resource extraction are less risky. The Habsburg dynasty spent the Castilian and American riches in wars across Europe on behalf of Habsburg interests, and declared moratoriums bankruptcies on their debt payments several times. These burdens led to a number of revolts across the Spanish Habsburg's domains, including their Spanish kingdoms, but the rebellions were put down.
He was the first Habsburg monarch of Spain and co-ruler of Spain with his mother. Charles had been raised in northern Europe and his interests remained those of Christian Europe. The continuing threat of the Ottoman Turks in the Mediterranean and Central Europe also occupied the monarch. While not directly an inheritance, Charles was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of his grandfather Emperor Maximilian thanks to prodigious bribes paid to the prince-electors.
Charles became the most powerful Christian ruler in Europe, but his Ottoman rival, Suleiman the Magnificent , challenged Charles for primacy in Europe. France made an unprecedented but pragmatic alliance with the Muslim Ottomans against Habsburg political power and the Ottomans assisted German Protestant princes in the religious conflicts tearing Christian unity apart in Northern Europe.
Simultaneously, the overseas lands claimed by Spain in the New World proved to be a source of wealth and the crown was able to assert greater control over its overseas possessions in the political and religious spheres than was possible on Iberian peninsula or in Europe. The conquests of the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire brought vast indigenous civilizations into the Spanish Empire and the mineral wealth, particularly silver, were identified and exploited, becoming the economic lifeblood of the crown.
Under Charles, Spain and its overseas empire in the Americas became deeply entwined, with the crown enforcing Catholic exclusivity; exercising crown primacy in political rule, unencumbered by claims of an existing aristocracy; and defending its claims against other European powers. With the ascent of Charles I in and his election as sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire in , Francis I of France found himself surrounded by Habsburg territories. He invaded the Spanish possessions in Italy in , inaugurating the second war of Franco-Spanish conflict. The war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeat in the Battle of Biccoca , the Battle of Pavia , in which Francis I was captured and imprisoned in Madrid,  and in the Battle of Landriano before Francis relented and abandoned Milan to Spain.
The papacy and Charles had complicated relations. Charles's forces were victorious at the Battle of Pavia in Charles grew exhausted with the pope's meddling in what he viewed as purely secular affairs. In , Charles's army in northern Italy, underpaid and desiring to plunder the city of Rome, mutinied, advanced southward toward Rome, and looted the city.
The Sack of Rome , while unintended by Charles, embarrassed the papacy sufficiently enough that Clement, and succeeding popes, were considerably more circumspect in their dealings with secular authorities. The Peace of Barcelona , signed between Charles V and the Pope in , established a more cordial relationship between the two leaders. Spain was effectively named the protector of the Catholic cause, and Charles was crowned as King of Italy Lombardy in return for Spanish intervention in overthrowing the rebellious Florentine Republic.
The crowns of Castile and Aragon depended on Genoese bankers for its finances and the Genoese fleet aided the Spanish in fighting the Ottomans in the Mediterranean. By the 16th century, the Ottomans had become a threat to the states of Western Europe. They had defeated the eastern Christian Byzantine empire and seized its capital, creating it as the Ottoman capital and the Ottomans controlled a rich area of the eastern Mediterranean, with links to Asia, Egypt, and India and in by the mid-sixteenth century, they ruled a third of Europe.
The Ottomans had created an impressive land and maritime empire, with port cities and short and long range trade connections. In , Francis I of France announced his unprecedented alliance with the Islamic sultan of the Ottoman Empire , Suleiman the Magnificent , by occupying the Spanish-controlled city of Nice in concert with Ottoman Turk forces. Henry VIII of England, who bore a greater grudge against France than he held against Charles for standing in the way of his divorce, joined him in his invasion of France. Although the Spanish were defeated at the Battle of Ceresole in Savoy, the French army was unable to seriously threaten Spanish-controlled Milan, while suffering defeat in the north at the hands of Henry, thereby being forced to accept unfavorable terms.
The Austrians, led by Charles's younger brother Ferdinand , continued to fight the Ottomans in the east. Charles V preferred to suppress the Ottomans through a more maritime strategy, hampering Ottoman movements in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Schmalkaldic League had allied itself to the French, and efforts in Germany to undermine the League had been rebuffed. Francis's defeat in led to the annulment of the alliance with the Protestants, and Charles took advantage of the opportunity. He first tried the path of negotiation at the Council of Trent in , but the Protestant leadership, feeling betrayed by the stance taken by the Catholics at the council, went to war, led by the Saxon elector Maurice.
In response, Charles invaded Germany at the head of a mixed Dutch—Spanish army, hoping to restore the Imperial authority. In , Charles signed the Peace of Augsburg with the Protestant states and restored stability in Germany on his principle of cuius regio, eius religio , a position unpopular with Spanish and Italian clergymen.
Charles's involvement in Germany would establish a role for Spain as protector of the Catholic, Habsburg cause in the Holy Roman Empire ; the precedent would lead, seven decades later, to involvement in the war that would decisively end Spain as Europe's leading power. When Charles succeeded to the throne of Spain, Spain's overseas possessions in the New World were based in the Caribbean and the Spanish Main and consisted of a rapidly decreasing indigenous population, few resources of value to the crown, and a sparse Spanish settler population.
Following the pattern established in Spain during the Christian reconquest of Islamic Spain, and in the Caribbean, the first European settlements in the Americas, conquerors divided up the indigenous population in private holdings encomiendas and exploited their labor. Central Mexico and later the Inca Empire of Peru gave Spain vast new indigenous populations to convert to Christianity and rule as vassals of the crown. Charles established the Council of the Indies in to oversee all of Castile's overseas possessions. Charles appointed a viceroy in Mexico in , capping the royal governance of the high court, Real Audiencia , and treasury officials with the highest royal official.
Following the conquest of the Incas, in Charles likewise appointed a viceroy of Peru. Both officials were under the jurisdiction of the Council of the Indies. Charles promulgated the New Laws of to limit the power of the conqueror group to form a hereditary aristocracy that might challenge the power of the crown. The reign of Philip II of Spain was extremely important, with both major successes and failures. Philip was Charles V's only legitimate son.
Philip treated Castile as the foundation of his empire, but the population of Castile was never great enough to provide the soldiers needed to defend the Empire or settlers to populate it. When he married Mary Tudor , England was allied to Spain. He seized the throne of Portugal in , creating the Iberian Union and bringing the entire Iberian peninsula under his personal rule. According to one of his biographers, it was entirely due to Philip that the Indies were brought under crown control, remaining Spanish until the wars of independence in the early nineteenth century and Catholic to the present era.
His greatest failure was his inability to suppress the Dutch revolt, which was aided by English and French rivals. His militant Catholicism also played a major role in his actions, as did his inability to understand imperial finances. He inherited his father's debts and incurred his own pursuing religious wars, resulting in recurring state bankruptcies and dependence on foreign bankers.
Under Philip's rule, learned men, known as arbitristas began writing analyses of this paradox of Spain's impoverishment. Under Philip, about 9, men a year on average were recruited from Spain; in crisis years the total could rise to 20, Between and , nearly 43, men left Spain to fight in Italy and the Low Countries.
The first years of his reign, "from to , Philip II was concerned principally with Muslim allies of the Turks, based in Tripoli and Algiers, the bases from which North African [Muslim] forces under the corsair Dragut preyed upon Christian shipping. The death of Suleiman the Magnificent the following year and his succession by his less capable son Selim the Sot emboldened Philip, who resolved to carry the war to the sultan himself.
In , Spanish and Venetian warships , joined by volunteers from across Europe led by Charles's natural son Don John of Austria , annihilated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto. The battle ended the threat of Ottoman naval hegemony in the Mediterranean. Following the battle, Philip and the Ottomans concluded truce agreements. The victory was aided by the participation of various military leaders and contingents from parts of Italy under Philip's rule.
By , German soldiers were three-quarters of Philip's troops. The Ottomans recovered soon. The death of the Persian shah, Tahmasp I , was an opportunity for the Ottoman sultan to intervene in that country, so he agreed to a truce in the Mediterranean with Philip II in Lepanto was the decisive turning point in control of the Mediterranean away from centuries of Turkish hegemony. In the western Mediterranean, Philip pursued a defensive policy with the construction of a series of armed garrisons and peace agreements with some of the Muslim rulers of North Africa. In the first half of the 17th century, Spanish ships attacked the Anatolian coast, defeating larger Ottoman fleets at the Battle of Cape Celidonia and the Battle of Cape Corvo.
Larache and La Mamora , on the Moroccan Atlantic coast, and the island of Alhucemas , in the Mediterranean, were taken, but during the second half of the 17th century, Larache and La Mamora were also lost. When Philip succeeded his father, Spain was not at peace, since Henry II of France came to the throne in and immediately renewed conflict with Spain. Philip aggressively prosecuted the war against France, crushing a French army at the Battle of St. Quentin in Picardy in and defeating Henry again at the Battle of Gravelines.
In the celebrations that followed the treaty, Henry was killed by a stray splinter from a lance. France was stricken for the next thirty years by chronic civil war and unrest see French Wars of Religion and, during this period, removed it from effectively competing with Spain and the Habsburg family in European power games.
Freed from effective French opposition, Spain attained the apogee of its might and territorial reach in the period — The time for rejoicing in Madrid was short-lived. In , Calvinist -led riots in the Netherlands prompted the Duke of Alba to march into the country to restore order. On February 16, , a sentence of the Inquisition condemned all the inhabitants of the Netherlands to death as heretics. In , William of Orange , better known as William the Silent, led a failed attempt to drive Alba from the Netherlands. These battles are generally considered to signal the start of the Eighty Years' War that ended with the independence of the United Provinces in The Spanish, who derived a great deal of wealth from the Netherlands and particularly from the vital port of Antwerp , were committed to restoring order and maintaining their hold on the provinces.
According to Luc-Normand Tellier , "It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas.
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Given that Spain was also fighting several wars simultaneously for nearly a century, the kingdom was never able to bring the war against the Dutch to a swift conclusion regardless of its financial and military potential. For Spain, the war became an endless quagmire, sometimes literally. In , faced with the bills from his 80,man army of occupation in the Netherlands, the cost of his fleet that had won at Lepanto, together with the growing threat of piracy in the open seas reducing his income from his American colonies, Philip was forced to accept bankruptcy.
The army in the Netherlands mutinied not long after, seizing Antwerp and looting the southern Netherlands, prompting several cities in the previously peaceful southern provinces to join the rebellion. The Spanish chose to negotiate, and pacified most of the southern provinces again with the Union of Arras in In response, the Netherlands created the Union of Utrecht , as an alliance between the northern provinces, later that month.
They officially deposed Philip in when they enacted the Act of Abjuration. Tensions between England and Spain rose through the s primarily as a result of raids on Spanish shipping and the looting of Spanish settlements in the Americas largely by Sir Francis Drake , and religious differences between Catholic Spain and Protestant England. When the Spanish Armada sailed in , England faced the most serious threat of invasion since the Norman Conquest of Its defeat did not end the threat.
Spain had invested itself in the religious warfare in France after Henry II's death. A substantial Spanish force landed in Brittany , where they ejected the English who were there. The Anglo-French forces successfully held onto the port of Brest , but now there was a clear threat of a Spanish invasion of England launched from the coasts of Brittany and Normandy.
They seized supplies, sacked Penzance and the surrounding villages , then sailed away before any English force could be mustered to oppose it. In , Henry declared war on Spain in an effort to stop its continuing support of the Catholic League. However, Henry regained Amiens after a long siege April—September While the English were occupied with containing the Irish problem, the Spanish launched two more Armadas against England.
The Armada was destroyed when it was hit by a storm off the coast of northern Spain. The Armada was more successful. It reached the English Channel and came very close to making landfall undetected. It was only adverse weather conditions that stopped this fleet from landing. Faced with wars against France, England and the Netherlands , each led by capable leaders, the bankrupted Spanish empire found itself competing against strong adversaries.
Continuing piracy against its shipping in the Atlantic and costly colonial enterprises forced Spain to renegotiate its debts in Philip had been forced to declare bankruptcy in , , , and Under Philip II, royal power over The Indies increased, but the crown knew little about its overseas possessions in the Indies. Although the Council of the Indies was tasked with oversight there, it acted without advice of high officials with direct colonial experience. Another serious problem was that the crown did not know what Spanish laws were in force there.
To remedy the situation, Philip appointed Juan de Ovando, who was named President of the council, to give advice. The crown sought greater control over encomenderos, who had attempted to establish themselves as a local aristocracy; strengthened the power of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; shored up religious orthodoxy by the establishment of the Inquisition in Lima and Mexico City ; and increased revenues from silver mines in Peru and in Mexico, discovered in the s. Particularly important was the crown's appointment of two able viceroys, Don Francisco de Toledo as viceroy of Peru r.
He built on reforms attempted under earlier viceroys, but he is often credited with a major transformation in crown rule in Peru. He established administrative districts of corregimiento , and resettled native Andeans in reducciones to better rule them. Under Toledo, the last stronghold of the Inca state was destroyed and the last Inca emperor, Tupac Amaru I , was executed. The crown expanded its global claims and defended existing ones in the Indies. Transpacific explorations had resulted in Spain claiming the Philippines and the establishment of Spanish settlements and trade with Mexico.
Philip's succession to the crown of Portugal in complicated the situation on the ground in The Indies between Spanish and Portuguese settlers, although Brazil and Spanish America were administered through separate councils in Spain. Spain regained control in the Isthmus of Panama by relocating the main port there from Nombre de Dios to Portobelo. Hugo Obermaier 29 January , Regensburg — 12 November , Fribourg was a distinguished prehistorian and anthropologist who taught at various European centres of learning.
He is particularly associated with his work on the diffusion of mankind in Europe during the Ice Age , and in connection with north Spanish cave art , and resisted placing his science at the disposal of nationalistic and racialist interests in the Germany of the s. Hugo Obermaier spent his childhood and the early part of his student years in Regensburg. In he was ordained as a lay priest and between and he studied in Vienna the subjects of Prehistoric archaeology , physical geography , geology , palaeontology , ethnology , German philology and human anatomy.
Four years later, he qualified as a lecturer and in , despite opposition from Albrecht Penck, his former teacher, he became an unsalaried university lecturer in Vienna. In he took up a professorial post at the newly founded Institute of Human Palaeontology in Paris, which he held until the outbreak of the First World War.
While in Spain he next decided to work at the National Museum of Natural Sciences in Madrid , but changing again in to a professorship at the Complutense University in Madrid.
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