If absurdities are doubted by the questioner, they are sometimes only the more protested by the children;. Again, many questioners are brusque, lacking in sympathy or tact, or real interest or patience in the work, or perhaps regard it as trivial or fruitless. These and many other difficulties seemed best minimized by the following method, which was finally settled upon and, with the cooperation of Mr.
Seaver, then superintendent of the Boston schools, put into operation. The four trained and experienced kindergarten teachers were employed by the hour to question the children in groups of three at a time in the dressing room of the school, so as not to interrupt the school work. No constraint was used, and as several hours were necessary to finish each set, changes and rests were often needful, while by frequent correspondence and by meetings with the writer to discuss details and compare results, uniformity of method was sought. The most honest and unembarrassed child's first answer to a direct question, e.
If the child says it has seen a cow, but when asked its size points to its own finger nail or hand and says, so big, as not unfrequently occurs, the inference is that it has at most only seen a picture of a cow, and thinks its size reproduced therein, and accordingly he is set down as deficient on that question. If, however, he is correct as to size, but calls the color blue, does not know that the cow is the source of milk, or that it has horns or hoofs, - several errors of the latter order were generally allowed.
A worm may be said to swinm on the ground, butchers to kill only the bad animals, etc. Thus many. Men's first names seemed to have designated single striking qualities, but once applied they become general or specific names according to circumstances. Again, very few children knew that a tree had bark, leaves, trunk, and roots; but very few indeed had not noticed a tree enough for our "pass.
It is important also to add that the questioners were requested to report manifest gaps in the child's knowledge in its own words, reproducing its syntax, pronunciation, etc. About sixty teachers besides the four examiners made returns from three or more children each. Many of their returns, however, are incomplete, careless, or show internal contradictions, and can be used only indirectly to control results from the other sources.
From more than twice that number two hundred of the Boston children were selected as the basis of the following table. For certain questions and for many statistical purposes this number is much too small to yield very valuable results, but where, as in the majority of cases, the averages of these children taken by fifties have varied less than ten per cent. The precautions that were taken to avoid schools where the children.
The following table shows the general results for a number of those questions which admit of categorical answers, only negative results being recorded; the italicized questions in the " miscellaneous " class being based on only from forty to seventy-five children, the rest on two hundred, or, in a few cases, on two hundred and fifty. In , shortly after my own tables, as below, were published, Superintendent J. Greenwood of Kansas City tested children of the lowest primary class in that city, of whom 47 were colored, with some of my questions.
I here print his percentages in the last two columns. In his state, children are admitted to school at six, but his tests were made in March, April, May, or after some seven months or more of school life, and probably at greater age. Frog Pig. Chicken Worm. Elm tree Poplar tree Willow.. Growing oats.. Oak tree. Growing moss Growing strawberries.
Growing clover. Growing beans. Growing blueberries Growing blackberries. Growing corn Chestnut tree Planting a seed. Peaches on a tree Growing potatoes Growing buttercup Growing rose. Growing grapes. Growing dandelion Growing cherries Growing pears. Growing apples Forehead Throat. Knee Stomach Dew The seasons Hail. Rainbow Sunrise Sunset. Moon Island. Beach Woods. River Pond Hill. Brook Triangle Square.. Number three Watchmaker at work File..
Bricklayer at work Shoemaker at work Ax Origin of leathern thing. Maxim or proverb. Origin of cotton things Origin of flour Ability to knit Origin of bricks Shape of the world Origin of woolen things Kindergarten Story telling.. Origin of wooden things Origin of butter..
Origin of meat from an Sewing Given musical tone Cannot beat time regula Have never saved cents Never been in the count Can repeat no verse Source of milk Per cent. I8 12 20 Per cent. Growing corn Growing potatoes. Growing buttercup. Growing rose Growing dandelion. Right from left hand. Forehead Throat The seasons. Pond Hill Number four Number three.. The returns were carefully tabulated to determine the influence of age, which seems surprisingly unpronounced, indicating, so far as the small numbers go, a slight value of age per se as an index of ripeness for school.
In the second table, which is based on Boston children, only columns 2 and 3 are based upon larger numbers and upon less carefully restricted selections from the aggregate returns. The girls excel in knowledge of the parts of the body, home and family life, rainbows, in conception of square, circle, and triangle, but not in that of cube, sphere, and pyramid, which is harder and later.
Their stories are more imaginative, while their knowledge of things outward and remote, their power to sing and articulate correctly from dictation, their acquaintance with number and animals, is distinctly less than that of the boys. The Berlin report infers that the more common, near, or easy a notion is, the more likely are the girls to excel the boys, and vice versa. Save possibly in the knowledge of the parts of the body, our returns do not indicate difference between the sexes. Boys do seem, however, more likely than girls to be ignorant of common things right about them, of which knowledge is wont to be assumed.
Column 4 shows that the Irish children tested were behind others on nearly all topics. The Irish girls decidedly outrank the Irish boys, the advantage to the sex being outweighed by the wider knowledge of the boys of other nationalities. Whether, however, the fiveand six-year-old Irish boys are not after all so constituted as to surpass their precocious American playmates later in school or adult life, as since Sigismund, many think "' slow " children generally do, is one of the most serious questions for the philosophical educator.
Column 6 shows in a striking way the advantage of the kindergarten children, without regard to nationality, over all others. Most of the latter tested were from the charity kindergartens, so that superior intelligence of home surroundings can hardly be assumed. Many of them had attended kindergarten but a short time, and the questions were so ordered that the questioners who had a special interest in the kindergarten should not know till near the end of the tests whether or not the children had.
On the other hand, a somewhat larger proportion of the children from the kindergarten had been in the country. Yet, on the whole, we seem to have here an illustration of the law that we really see not what is near or impresses the retina, but what the attention is called and held to, and what interests are awakened and words found for. Of nearly thirty primary teachers questioned as to the difference between children from kindergartens and others, four saw no difference, and all the rest thought them better fitted for school work, instancing superior use of language, skill with the hand and slate, quickness, power of observation, singing, number, love of work, neatness, politeness, freedom from the benumbing school bashfulness, or power to draw from dictation.
Many thought them at first more restless and talkative. There are many other details and more or less probable inferences, but the above are the chief. The work was laborious, involving about fifty thousand items in all. These results are, it is believed, to be in some degree the first opening of a field which should be specialized, and in which single concept groups should be subjected to more detailed study with larger numbers of children. One difficulty is to get essential points to test for. If these are not characteristic and typical, all such work is worthless.
We believe that not only practical educational conclusions of great scope and importance may be based on or illustrated by such results, but, though many sources of inaccuracy may limit their value, that they are of great importance for anthropology and psychology. It is characteristic of an educated man, says Aristotle in substance, not to require a degree of scientific exactness on any subject greater than that which the subject admits. As scientific methods advance, not only are increasingly complex matters subjected to them, but probabilities which guide nearly all our acts more and more remote from mathematical certainty are valued.
One wrote, Vital force. This fable teaches the law of apperception. As Don Quixote saw an army in a flock of sheep and a giant in a windmill, as some see all things in the light of politics, others in that of religion, education, etc. They bring more or less developed apperceiving organs with them into school, each older and more familiar concept gaining more apperceptive power over the newer concepts and percepts by use. The older impressions are on the lurch, as it were, for the new ones, and mental freedom and all-sidedness depend on the number and strength of these appropriating concepts.
If these are very few, as with children, teaching is like pouring water from a big tub into a small, narrownecked bottle. A teacher who acts upon the now everywhere admitted fallacy that knowledge of the subject is all that is needed in teaching children, pours at random onto more than into the children, talking to rather than with them, and gauging what he gives rather than what they receive.
All now agree that the mind can learn only what is related to other things learned before, and that we must start. Alas for the teacher who does not learn more from his children than he can ever hope to teach them! Just in proportion as teachers do this do they cease to be merely mechanical, and acquire interest, perhaps enthusiasm, and surely an all-compensating sense of growth in their work and life.
From the above tables it seems not too much also to infer: i That there is next to nothing of pedagogic value, the knowledge of which it is safe to assume at the outset of school life. Hence the need of objects and the danger of books and word cram. Hence many of the best primary teachers in Germany spend from two to four or even six months in talking of objects and drawing them before any beginning of what we till lately have regarded as primaryschool work.
This order may in teaching generally be assumed as a natural one, e. This order,. The high rate of ignorance indicated in the table may surprise most persons who will be likely to read this report, because the childhood they know will be much above the average of intelligence here sought, and because the few memories of childhood which survive in adult life necessarily bear but slight traces of imperfections and are from many causes illusory.
Skeins and spools of thread were said to grow on the sheep's back or on bushes, stockings on trees, butter to come from buttercups,flour to be made of beans, oats to grow on oaks, bread to be swelled yeast, trees to be stuck in the ground by God and to be rootless, meat to be dug from the ground, and potatoes to be picked from the trees.
Cheese is squeezed butter, the cow says "bow wow," the pig purrs or burrows, worms are not distinguished from snakes, moss from the "toad's umbrella," bricks from stones, etc. An oak may be known only as an acorn tree or a button tree, a pine only as a needle tree, a bird's nest only as its bed, etc. So that while no one child has all these misconceptions, none are free from them, and thus the liabilities are great that, in this chaos of half-assimilated impressions, half right, half wrong, some lost link may make utter nonsense or mere verbal cram of the most careful instruction, as in the cases of children referred to above, who knew much by rote about a cow, its milk, horns, leather, meat, etc.
For 86 per cent. The subject-matter of primers for the latter is in great part still traditionally of country life;. As our methods of teaching grow natural we realize that city life is unnatural, and that those who grow up without knowing the country are defrauded of that without which childhood can never be complete or normal. On the whole, the material of the city is no doubt inferior in pedagogic value to country experience. A few days in the country at the age of five or six has raised the level of many a city child's intelligence more than a term or two of school training without could do.
It is there, too, that the foundations of a love of natural science are best laid. We cannot accept without many careful qualifications the evolutionary dictum that the child's mental development should repeat that of the race. Unlike primitive man, the child has a feeble body and is ever influenced by a higher culture about him.
Yet from the primeval intimacy with the qualities and habits of plants, with the instincts of animals, - so like those of children, - with which hawking and trapping, the riding on instead of some distance behind horses, etc. A country barn, a forest with its gloom and awe, its vague fears and indefinite sounds, is a great school at this age. The making of butter, of which some teachers, after hearing so often that it grew inside eggs or on ice, or was made from buttermilk, think it worth while to make a thimbleful in a toy churn at school as an object lesson; more acquaintance with birds, which, as having the most perfect senses,.
Many children locate all that is good and imperfectly known in the country, and nearly a dozen volunteered the statement that good people when they die go to the country - even from Boston. It is things that live and, as it were, detach themselves from their background by moving that catch the eye and with it the attention, and the subjects which occupy and interest the city child are mainly in motion and therefore transient, while the country child comes to know objects at rest better.
The country child has more solitude, is likely to develop more independence and is less likely to be prematurely caught up into the absorbing activities and throbbing passions of manhood, and becomes more familiar with the experiences of primitive man. The city child knows a little of many more things and so is more liable to superficiality and has a wider field of error. At the same time, it has two great advantages over the country child, in knowing more of human nature and in entering school with a much better developed sense of rhythm and all its important implications.
On the whole, however, additional force seems thus given to the argument for excursions, by rail or otherwise, regularly provided for the poorer children whose life conditions are causing the race to degenerate in the great centers of population, unfavorable enough for those with good homes or even for adults.
They hear fancied words in noises and sounds of nature and animals, and are persistent punners. As butterflies make butter or eat it or give it by squeezing, so grasshoppers give grass, bees give beads and beans, kittens grow on the pussy willow, and all honey is from honeysuckles, and even a poplin dress is made of poplar trees.
When the cow lows it somehow blows its own horn; crows and scarecrows are confounded; ant has some subtle relationship to aunt; angleworm suggests angle or triangle or ankle; Martie eats " tomarties "; a holiday is a day to " holler" on; Harry O'Neil is nicknamed Harry Oatmeal; isosceles is somehow related to sausages; October suggests knocked over; "I never saw a hawk, but I can hawk and spit too;" "I will not sing do re mi, but do re you;, " Miss Eaton will eat us" - these and many more from the questioners' notes; the story of the child who, puzzled by the unfamiliar reflexive use of the verb, came to associate " now I lay me," etc.
In many of the expressions quoted the child seems playing with relations once seriously held, and its "fun" to be joy over but lately broken mental fetters. Some at least of the. Again, the child more than the adult thinks in pictures, gestures, and inarticulate sounds. The distinction between real and verbal knowledge has been carefully and constantly kept in mind by the questioners.
Yet of the objects in the above table, except a very few, like triangle and sparrow, a child may be said to know almost nothing, at least for school purposes, if he has no generally recognized name for them. The far greater danger is the converse, that only the name and not the thing itself will be known. To test for this danger was, with the exceptions presently to be noted, our constant aim, as it is that of true education to obviate it. The danger, however, is after all quite limited here, for the linguistic imperfections of children are far more often shown in combining words than in naming the concrete things they know or do not know.
To name an object is a passion with them, for it is to put their own mark upon it, to appropriate it. From the talk, which most children hear and use, to book language is again an immense step. Words live only in the ear and mouth, and are pale and corpse-like when addressed to the eye. What we want, and indeed are likely soon to have, are carefully arranged child vocabularies and dictionaries of both verbal forms and meanings, to show teachers just the phonic elements and vocal combinations children have most trouble with, the words they most readily and surely acquire, their number and order in each thought sphere -and the attributes and connotations most liable to confuse them.
To that work it is believed the method here employed has already furnished valuable material in protocol soon to be augmented and digested. To specify a few items more fully, the four color questions were designed to test not color blindness but the power to use color names. The Holmgren worsteds were used, from which the child was asked to pick out, not colors like others. It did not seem safe to complicate the objects of the latter educational test with the former, so that some of those marked defective in the table may or may not have been color-blind.
Excluding colored and Jewish children, both of whom seem to show exceptional percentages, and averaging the sexes, both Magnus and Jeffries found a little over two per cent. The children they tested, however, were much older than these, and two or three hundred is far too small a number to warrant us, were it otherwise allowable, in simply subtracting two per cent.
Our figures, then, do not bear upon the question whether or not the color sense itself is fully developed before the age of five or six. Again, number cannot be developed to any practical extent without knowledge of the number name. Moreover, as Wundt's careful experiments show, the eye can apprehend but three of the smallest and simplest objects, unless they are arranged in some geometrical order, without taking additional time to count.
As the chromatic scale grades musical intervals, or the names we count by graduate the vague sense of more or less, and, later, as visible notes change all musical ideas and possibilities, so figures or number signs almost create arithmetic. A child who seriously says a cat has three or five legs will pick out its own, e. In our tests the number name was sought because it is that which is mainly serviceable for educational purposes. As to the physiological and geographical questions little need be said. Joint, flesh, and vein are often. Within the skin is blood and something hard, perhaps wood.
Physical self-consciousness, which is in little danger of becoming morbid at this age, begins with recognition of the hand, then of the foot, because these are the most mobile parts, but has not often reached the face at this age, and blushing is rare; while psychic self-consciousness is commonly only of pain, either internal, as of stomach ache, or peripheral, as of cuts, bruises, etc. The world is square, straight, or flat, and if the other side has been thought of it is all woods or water or ice, or where saved people or Protestants, or anything much heard of but little seen, are; if we go to the edge of the world we come to water or may fall off, or it may be like a house and we live on top.
The first notion of a hill may be of some particular pile of sand, perhaps on the molding board, three inches high, or a rubbish heap in the back yard, or a slant where a sled will run alone; but a comprehensive idea of hill with opposite sides, though simpler and easier than most geographical categories, is by no means to be assumed. If children are pressed to answer questions somewhat beyond their ken, they often reply confusedly and at random, while if others beside them are questioned they can answer well; some are bolder and invent things on the spot if they seem to interest the questioner, while others catch quick subtle suggestions from the form of the question, accent, gesture, feature, etc.
But there are certain elements which every tactf ul and experienced f riend of children learns to distinguish from each of these with considerable accuracy - elements which, from whatever source, spring from deep roots. These are generally not easily accessible. I could not persuade an old nurse to repeat to me a nonsensical song I half overheard that delighted a two-year-old child, and the brothers Grimm experienced a similar difficulty in making their collections.
As many workingmen nail a horseshoe over their door for luck, and many people really prefer to begin nothing important on Friday, who will not confess to a trace of superstition in either case, so children cling to their "old credulities to nature dear," refusing every attempt to gain their full confidence or explore secret tracts in their minds, as a well-developed system of insane illusions may escape the scrutiny of the most skillful alienist. As a reasoning electric light might honestly doubt the existence of such things as shadows because, however near or numerous, they are always hidden from it, so the most intelligent adults quite commonly fail to recognize sides of their own children's souls which can be seen only by strategy.
A boy and girl often play under my window as I write, and unconscious words often reveal what is passing in their minds when either is quite alone, and it is often very absurd or else meaningless, but they run away with shame and even blushes if they chance to look up suddenly and catch me listening. Yet who of us has not secret regions of soul to which no friend is ever admitted, and which we ourselves shrink from full consciousness of? Many children half believe the doll feels cold or blows, that it pains flowers to tear or burn them, or that in summer when the tree is alive it makes it ache to pound or chop it.
Of 48 children questioned 20 believed sun, moon, or stars to live; iS thought that a doll, and i6, that flowers, would suffer pain if burned. Children who are accounted dull in school work are more apt to be imaginative and animistic. About three fourths of all questioned thought the world a plain, and many described it as round like a dollar, while the sky is like a flattened bowl turned over it.
The sky is often thin, one might easily break through; half the moon may be seen through it, while the other half is this side; it may be made of snow, but is so large that there is much floor sweeping to be done in heaven. Some thought the sun went down at night into the ground or just behind certain houses, and went across, on, or under the ground to go up, out of, or off the water in the morning; but 48 per cent. He takes it into heaven, and perhaps puts it to bed, and even takes off its clothes and puts them on in the morning, or again it lies under the trees where the angels mind it, or goes through and shines on the upper side of the sky, or goes into or behind the moon, as the moon is behind it in the day.
It may stay where it is, only we cannot see it, for it is dark, or the dark rains down so, and it comes out when it gets light so it can see. More than half the children questioned conceived the sun as never more than 40 degrees from the zenith, and, naturally enough, city children knew little of the horizon. So the moon still italicizing where the exact words of the children are given comes around when it is a bright night and people want to walk, or forget to light some lamps; it follows us about and has nose and eyes, while it calls the stars into, under, or behind it at night, and they may be made of bits of it.
Sometimes the moon is round a month or two, then it is a rim, or a piece is cut off, or it is half stuck or half buttoned into the sky. The stars may be sparks from fire engines or houses, or with higher intelligence they are silver, or God lights them with matches and blows them out or opens the door and calls them in in the morning. Thunder, which, anthropologists tell us, is or represents the highest God to most savage races, was apperceived as God groaning or kicking, or rolling barrels about, or turning a big handle, or grinding snow, walking loud, breaking something, throwing logs, having coal run in, pounding about with a big hammer, rattling houses, hitting the clouds, or clouds bumping or clapping together or bursting, or else it was merely ice sliding off lots of houses, or cannon in the city or sky, hard rain down the chimney, or big rocks pounding, or piles of boards falling down, or very hard rain, hail, or wind.
Lightning is God putting out his finger or opening a door, or turning a gas quick, or very common striking many matches at once, throwing stones and iron for sparks, setting paper afire, or it is light going outside and inside the sky, or stars falling. God keeps rain in heaven in a big sink, rows of buckets, a big tub or barrels, and they run over or he lets it down with a water hose through a sieve, a dipper with holes, or sprinkles or tips it down or turns a faucet.
God makes it in heaven out of nothing or out of water, or it gets up by splashing up, or he dips it up off the roof, or it rains up off the ground when we don't see it. The clouds are close to the sky; they move because the earth moves and makes them. They are dirty, muddy things, or blankets, or doors of heaven, and are made of fog, of steam that makes the sun go, of smoke, of white wool or feathers and birds, or lace or cloth. In their changing forms very many children, whose very life is fancy, think they see veritable men, or more commonly, because they have so many more forms, animals' faces; and very often God, Santa Claus, angels, etc.
Closely connected with the above are the religious concepts so common. God is a big, perhaps blue man, very often seen in the sky on or in the clouds, in the church, or even street. He came in our gate, comes to see us sometimes. He lives in a big palace or a big brick or stone house on the sky. He makes lamps, babies, dogs, trees, money, etc. He looks like the priest, Frobel, papa, etc. He lights the stars so he can see to go on the sidewalk or into the church. Birds, children, Santa Claus, live with him, and most but not all like him better than they do the latter.
When people die they just go, or are put in a hole, or a box or a black wagon or are drawn or slung up them. They never can get people somehow get where go up on a ladder or rope, their eyes shut so they do shoved uzp through a hole. He lifts them up, they or they carry them up, but keep not know the way, or they are When children get there they guns, and everything in the toymarbles, top, ball, cards, hockey, hear brass bands, have nice clothes, gold watches, and pets, ice cream and soda water, and no school. There are men who died in the war made into angels, and dolls with broken heads go there.
Some think they must go through the church to get there, a few thought the horse cars run there, and one said that the birds that grow on apple trees are drawn up there by the moon. The bad place is like an oven or a police station, where it burns, yet is all dark, and folks want to get back, and God kills people or beats them with a cane. God makes babies in heaven, though the Holy Mother and even Santa Claus make some. He lets them dozn or drops them, and the women or doctors catch them, or he leaves them on the sidewalk, or brings them down a wooden ladder backwards and pulls it up again, or mamma or the doctor or the.
They were also often said to be found in flour barrels, and the flour sticks ever so long you know, or they grow in cabbages, or God puts them in water, perhaps in the sewer, and the doctor gets them out and takes them to sick folks that want them, or the milkman brings them early in the morning, they are dug out of the ground, or bought at the baby store.
Sometimes God puts on afew things or else sends them along if he don'tforget it; this shows that no one since Basedow believes in telling children the truth in all things. Not many children have or can be made to disclose many such ideas as the above, and indeed they seem to be generally already on the ebb at this age, and are sometimes timidly introduced by, as if, some say, it is like, or I used to think. Clear and confident notions on the above topics are the exception and not the rule, yet children have some of them, while some are common to many, indeed to most, children. They represent a drift of consentient infantile philosophy about the universe not without systematic coherence, although intimidated and broken through at every point by fragmentary truths, often only verbal indeed, without insight or realization of a higher order, so that the most diametrical contradictions often subsist peacefully side by side, and yet they are ever forming again at lower levels of age and intelligence.
In all that is remote, the real and ideal fade into each other like clouds and mountains in the horizon, or as poetry, which keeps alive the standpoints of an earlier culture, coexists with science. Children are often hardly conscious of these contradictions at all, and the very questions that bring them to mind and invite them to words at the same time often abash the child and produce the first disquieting self-consciousness of the absurdity of his fond fancies that have felt not only life but character in.
Between the products of childish spontaneity, where the unmistakable child's mark is seen, and those of really happy suggestion by parents, etc. It is enough that these fancies are like Galton's composite portraits, resultants in form and shading of the manifold deepest impressions which what is within and what is without have together made upon the child's soul in these spheres of ideas.
Those indicated above represent many strata of intelligence up through which the mind is passing very rapidly and with quite radical transformations. Each stratum was once, with but a little elaboration, or is now somewhere, the highest culture, relegated to and arrested in an earlier stage as civilization and educational methods advance. In children belief in the false is as necessary as it is inevitable, for the proper balance of head and heart, and happy the child who has believed or loved only healthy, unaffected, platonic lies like the above, which will be shed with its milk teeth when more solid mental pabulum can be digested.
It is possible that the pres. If so, one of the best elements of education which comes from long experience in laying aside a lower for a higher phase of culture by doubting opportunely, judiciously, and temperately is lost. De Quincey's' pseudopia is thought by Dr. Clark to be common with children; but although about 40 were 1 Collected Writings ed. Masson , Vol. XIII, pp. Black, London, i Galton has described, or only imagine and remember, often with Homeric circumstance, but with less picturesque vividness.
Childish thought is very largely in visual terms; hence the need of object Anschauungs lessons, and hence, too, it comes that most of the above questions address the eye without any such intent. If phonic symbols could be made pictorial, as they were originally, and as illustrated primers made them in a third and still remoter sense, the irrational elements in learning to read would be largely obviated.
Again, out of 53 children 21 described the tones of certain instruments as colored. For this and other forms of association or analogies of sensations of a large and not yet explored class so common in children, many data for future study were gathered. This was also the case with their powers of time and tone reproduction, and their common errors in articulation, which have suggested other and more detailed researches, some of which are already in progress.
Each child was asked to name three things right and three things wrong to do, and nearly half could do so. In no case were the two confused, indicating not necessarily intuitive perception, but a general consensus in what is allowed and forbidden children at home, and how much better and more 1 In the sense of Bleuler and Lehmann. Dummler, Berlin, Wrong things were specified much more readily and by more children than right things, and also in much greater variety. In about answers 5 3 wrong acts are specified, while in over 3 50 answers only 34 different good acts are named.
The more frequent answers are to mind and be good, or to disobey, be naughty, lie, and say bad words; but the answers of the girls differ from the boys in two marked ways: they more often name specific acts and nearly twice as often conventional ones, the former difference being most common in naming right, the latter in naming wrong, things. Boys say it is wrong to steal, fight, kick, break windows, get drunk, stick pins into others, or to "sass," "cuss," or shoot them; while girls are more apt to say it is wrong not to comb the hair, to get butter on the dress, climb trees, unfold the hands, cry, catch flies, etc.
The right things seem, it must be confessed, comparatively very tame and unattractive, and while the genius of an Aristotle could hardly extract categories or infer intuitions by classification from either list, it is very manifest that the lower strata of conscience are dislike of dirt and fear. Pure intuitionalists may like to know that over a dozen children were found who convinced their questioners that they thought they ought not to say bad words if no one heard them, or lie if not found out, etc. From several hundred drawings, with the name given them by the child written by the teacher, the chief difference inferred is in concentration.
Some make faint, hasty lines, representing all the furniture of a room, or sky and stars, or all the objects they can think of, while others concentrate upon a. It is a girl with buttons, a house with a keyhole or steps, a man with a pipe or heels or ring made grotesquely prominent. The development of observation and sense of form is best seen in the pictures of men. The earliest and simplest representation is a round head, two eyes, and legs.
Later comes mouth, then nose, then hair, then ears. Arms like legs, at first, grow directly from the head, rarely from the legs, and are seldom fingerless, though sometimes it is doubtful whether several arms, or fingers from head and legs without arms, are meant. Of 44 human heads only 9 are in profile. This is one of the many analogies with the rock and cave drawings of primitive man, and suggests how Catlin came to nearly lose his life by "leaving out the other half " in drawing a profile portrait of an Indian chief.
Last, as least mobile and thus attracting least attention, comes the body; first round like the head, then elongated, sometimes prodigiously, and sometimes articulated into several compartments, and in three cases divided, the upper part of the figure being in one place and the lower in another. The mind, and not the eye alone, is addressed, for the body is drawn and then the clothes are drawn on it as the child dresses , diaphanous and only in outline. Most draw living objects, except the kindergarten children, who draw their patterns.
More than two thirds of all objects are decidedly in action, and under i 8 per cent. The very earliest pencilings, commonly of three-year-old children, are mere marks to and fro, often nearly in the same line. Of I3 of these, most were nearly in the angle described by Javal as corresponding to the earliest combination of finger and fore-arm movements, and not far from the regulation slant of 52' taught in school penmanship.
Children of this age are no longer interested in mere animal noises or rhymes or nonsense words of the "Mother Goose" order, but everything to interest them deeply must have a cat, dog, bird, baby, another child, or possibly parent or teacher in it, must be dramatic and full of action, appeal to the eye as a " chalk talk" or an object lesson, and be copious of details, which need be varied but slightly to make the story as good as new for the twentieth time.
A long gradation of abstractions culminates here. First, it is a great lesson for the child to eliminate touch and recognize objects by the eye alone. Neither spoke on their return trip to the bed and breakfast, and she went straight to her room. Why don't you leave me your name, and if Mr.
Monsieur Délire: Simon Whetham, Marteau Rouge, Ielasi/Jaeger, Tomahawk
Bylun believes it in his best interest, he'll return your call. Please don't be surprised if Mr. Bylun opts not to return your call. His phone rang, and he answered, expecting the woman to return his call with a few dozen apologies. She didn't miss the way he bristled but turned her back to him to return to the library. Heartbroken by his return to the slave he was, Sofia was stopped from comforting him by Dustin's grip on her arm. I won't make any deals this trip if you teach me how when I return.
She waited for Darkyn to return but was too scared of what he was capable of doing to open the door and see the damage. I wanted to see what you would do when confronted with the man you thought you were going to return to, he replied. Her mate hesitated then lowered his head, nudging her gently in return in a sign that he wasn't too angry with her. He promised to return in an hour and ferry the group back to Bird Song, which was less than a mile away.
But in spite of their pace, the return trip seemed to take much longer. With renewed caution, the pair followed the chalk arrow, not the stones, expecting any minute to find someone barring their return. If you're going to return to chasing bad guys, you'd better think about getting in shape or you won't be catching any of them. As he neared the softball stands and was about to return to his Jeep when a hand touched his arm. Finally, he doubled back and spent the return trip simply enjoying the country road. After Maria left to return to her duties, the pair lingered at the kitchen table.
In celebration of Fred's return to Bird Song, Dean didn't bother to protest. In spite of the good news of Fred's return , the pall of Martha's continued absence draped over Bird Song. The mating laws from the time-before-time were absolute, but what if Darkyn and Gabriel made their own private deal to return the human Gabriel loved and abandon past-Death to the hands of the Dark One?
Deidre sought to figure out what it was about the currents and subtle movement that kept her in place when she wanted to return to the castle, where it was warm. They were caught in an impossible position: stay loyal to Gabriel and maybe never see the underworld again or deal with the Dark One to return home. She didn't know what to do to return to the heady high she'd been on. She had no way of guaranteeing him that something she'd done wouldn't return to make them both miserable.
She was plotting her return with a chain of events that ended with the human that bore her likeness being turned over to Darkyn. The rest he had built in investments — other than what was in the special savings account drawing interest until he could decide whether to return it or accept the responsibility that went with it. Since they still didn't know why he attacked her or Alex, they considered it possible that he might return. Even the doctor had no idea if or how quickly he would return to normal. The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage.
They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary. Home Sentences return. At home, presents were under the tree, waiting for their return. The return address was the Doctor's office in Chicago. Army physician William Beaumont His observations are made on a sailor who suffered a bullet wound in the stomach that did not quite heal. Inventions The first patent for making false teeth is obtained by W. Arts and Letters Franz Liszt , Hungarian pianist, makes his debut at age Arts and Letters The diorama, paintings illuminated in a dark room to give the illusion of reality, is invented by Daguerre and Bouton.
Economics Cotton mills in Massachusetts begin using water-powered machinery. Daily Life Molly Pitcher, a. Mary McCauley , is awarded a pension by the state of Pennsylvania. Sports Soccer: Yale prohibits the playing of football soccer ; violators are fined. Social Issues Slavery: An informer reveals a plot led by Denmark Vesey , a free black man, for a massive slave uprising in South Carolina.
Thirty-five blacks, including Vessey, are hanged, and severely repressive slave codes are passed in the South. Reform Slavery: Liberia is founded as a colony for blacks fleeing America. Government James Monroe presents his Monroe Doctrine, stating that any attempts by Europeans to interfere in the Americas will be considered an affront to the national interest of the U.
Medicine The first ophthalmology book in the U. Inventions Computers: Early attempts to build a calculating machine computer are made by Charles Babbage Inventions A waterproof fabric is invented by Charles Macintosh Education Teacher Education: The first private normal school for training teachers in the U. Education The first gymnasium offering systematic instruction is started by the Round Hill School in Massachusetts. Gymnastics is scheduled from 5 to 7 p. Sports Football: Football is invented by a year-old British rugby player when, against the rules of rugby, he takes up the ball and runs with it.
Sports Horse Racing: The first great U. Calhoun is re-elected as Vice President. Government Native Americans: The U. Government National Capital: The Capitol Rotunda is completed; it is the connecting space between the House of Representatives and the Senate sides of the building. Education Mary Randolph publishes "The Virginia Housewife," intended to instruct novice wives. Education Emma Willard writes a widely-used textbook, "Ancient Geography. Education The first science and engineering school in the U. Government The U. Government Native Americans: Congress adopts a policy of removal of eastern Indian tribes to territory west of the Mississippi River; whites settle on Indian lands.
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Calhoun is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President. Government Native Americans: A treaty is established between the U. Science Georges Couvier suggests that alterations in the earth causing extinction of whole animal species are associated with great natural catastrophes. Adams, Louisa Louisa Adams becomes the first First Lady to write her autobiography, which she called "Adventures of a Nobody. Economics The New York Stock Exchange opens, trading mostly canal, turnpike, mining, and gas lighting companies.
Discovery Alexander Gordon Laing is the first explorer to reach Timbuktu in what is now Mali. Daily Life Duncan Phyfe begins producing furniture in the Empire style. Reform Labor Movement: In Boston, master carpenters strike for a hour day. Reform Utopian Movement: A community of slaves is organized by Frances Wright , designed to help them get ready for freedom. Politics Third Parties: The first third party in the U. Inventions The first permanent photograph is produced by J. Niepce , a French scientist. Inventions Samuel Morey patents an internal combustion engine.
Inventions The first reflecting telescope is built in the U. Inventions Bassell designs a pendulum that takes exactly one second per swing. Arts and Letters The U. Academy of Design is founded by Samuel F. Morse Lincoln, Mary Mary Todd enters the academy of Dr. John Ward; stays until she is Louis, Missouri. Social Issues Native Americans: The Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Washington, which voids the previous treaty and cedes less land to the government; it requires the Indians to move in Politics Sectional differences in the U. Government Joint occupation of the Oregon territory is agreed upon by the U.
Science The mammalian ovum egg is discovered, proving that mammals do develop from eggs. Education Public Education: Massachusetts requires every town with or more families to establish a public high school. Education The first nautical school in America is opened in Nantucket, Massachusetts. Education Public Education: Massachusetts passes a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge.
Economics Transportation: The first public transit system—horse-drawn busses—appear in New York City. It was the first westward bound railroad in America. It is the second railroad in the U. Daily Life Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides. Daily Life Newspapers: The first newspaper for blacks in the U. Daily Life Cincinnati is considered the Queen City of the west, at least for a time before the rise of Chicago.
Religion The Second Great Awakening, an era of intense, emotional religious revivalism, makes a large impression across the country. Calhoun is re-elected Vice President. Government Railroad History: Congress authorizes the construction of the first state-owned railway in Pennsylvania. Government The so-called Tariff of Abominations, imposing duties on manufactured goods is passed.
Medicine Dr. Hopff first uses the term "hemophilia" in describing the blood disease. Education Noah Webster publishes his "American Dictionary of the English Language," with 70, definitions, including many words derived from immigrant and Native American languages.
Arts and Letters Franz Schubert gives his only public concert in Vienna. She is the first President's wife to die after her husband had been elected to office of President but before he was sworn in and she could become the First Lady. Social Issues Native Americans: American social critic Elizabeth Sanders anonymously publishes a booklet praising Indian culture and condemning its destruction by General Andrew Jackson.
Reform Abolition Movement: Isabella van Wagener c. Politics The practice of awarding political appointments based on party service is introduced by Andrew Jackson Government Andrew Jackson is inaugurated as the 7th President of the U. Inventions Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype, a commonly used form of photography. Inventions The concertina is patented by Sir Charles Wheatstone Inventions An early version of the typewriter is patented by William Austin Burt Education The first American encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Americana ins published.
Education Special Education: Louis Braille adapts a communication system used by the French military. Ann was author of "My Mother" and Jane of "Twinkle, twinkle, little star. Many historians believe he committed suicide. Economics The first modern hotel, the Tremont, opens in Boston with rooms. Daily Life Second Great Awakening: In part stimulated by the Second Great Awakening, crusader Sylvester Graham attacks meats, fats, catsup, mustard, pepper, and white bread as stimulating carnal appetites.
Government Presidents: Chester A. Arthur , 21st President of the U. Science Charles Lyell organizes the geological system into three groups: eocene, miocene, and pliocene. Inventions Frenchman, B. Thimonnier , invents a sewing machine. Education African American Education: By this time, most southern states have laws forbidding teaching people in slavery to read. Even so, around 5 percent become literate at great personal risk. Arts and Letters Hector Berlioz writes his "Symphonie fantastique.
Fillmore, Abigail The Fillmore family moves to Buffalo; both parents are active in efforts to improve public education and establish a public library system there. Since he remained a bachelor, Harriet Lane served as his First Lady during his time in office. It was the first complete.
Economics Population: The fifth national census puts the population at It was the first completely American-built steam engine to go into scheduled passenger service. Daily Life Sylvester Graham invents the graham cracker, which becomes a favorite of children everywhere. Constitution that plans to scrap the ship are cancelled. Government Presidents: James A.
Garfield , 20th President of the U. Government U. Science Charles Darwin sails on the H. Beagle, a trip on which he conceives the idea of evolution. Science Michael Farraday develops the electromagnetic generator. Inventions An early version of the mechanical reaper is developed by Cyrus McCormick Technology Airplanes: Thomas Walker proposes a tandem-wing airoplane with the pilot and the propulsion system amidships. This would later influence Samuel Langley as he designed his aerodromes.
Miller Stewart , an African American orator, exhorts African Americans to become educated and fight for their rights; she speaks out at a time when very few women are able to speak in public. Hayes — , is born August 28 in Chillicothe, Ohio. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: The 3. Economics Transportation: The Canadian paddle steamer, Royal William, cross the Atlantic with steam as the prime source of drift. However, her engines had to be stopped every few days because they had to be scraped from the accumulated salt deposits from the seawater used in her boilers.
Sports Horse Racing: A popular racing sheet, the "Spirit of the Times," is established by William Trotter; its aim is to improve the reputation of racing and other sports. Social Issues Immigration: German immigration to the U. Social Issues Slavery: Nat Turner leads an unsuccessful slave uprising. Social Issues Slavery: The term "underground railroad" becomes widely used. Politics Third Parties: For the first time in American history, a third party challenges the major two parties. William Wirt — of the Anti-Masonic Party carries 8 percent of the vote and one state.
Government John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President to resign from office; he runs successfully for the Senate. Government States in the South begin a series of nullification acts, attempting to redefine their relationship to the federal government. War Indian Wars: U. Medicine The dissection of cadavers in medical schools is legalized in Massachusetts. Inventions Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper. Arts and Letters The Boston Academy of Music offers free music lessons to children, adults, and teachers.
Garfield — , is born on April 19 in Hiram, Ohio. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: "The Brother Jonathon" was the first locomotive in the world to have a four-wheel leading truck; it was designed by John B. Reform The first work to treat women in a completely distinctive way, "The History of Women," is published. Government Congress gives President Jackson the power to use the armed forces to enforce the tariff laws; South Carolina rescinds its nullification acts after a compromise on tariffs is reached.
Science Michael Farraday coins the terms electrolysis, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Goodrich Royal William crosses the Atlantic in 25 days. Daily Life Newspapers: The first "penny press," the "New York Sun," makes newspapers widely available, thus helping the spread of literacy. This is a twice-monthly magazine, founded by Samuel Griswold Goodrich It emphasized geography, travel, natural history, and simple technology, along with Bible stories. Sports Baseball: An early form of baseball is played by the Olympic Ball Club in Philadelphia; most rules are like those of English cricket.
David Crockett, of West Tennessee. Reform Labor Movement: Shoemakers in Geneva, New York, go on strike; they win, but a later court case declares strikes to be illegal. Government Andrew Jackson removes federal deposits from the Bank of the U. Senate censures Andrew Jackson for taking federal deposits from the Bank of the U. Science Amalgam a mercury alloy is introduced as a filling material for decayed teeth.
Medicine An antidote for arsenic poisoning is discovered by Robert Bunsen Inventions The mechanical reaper is patented by Cyrus H. McCormick Inventions Computers: Charles Babbage invents the principle of the "analytical engine," which is the forerunner of the computer. Inventions Jacob Perkins invents an early refrigerator really an early ice machine.
Education Special Education: French teacher Louis Braille invents a system of printed raised dots that enables the blind to read. Lincoln, Mary Abraham Lincoln enters politics in the Illinois legislature at the age of Economics Twenty-eight million acres of public land are offered for sale to those who wish to move west. Daily Life Tomatoes are begun to be eaten in the U. Sports Baseball: The first printed rules for a game much like baseball are found in the Book of Sports.
Sports Women in Sports: The first modern Lacrosse games are played. Lacrosse will become a major new sports opportunity for women in the 's with many colleges offering scholarship dollars. The original game was played by North American Indians. Popular Culture Madame Tussaud opens her wax museum in London. Reform Labor Movement: The Factory Girls Association is organized in the Lowell textile mills; women workers stage their first strike, which fails. Inventions Computers: Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator.
Education Education of Women: Harriet Hunt c. Education Education of Women: Education for girls is established in Panama. Ideas Alexis de Tocqueville publishes his "Democracy in America," a work that is still quoted today. Cause of death is unknown. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: 1, miles of railroad tracks are in use in the U. Popular Culture P. Barnum begins his career as a showman in the U.
Reform Prison Reform: Mt. Reform Abolition Movement: Censorship efforts in Southern states expel abolitionists and forbid the mailing of antislavery propaganda. Reform Abolition Movement: Pro- and anti-slavery mobs clash in Charleston, South Carolina, in Boston, and in New York; in Boston, the pro-slavery attackers take William Lloyd Garrison and parade him through the streets with a rope around his neck.
He is confirmed by the Senate in and serves for twenty-eight years, the second-longest tenure of any Chief Justice. Politics Martin Van Buren is elected as the 8th U. President and Richard M. Johnson is elected as the nation's 9th Vice President. War Mexican Wars: The battle of the Alamo takes placeover 13 days; less than defenders are finally defeated by 2, Mexican soldiers.
Science Pepsin, the powerful ferment in gastric juice, is recognized by the German physiologist, Theodor Schwann Education Public Education: Child labor laws in Massachusetts require children to attend school for at least three months a year until they are Education Special Education: Laura Bridgman becomes the first deaf-mute taught to communicate at the Perkins Institute. Ideas The first meeting of the Transcendentalist Club is held in Boston.
Madison, Dolley James Madison dies at the Madisons' home at Montpelier, and is buried there. Fillmore, Abigail Millard Fillmore is elected again as a Representative to Congress; serves until Pierce, Jane Franklin Pierce Jr. Economics American Money: With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1, local state-chartered, private banks now issue paper money. Social Issues Slavery: Texas wins independence from Mexico and legalizes slavery. Free blacks and mulattos are forbidden from entering the state.
Reform Labor Movement: At age 11, mill worker Harriet Jane Hanson Robinson leads her young co-workers out in support of older workers striking in protest over wage cuts. Reform Abolition Movement: There are active abolitionist societies in the North. Government President Andrew Jackson recognizes the Republic of Texas on his last day in office, thereby preventing its admission as a slave territory.
Government Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the 8th U. Johnson is inaugurated as the nation's 9th Vice President. Science French mathematician Simeon Denis Poissson develops the rules of probability by studying the incidence of death from mule kicks in the French army. Inventions English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill invents the postage stamp. Edmund Dwight , a major industrialist, thinks a state board of education was so important to factory owners that he offered to supplement the state salary with extra money of his own. Education Freidrich Froebel establishes the first kindergarten in Germany.
Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts, one of the first colleges for women. Economics The economic Panic of is felt across the nation. Many people are out of work. She is the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace. Sports Women in Sports: Donald Walker's book, "Exercise for Ladies," warns women against horseback riding, because it deforms the lower part of the body.
Government Slavery: John Calhoun , Senator from South Carolina, introduces resolutions in the Senate affirming the legality of slavery. Science The idea that cells are the basic building blocks of all living things is advanced. Spencer Technology Samuel Morse gives the first demonstration of the telegraph. Education French philosopher Auguste Comte gives the discipline of sociology its name. Arts and Letters Literature: Author James Fenimore Cooper publishes two novels criticizing American democracy; he is roundly criticized.
Economics Transportation: The British steamship Sirius crosses the Atlantic solely on steam power in 18 days, 10 hours. Economics Transportation: The British liner Great Western sails from England on her maiden voyage; she is the first to cross the Atlantic regularly. Daily Life The coronation of Queen Victoria takes place a year after she ascends the throne. Social Issues Native Americans: Fifteen thousand Cherokee Indians remaining in Georgia are moved by federal troops miles westward in what becomes known as "the Trail of Tears.
Reform Women's Suffrage: Widows with school-age children are allowed to vote in school board elections in Kentucky. He loses. Government The kingdom of Belgium is recognized by all countries of Europe. Inventions The first bicycle is constructed by Scottish inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan Technology Louis Daguerre takes the first photograph of the moon. Technology Telegraph inventor Samuel F.
Morse makes the first daguerreotype portraits to be produced in the U.
Kids & Y.A.
Education The Lowell Institute in Boston is founded to provide free lectures by eminent scholars. Education Teacher Education: The first public normal school teachers' college is founded in Lexington, Massachusetts. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison moves back to Montpelier to try farming.
Ninian , in Springfield, Illinois; she meets Abraham Lincoln there at a dance. Tyler, Julia Julia Gardner Tyler is the first President's wife to pose for a department store advertisement. Economics The manufacture of rubber is pioneered by Charles Goodyear Daily Life Magazines: The Lowell mill girls begin publishing "The Lowell Offering," a monthly magazine of poetry, fiction, and essays that becomes internationally known. Sports Baseball: Abner Doubleday lays out the first baseball field and the first game is played.
Government Stamps: The first postage stamps appear in Britain, bearing Queen Victoria's profile. Brazil is the second nation to have postage stamps. Science Louis Agassiz publishes a work on the movements and effects of glaciers. Science James Joule develops the idea that energy can be converted from one state to another, but cannot be destroyed. Mary-of-the-Woods College is founded in Indiana as the first of many women's institutions that are established by Catholic Sisters and is chartered in Education Public Education: Irish Catholics in New York City struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their children from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum.
Ideas Margaret Fuller becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcentalist publication. Adams, Abigail "Selected letters" by Abigail Adams on social, political, and other matters are published. Economics Transportation: The Cunard steamship line is established, the first with scheduled transatlantic sailings. Economics Population: The sixth national census shows a population of more than 17 million; , immigrants have arrived since , , from Ireland.
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Daily Life History of Toys: The first American dollmaker is granted a patent and dolls begin to be mass-produced in America for the first time. Sports The game of bowling called nine pins becomes popular in the U. Popular Culture The expression, "O. Social Issues Immigration: Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States, driven out of their homes in Ireland by the potato famine. Social Issues Native Americans: An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.
Reform Labor Movement: The hour day is established for federal employees by a Presidential order. Law Slavery: Affirming a strong argument made by John Quincy Adams , the Supreme Court rules that the slaves who took over the Amistad may be freed. Thirty-five freed men return to Africa. Their efforts are thwarted by Governor Manuel Armijo Medicine James Braid , Scottish surgeon, investigates the use of hypnosis. Education Education of Women: Oberlin College in Ohio is the first to grant college degrees to women.
Education New England transcendentalists found the commune and school, Brook Farm. His Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific, first published in three volumes in Harrison, Anna Anna Symmes Harrison is the first President's wife to never get to see or live in the White House because her husband, William Henry Harrison, died before she could join him there.
President Harrison delivered the longest inaugural address minutes on a very cold winter day and contracted pneumonia. Social Issues Slavery: Texas gives its citizens the right and responsibility to apprehend runaway slaves and turn them over to the law so that they may be returned to their owners or sold at auction. Social Issues Slavery: Slaves aboard the U. Creole take over the ship and sail it to Nassau, where they become free. Government American author Washington Irving is appointed ambassador to Spain. Medicine The first surgery using an anesthetic—ether—is performed by Dr.
Crawford Long of Georgia. Ideas Ralph Waldo Emerson becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcendentalist publication. She is the first First Lady to die during her husband's presidency. Hunt, rules that trade union are not illegal, the striking for a closed shop is legal, and that unions cannot be held responsible for illegal actions by individuals. Inventions A U. Ideas Soren Kierkegaard lays the foundations for existentialism by stressing the primacy of the individualand the inevitability of suffering.
Daily Life Fashion: A new form of female dress--bloomers--is introduced by Amelia Bloomer - Ives in Salem, Massachusetts. It becomes the first board game sold in the United States. Religion Sojourner Truth becomes a traveling evangelical preacher. Reform Mental Health Movement: Dorothea Dix pushes reforms in the way mental health patients are treated through the Massachusetts legislature.
Government The first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce is signed by the U. War A gun on the new frigate Princeton, being demonstrated by the U. Navy, explodes, killing the Secretaries of State and the Navy, as well as other government officials. Technology Charles Goodyear receives a patent for rubber vulcanization. Technology Samuel F. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison sells Montpelier and is the first First Lady to be granted a permanent seat on the floor of the House of Representatives.
Lincoln, Mary Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln buy a home from the Episcopal minister who had married them. This will prove to be the only home the couple ever own. Tyler, Julia Julia Gardner is the first woman to marry an American President while he was in office. Sports Cricket: The first official international cricket match is played: Canada vs.
United States. Religion Brigham Young is chosen to replace Joseph Smith as leader of the Mormons. Government Congress establishes the first week in November for election day; the harvest is over but the roads are still passable. Senate overrides a presidential veto for the first time. Technology Airplanes: William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow attempt to form the Aerial Transit Company, which if only they had a practical airplane , would have been the world's first airline.
To drum up support, they build and test a model of Henson's aerial carriage with a foot wingspan. It makes brief glides, but does not sustain flight. Education The first written examinations in elementary schools begin in Boston. Education Higher Education: The U. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD. Ideas Margaret Fuller publishes Women in the Nineteenth Century, an expansion of her earlier essay calling for equality for women. Hayes, Lucy Lucy Webb attends classes at Ohio Wesleyan and receives some credits from the College, although female students are not officially enrolled there.
Polk, Sarah Sarah Childress Polk is the first First Lady to be "selected" by the previous President for her position President Tyler told newly elected James Polk that he needed to get married and should marry Sarah. As a result of this selection, Sarah is the first First Lady to serve as her husband's personal secretary.
Economics Power looms for weaving carpets and tapestries are built by Erastus Bigelow This is a book of religious advice on behavior in the family, written as from one teenage girl to another. Social Issues Immigration: The potato crop fails in Europe, hitting Ireland especially hard; Irish immigrants continue to flock to the U. War Mexican War: The U. William Morton , a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anesthesia for tooth extraction. Inventions Elias Howe receives a patent for his sewing machine. House of Representatives. Religion The American Missionary Association is founded, combining Protestant evangelicalism with abolitionism.
Americans then wrestle with a controversial topic: Should slavery be permitted in the new lands? Reform Capital Punishment: Michigan becomes the first state to outlaw capital punishment. Government Liberia, colonized by American ex-slaves, becomes the first independent republic in Africa. Government Stamps: United States stamps debut. The first two feature George Washington and Ben Franklin Science Maria Mitchell discovers a new comet which is named after her. Science Joseph Leidy suggests that the environment affects changes evolution within a species.
Medicine Childbirth assisted by anesthetic chloroform first takes place. Medicine Antiseptics are developed by Ignaz Semmelweis , a Hungarian. Inventions The ophthalmoscope is invented by Charles Babbage Fillmore, Abigail The Fillmore family moves to Albany when Fillmore is elected state comptroller; the children are away at boarding school and college. Daily Life Newspapers: The telegraph is used to transfer stories over great distances, thus making news more immediate.
Social Issues Immigration: Irish immigration reaches ,, 3 times more than the year before. Reform Abolition Movement: Frederick Douglass , escaped ex-slave, begins publishing his abolitionist newspaper, the North Star. Politics Zachary Taylor is elected 12th President of the U. He wins 10 percent of the popular vote, and is credited with siphoning off enough votes from Democratic candidate Lewis Cass to help Whig candidate Zachary Taylor win the election.
Science Maria Mitchell becomes the first woman to be elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Inventions Margaret Mattie Knight 10 invents a stop-motion device to keep shuttles from sliding out of the looms and injuring workers. Inventions Chewing gum is invented by John B. Curtis — of Maine. Education Education of Women: A medical school for women opens with 12 students in Boston. Education Public Education: Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent.
This begins a long tradition of "reform schools," which combine the education and juvenile justice systems. It also guarantees the continued use of the Spanish language, including in education. One hundred fifty years later, in , California breaks that treaty, by passing Proposition , which would make it illegal for teachers to speak Spanish in public schools.
Education Libraries: Boston Public Library becomes the first publicly supported major urban library. She refused to ever have it made. Hayes for the first time when he is visiting her town with his mother. She begins college at the Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College this year as well.
Economics Gold is first discovered in California, in Sutter's mill. After President Polk announces the news in December, the gold rush begins soon after. Daily Life Niagara Falls stops flowing for the first time in history because of an ice jam in the Niagara River. Government Zachary Taylor is inaugurated as the 12th President of the U. Government Thomas Ewing of Ohio is appointed as the first Secretary of the Interior, a department created to meet the needs of western settlers.
Science Jeffries Wyman describes the similarities between the skeletons of apes and humans. Medicine Women's Firsts: Female doctors are permitted to practice medicine for the first time in the U. Inventions Mary Ann Woodward patents a fan that attaches to a rocking chair.