Based on this definition, osteopathic medicine defines a distinctive set of tenets which osteopathic physicians use to formulate their approach to patient care. These tenets are:. From these tenets the osteopathic physician derives certain principles for patient care.
These principles state that 1 the patient is the focus for healthcare; 2 the patient has the primary responsibility for his or her health; and 3 an effective treatment program for patient care is founded on the above-mentioned tenets. Thus the osteopathic physician uses a health-oriented and patient-centered philosophy to implement the principles of osteopathic medicine in the care of the patient.
On a practical level, the osteopathic physician may organize osteopathic philosophy and principles according to a conceptual framework organized into five areas, often referred to as five models, for consideration. Each model allows the osteopathic physician to consider:. The Mechanical Model This model deals with factors that alter posture, motion and gait. These factors include altered joint relationships, muscle imbalances hyper- and hypotonicity , and abnormal fascial tensions.
These somatic dysfunctions can cause or contribute to adverse neurologic and circulatory functions. A wide range of osteopathic manipulative treatment OMT techniques can assist in alleviating these stressors. These OMT techniques include: high velocity-low amplitude, muscle energy, articular and functional techniques, among others. The Neurologic Model The neurologic model deals with the effects of facilitated spinal cord segments and sustained symphaticotonia, resulting in viscerosomatic and somatovisceral reflex phenomena.
Goals of treatment within this model include: restorating autonomic balance, alleviation of segmental facilitation, decreasing or eliminating abnormal afferent signaling, and relief of pain.
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Various OMT techniques can be used here, but some modalities that are thought to be especially effective within the neurological model include counterstrain and the treatment of Chapman reflex points. The Respiratory-Circulatory Model This model addresses altered respiratory mechanics which may predispose to congestive changes, decreased lymphatic flow, venous return and edema formation.
These adverse changes can lead to insufficient oxygen and nutrient distribution to tissues, reduced venous and lymphatic return, impaired immune system function and insufficient removal of metabolic waste products from the body. Somatic dysfunctions relative to this model include altered rib cage mechanics and restricted motion of the thoracic diaphragm and other functional diaphragms of the body.
Commonly used OMT modalities for this model include osteopathy in the cranial field, myofascial release and lymphatic pump techniques. The Metabolic-Nutritional Model The metabolic-nutritional model takes into consideration such things as dietary deficiencies and excesses, food allergies, the effect of toxins, and any other factors that may affect the self-regulatory and self-healing mechanisms of the body. In this model a major emphasis is on such things as nutritional counseling, dietary advice, avoiding of obesity and encouraging exercise.
Lymphatic pump techniques can be useful here, as they have been shown to positively affect the immune system. In particular, stress is a well known cause or contributor to hypertension. Thus, reduction of stress factors can contribute to the ultimate control of hypertension in some patients. This might include teaching the patient strategies for stress reduction, helping the patient improve his or her abilities for social interaction, and helping the patient improve his or her spiritual outlook.
OMT is not commonly a part of the treatment approach in this model, although some osteopathic physicians advocate the use of OMT to improve autonomic balance for these patients, thus secondarily helping to relieve stress on the body. Trowbridge, C. Still, A. Kirksville: published by the author, , p. Education of the Osteopathic Physician. Glossary aof Osteopathic Terminology. In: Chila, AG. Executive Ed. Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine 3rd Ed.
Rogers, FJ, Advancing a traditional view of osteopathic medicine through clinical practice. J Am Osteopath Assoc. Educational Council on Osteopathic Principles. Core Curriculum Outline.
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Optional Comments max. Send securely. Message sent successfully The details of this article have been emailed on your behalf. Table of contents What is osteopathy? Uses What to expect Benefits Risks. Fast facts about osteopathy Osteopathy uses a drug-free, non-invasive form of manual medicine that focuses on the health of the whole body, not just the injured or affected part. The osteopathic physician focuses on the joints, muscles, and spine.
Osteopathic intervention can help treat arthritis , back pain , headaches , tennis elbow , digestive issues, and postural problems. Treatment can also assist with sleep cycles and the nervous, circulatory, and lymphatic symptoms. Osteopathy includes manipulation or joints to treat whole systems of the body. An osteopath will first of all fully assess a patient's health to work out what treatment is needed in the sessions. Osteopathy can help a person sleep when chronic pain has been causing insomnia. Related coverage. Additional information.
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Practice of osteopathy: Its practical application to the various diseases of the human body
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