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Thus, contrary to academic and popular discourses in the animal, primate and human research on the alpha personality, for the human alpha female, perhaps social and sexual dominance are understood and perceived differently, or do not factor at all. The results also add to recent research on leadership which demonstrates that it is advantageous for both male and female leaders to have masculine and feminine attributes [ ]. They also challenge the often-assumed inextricable link, and interchangeable use, of the concepts of leadership and the alpha female.
The results of the present research are subject to several important limitations. Firstly, the present study relies on self-identification as the method of identifying alpha and non-alpha women and does not include data on how those women would be identified by their peers. The degree to which individuals and groups are perceived by others or non-group members represents another dimension [ ]. As such, though some women may self-identify as alpha female, this identification may or may not align with the perceptions and beliefs of others [ ].
Future research that considers the opinions and perceptions of non-alpha women and men, of particular self-identified alpha women may also provide insight into the social construction of the alpha female identity. As data were collected through the survey, focus groups and interviews, self-identified alpha females were not observed in their natural environments limiting the insight into the potential variation in the expression of the identity.
Humans have complex social lives and operate in varying contexts, belong to different social groups and hierarchies, and perform a variety of social roles [ 32 ]. Within this context, self-identifying as alpha female may not necessarily mean that she is all alpha, all of the time. For example, in two studies conducted with approximately college students men and women , Hawley and Hensley [ 37 ] found that when it comes to connecting on a sexual level with dominant or alpha males, women who identified as alpha, preferred forceful submission fantasies more than women who identified as subordinate [ 37 ].
Similarly, others have found that although alpha females like to stay in control in the bedroom, they are willing to relinquish this control to men when it suits them [ 15 , 98 ]. Thus, the alpha female does not always choose to be alpha in every context. Further, people tend to value those hierarchies in which they are ranked the highest.
For example, a person who works in the mailroom of their company and is the top baseball player on the company team, may derive more self-esteem from the latter hierarchy [ 32 ]. Additionally, depending upon the context, people also tend to alter the psychological meaning of a rank [ 32 ]. For example, a novice runner who completes a marathon would be more pleased with themselves than a person who was expecting to win but placed 5 th [ 32 ].
Future ethnographic research focused on the daily lived experiences and the various contexts of the alpha female may provide greater insight into the potential fluidity and variation in the expression of the alpha female identity. Although measures of sex frequency, sex enjoyment, dominant role in sexual encounters, initiation of sex, and sexual experience were included in the present study, data on the type of sexual activity performed were not collected.
To date, research on the type of sexual activity with respect to the alpha female identity has not been undertaken. There has been some research however, which has demonstrated that some forms of sexual activity positively contribute to life satisfaction i. The present study is also limited by non-random sampling, and therefore may include some bias, the nature of which is unknown. It is also potentially limited by small sample sizes for both the non-alpha and alpha sampling groups.
It is therefore possible the results do not accurately reflect the differences between these groups of women in North America. The non-random small sample also limits the potential to generalize to a larger population beyond the scope of the present study. Use of the BSRI also poses a limitation.
In some cases, the BSRI has been shown not to be a valid measurement of psychological androgyny due to localized constructions of masculinity and femininity [ ]. Thus, the BSRI may not accurately reflect gender expression in other cultures and societies for example, matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau of Indonesia [ ] and the Mosuo of China [ ].
Examining the alpha female construct in such societies may require a modification of the current BSRI to accommodate for such cross-cultural differences. Data on sexual orientation was not collected or examined as a potential influencer of social hierarchy. The present research examined hierarchy strictly in the sense of being exhibited through social dominance. An examination of how social rank is expressed through such aspects and how they may or may not intersect with the identity itself may provide more context to the alpha female as a value-laden identity.
The present research contributes to and has direct implications for future leadership and alpha-leadership research. While some claim leadership for these individuals is social dominance [ 38 ], others contend that such leadership has little to do with it [ ]. Similarly, when it comes to identifying alpha males and females there seems to be confusion. According to [ 88 ], it is easy to spot an alpha male in the workplace, but spotting an alpha female is more challenging.
They argue that different alpha females may possess some but not all of the traits possessed by alpha males [ 88 ]. Irrespective of the confusion, leaders in organizations and other leaders such as politicians, exercise influence over others; play a lead role in goal-setting, goal achievement, and the development of a group or organization; and are regarded as the leader by other members of the group [ 17 ].
The present research therefore also serves as a framework within which to also evaluate the alpha male within this context. Further, a comparison of the alpha male and female will provide invaluable and quantifiable insight into the notion of alpha leadership. It is argued that in an effort to engage in the gender-equality discourse, such assumptions have contributed to the notion that the alpha female is the female representation of her male counterpart, the alpha male. In turn, this has added to the discourse that leadership and being alpha female are inextricably linked.
Whether women identify as alpha female or not, or whether women consider the alpha female as a valid identity at all, has not been considered previously. The present research is thus significant as it is the first to use self-identification to identify alpha females as opposed to identification through predetermined and assumed alpha female behavior traits, including leadership. Additionally, the present research is the first to validate the alpha female as a valid and socially constructed positive female identity in Western society and to identify specific male personality traits aggressive, ambitious, assertive, competitive, and independent as predictors of alpha female status.
In asking women themselves what they think about the alpha female what has come to light is that some descriptions of the alpha female hold true while others do not. In particular, the absence of social dominance as a predictor of alpha female status in the study sample a major finding, warrants a refocus of our understanding of the alpha female as a dominant individual in society. The findings also add to the leadership research, namely that female leaders in the workplace i. For those that do, there are other traits including non-masculine traits to consider.
Contrary to popular narratives, for the study population, the alpha female does not necessarily have sex more frequently than other women though she is more experienced and enjoys sex more. She does not necessarily make more money or is more educated than other women, and she does not necessarily hold a senior position in her workplace. She reports being strong and extroverted and being aggressive, ambitious, assertive, competitive, and independent however, not at the expense of being affectionate, gentle, loyal, sensitive to the needs of others, and understanding. The results of the present study revealed that the human alpha female is far more complex when its social construction and measurable expression of the identity are included in the discourse.
This suggests that current understandings, popularized notions, and academic research on the alpha female are incomplete, and as such, have ramifications for research that seek to identify or categorize women to a specific female identity. I would like to thank Dr. Michael Schillaci, Dr. Maggie Cummings, and Dr. Sandra Bamford of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Toronto Scarborough for their support, advice, and critical input in the examination of the alpha woman construct.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Funding: The author s received no specific funding for this work. Participants, recruitment and exclusion A survey of 96 questions designed to collect data on all variables was developed and made available to women aged 18 years of age and older on the website surveymonkey. Collaboration Inventory CI —persuasiveness, consensus-building, coalition-building, and networking abilities. Sexual dominance aspects—frequency, dominant role, sexual experience, initiating, and enjoying sex.
Life satisfaction and social capital. Statistical analyses Descriptive statistics including the mean, median and standard deviation were run for all variables. Results Textual analysis The following themes were revealed by the textual analysis using NVivo [ ]. Assessing the social construction of the alpha female To assess social construction of the alpha female identity, levels of association for 3 specific questions were calculated see Table 1.
Download: PPT. Table 2. Associations between self-identified alpha and non-alpha females for identity occupation and management position. Expression of the alpha female identity To test the expression of the alpha female identity univariate analyses were conducted Table 3. Table 3. Result from univariate analyses for the self-identified alpha and non-alpha female groups. Table 4. Table 5. Limitations and future research The results of the present research are subject to several important limitations. Conclusions The present research contributes to and has direct implications for future leadership and alpha-leadership research.
Supporting information. S1 Fig. S2 Fig. S1 File. Search terms for data queries. S2 File. Social dominance orientation scale. S3 File. Rosenberg self esteem scale. S4 File. S5 File. Collaboration Index CI. S6 File. Alpha female sexuality profile. S7 File. S8 File. Acknowledgments I would like to thank Dr. References 1. Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. New York: Harper and Row; Our inner ape: A leading primatologist explains why we are who we are. New York: Riverhead Books; With a little help from a friend. PLoS Biol ; 5 7 : E, 1—3.
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