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Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. It appears from the Memoirs of his Life and Writings, written by his grandson, the late Dr. Charles O'Conor, p. O'Conor would never have acknowledged this pamphlet to be his production, were it not that his correspondence with Reilly, the pub- lisher of it, obliged him to acquiesce.

In this pamphlet Mr. Anno Domini In this tract, however, the word is clearly used to de- note " anything or act forbidden, because of the ill luck which would result from its doing:" " Aruspex vetuit ante brumam aliquid novi negotii accipere. It also means a spell or charm. It is used here as the antithesis of aba. This is still the living Irish word for victory. When applied to plants or herbs in medical MSS. See the Battle ofMagh Rath, pp. Goct: in the Sing. In a MS. The word 66 is still used in every part of Ireland to denote good luck or success. Whether the customs and popular beliefs or superstitions, recorded in this poem, had ever been drawn up into a code before O'Lochain's time, it would now be difficult to determine ; but we find a collection of the xlvi Introduction.

Many of those matters are clearly of Pagan origin, and the reference to the king of Leinster drinking by the light of wax candles in the palace of Dinn Riogh, shows that the poet considered some of these customs as in existence from the most remote period of Irish history, as the kings of Leinster had not resided at Dinn Riogh since the introduction of Chris- tianity, for they deserted it for Nas Naas at a very remote period.

The prohibition, " that the sun should not find him in his couch at Teamhair," has also reference to a period many centuries anterior to O'Lochain's time; for the monarchs of Ireland had not resided at Teamhair or Tara since about the year , when it was cursed by St. Ruadhan, or Rodanus, of Lothra. See MS. Its abandon- ment is also mentioned in the Danish work called the Konungs-Skugg- sio quoted in Johnstone's Antiq. From these facts it is quite obvious that some of those customs were regarded by the poet as derived from the most remote periods, and that the observ- ance of them in his own time was reckoned absolutely necessary to the welfare of the monarch and the provincial kings.

We recollect little in Irish history to guide us to the origin of many of the curious restrictions here recorded ; but it is quite ob- vious that some of them have arisen from precaution, others from a recollection of mischances. Such restrictions are not without parallels in the observances of other nations, and there are many maxims of a similar kind known to prevail even among wealthy classes in the present day, to an extent that is seldom acknowledged. The prohibition against beginning any new under taking on a Friday is quite a gets of the class mentioned in our text.

The prohibition against sitting down to dinner, thirteen at table, is particularly remarkable, and every shift is commonly made to avoid or escape from it, with a real apprehension that, if the fatal number be complete, one of the party will surely die within the twelvemonth. So the prohibition that the bridegroom's mother shall not go to church with the bridal party is strictly submitted to ; she must not be present at the marriage ceremony anywhere — at church or at home ; and though the parties concerned be in the habit of caning such beliefs " superstitious," yet, when it comes to the point in this matter in their own case, it will be found that the geis will not be violated.

Addison, in the Spectator, has a paper relevant to this point, in which he adduces curious instances of English superstitions, and tracts of the present day are not wanting, giving particular evidence on the same subject. Observances of a like nature were common among the Pagan na- tions of what is considered classical antiquity, as we learn from their writers : " Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non lreva fuisset, De csbIo tactas memini prredicere quercus.

Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice comix. Eumenidesque satse ; turn partu Terra nefando Caeumque Iapetumque creat, saevumque Typhoea, Et conjuratos caelum rescindere fratres. The origin of the adha or buadha may be similarly accounted for. Some of them savour strongly of Pagan notions. On the Division of the Year among the ancient Irish. As the seasons of the year are frequently mentioned in this book, it will be well here to add a few words on the divisions of the year among the ancient Irish. That the year of Pagan Irish was luni-solar, consisting, like that of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, of days and six hours: 2.

That it was divided by them, as it is at present into four rathaov quarters, known by the names of Samh-ratha, Foghmhar-raiha, Geimk-ratha, and Iar-ratha, now corruptly Earrach, or summer, autumn, winter, and spring ; the first of these quarters commencing at the vernal equinox, the second at the summer solstice, the third at the autumnal equinox, and the fourth at the winter sol- stice; 3.

That at the beginning of each of these ratha a religious festi- val was celebrated, but that the periods when they were celebrated were changed by the early Christians, to agree with the Christian festivals, and to obliterate the recollection of the origin of the Pagan rites which they were not able utterly to abolish.

That such a change was made he infers from a passage occurring in all the old Lives of St. Patrick, which states that Patrick lighted the Paschal fire at Slane in , at the same time that King Laeghaire was celebrating the festival of Bealltaine at Teamhair ; which would be fair enough if the fire were Introduction. O'Conor's inference wants the vis consequential. In the oldest Life of St.

Patrick extant, namely, that by Mocutenius, preserved in the Book of Armagh, the fire lighted by the king of Teamhair, and Patrick's Paschal fire, are mentioned as follows : " Contigit vero in illo anno, idolatries sollempnitatem quam gentiles incantationibus multis, et magicis inventionibus, nonnullis aliis idola- trias superstitionibus, congregatis etiam regibus, satrapis, ducibus, principibus, et optimatibus populi, insuper et magis, incantatoribus, auruspicibus, et omnis artis omnisque doli inventoribus doctoribusque vocatis ad Loigaireum, velut quondam ad Nabcodonossor regem, in Temoria, istorum Babylone, exercere consuerant, eadem nocte qua Sanctus Patricius Pasca, illi illam adorarent exercentque festivitatem gentilem.

Gbancap eemio occa lp in inub pin pepcop na Cape. A fire is kindled by him at that place on Easter eve. Laeghaire is enraged as he sees the lire, for that was the gets [prohibition] of Teamhair among the Gaedhhil ; d 1 Introduction. O'Conor's inference, it is plain that the fire lighted at Teamhair is not called Bealltaine in either of them.

Author: [unknown]

It should be also added that it is not so called in any of the Lives of Patrick. According to a vellum MS. The probability then is, that the fire lighted at Teamhair, on Easter eve, A. Patrick, published by Colgan, that it was the Feis Teamhrach, or Feast of Teamhair, that Laeghaire and his satraps were celebrating on this occasion ; while the author of the Life of St.

Patrick in the Book of Lismore, asserts that Laeghaire was then celebrating the festival of his own nativity, which appears to have been the truth, and if so it was not the regular sep- tennial Feis a , which met after Samhain, but one convened to celebrate the kings birth-day. From these notices it is quite clear that O'Conor's inference, that the Bealltaine was lighted on the 21st of March by the Pagan Irish, is not sustained. In the accounts given of the Bealltaine a This is usually called triennial, as in of L.

See also the poem, p. H in Cormac's Glossary, and in H. But Dr. O'Conor argues that this name was applied in Pagan times to the 21st of March, and that it was transferred to the first of May by the early Christians, to agree with a Christian festival. This, however, is contrary to the tradition which still prevails in many parts of Ireland, namely, that the fires lighted in Pagan times, on the first of May, were transferred by St.

Patrick to the 24th of June, in honor of St. John the Baptist, on the eve of whose festival they still light bonfires in every county in Ireland, and not on the first of May, except in Dublin, where they continue to light them on the 1st of May also. The observances still practised on May-day which have no connexion whatever with Christianity and the traditions pre- served in the country respecting it, found a strong argument that it must have been a Pagan festival, while the 21st of March is not remark- able for any observances. The same may be observed of Samhain, the 1 st of November, on which, according to all the Irish authorities, the Druidic fires were lighted at Tlachtgha.

The Editor is, therefore, con- vinced that Dr. O'Conor has thrown no additional light on the division of the year among the Pagan Irish, for his conjecture respecting the agreement of the Paschal fire of St. Patrick with the Bealltaine of the Pagan Irish is visionary, inasmuch as it is stated in the second life by Probus that it was the Feis Teamhrach that Laeghaire was then cele- brating.

The fact seems to be that we cannot yet determine the season with which the Pagan Irish year commenced. As to Dr. O'Conor making earrach, the spring, the last quarter, because, in his opinion, it is com- pounded of iar and ratha, postremus anni cursus, it can have no weight in the argument, because there is not the slightest certainty that this is the real meaning of the term, for in Cormac's Glossary the term is explained urughadk, i.

That the Pagan Irish divided the year into four quarters is quite evident from the terms Earrach, Samhradh, Foghmhar, and Geimhridh, which are undoubtedly ancient Irish words, not derived from the Latin through Christianity ; and that each of these began with a stated day, three of which days are still known, namely, Bealltaine, otherwise called Ceideamhain, or beginning of summer see p.

Samh-fhuin, or summer-end, when they lighted fires at Tlachtgha. The beginning of Earrach, the spring, was called Oimelc, which is derived from oi, ewe, and melc, milk, because the sheep began to yean in that season, but we have not found that any festival was celebrated. Samh- f huin, i. Dictionary, oimelc is also written imbuLc, and explained Peil 6pijoe, i.

Bridget's festival, 1st February, which day has for many centuries been called La Feile Briglide, the older name being obsolete. Beltine, the name of the first day of summer, is thus explained : "6elcine. Or Bel-dine ; Bel was the name of an idol god. It was on it [i. Bron-troghain, the name of the first day of the next season is ex- plained Lughnasadh [Lammas], i.

Troghan, then, is a name for the earth. In Cormac's Glossary as we have already intimated , eppac, the spring, is explained upujab, i. Sampan is thus explained in Cormac's Glossary: " Sampab, quapi path ip inb 6bpa pol lp in 6aicm unbe bicicup Sampon. Sampab oin. Samhradh, quasi samh in the Hebrew, which is sol in the Latin, unde dicitur Samson, i.

Sol eorum. Samhradh, then, a riadh, i. It is clearly the same word as summer. It has a close resemblance to, and perhaps the same origin as, the Greek onaipx, for if we prefix the digamma, and aspirate the w, we have Foipapct. There is not the slightest probability that the terminations rack, radh, ar, readh, in the terms earrach, samradh, foghmhar, geimhreadh, are corruptions of ratha, a quarter of a year, as Dr. O'Conor takes for granted. It might at first sight appear probable that the year of the Pagan Irish began with Oimelc, the spring, when the sheep began to yean and the grass to grow, but this is far from certain ; and if there be no error of transcribers in Cormac's Glossary, we must conclude that the last month of Foghamhar, i.

Foghamhar, was given as a name to the last month. Since the conversion of the Irish to Christianity they began the year with the month of January, as is clear from the Feilire Aenghuis. Besides the division of the year into the four quarters, of which we have spoken, and into two equal parts called 5am or genii Welsh gauaf and p ctrh Welsh haf , it would appear from a gloss on an ancient Irish law tract in H. This division was evidently made to regulate the price of grazing lands. On the Chariots and Roads of the ancient Irish. The mention of chariots in this work requires some observations.

Patrick, according to his Tripartite Life, published by Colgan, vi- sited most parts of Ireland in a chariot. The carbad is also men- tioned in the oldest Irish stories and romances, as in the Tain Bo Cuailghne, in which Cuchullainn's carbad chariots , and his ara, or charioteer, are constantly mentioned. There was a locality at Teamh- air or Tara, called Fan na g-Carbat, or slope of the chariot, and it is distinctly stated in the Life of St.

According to the ancient Irish annals, and other fragments of Irish history, the ancient Irish had many roads which were cleaned and kept in repair according to law. The different terms used to denote road, among the ancient Irish, are thus denned in Cormac's Glossary, from which a pretty accurate idea may be formed of their nature : ""Roc. Gcaic cpa ll-anmanna pop conaipib. Sec cecamup uc ppeoipcimup. Da pacac no Da cuac cappac 00 aenach Dae imme 00 ponao ppi hecpaice menooca pop meoon, Rariiac. Cac comaijcecln a cip 00 po cuice olejap oe a jlanao.

Slije oin 00 pcucao cappac pech apaile 00 ponca ppi h-imco- mapc ba cappac. Gccuc ceopa glunca 00 cac ae. Cpf haimpepa 1 n-glancap. Ice a cpi glanca. Ice aicpi pop a nglan- cap. There are many names upon the roads, i. Every neighbour whose land comes up to it is bound to clean it. Three periods at which they are cleaned, i.

These are the three cleanings, i. Lughaidh O'Clerigh, in his poeti- cal controversy with Tadhg Mac Daire, urges in support of the dig- nity of Conn of the Hundred Battles, the ancestor of the dominant families of Leath Chuinn, that these five roads, which led to the fort of Teamhair, were first discovered on the birth-night of this great monarch, and he is borne out in this assertion by the autho- rity of the Dinnseanchus, though neither of these great authorities, nor O'Flaherty, who reiterates the same wonderful fact Ogygia, page , tells us the meaning of discovering these roads.

It may be a bardic mode of recording that these roads were completed by Feidhlimidh the Lawgiver, on the day before Conn was born, and that the people travelled by them on the next day. But old stories of this kind are found among every ancient people, and are worthy of preservation for the historical facts which they envelope. At whatever period these great roads were made, they indubitably existed, and are frequently referred to in Irish historical tales, from which their posi- tions may be pretty accurately determined.

Slighe Dala was the great south-western road of Ireland, which extended from the southern side of Tara hill, in the dh-ection of Ossory. A part of this road is distinctly Introduction. Slighe Midliluachra was a northern road, hut nothing has been yet discovered to prove its exact position. Slighe Cualann extended from Tara, in the direction of Dublin and Bray, and Slighe Mor was the great western road, the lie of which is defined by the Eiscir Eiada, a line of gravel hills extending from Dublin to Meadh- raighe, near the town of Galway.

See Petrie's Antiquities of Tara Hill, p. Besides these great highways there are various others of inferior character mentioned in the Irish annals, and in the bardic histories of Ireland, at an early period. The fol- lowing roads are referred to in the Annals of the Four Masters, at various years. Various other roads are mentioned in the lives of the Irish saints, and in the Irish historical tales, but it would be out of place to dwell further upon the subject in this place. There is, however, one road, the position of which it is necessary to fix before we can determine the boundary between Laighin Tuath-ghabhair and Laighin Deas-ghabhair, or north and south Leinster, namely, that of Gabhair.

This seems to have been the name of a road somewhere near Carlow, but its exact position and extent have not as yet been ascertained. The following reference to it in a historical tale preserved in the Book of Leinster, a MS. Clipg-piu [. Magh Airgead-Ros, where the champions appointed to meet, was the ancient name of a plain on the River Eoir, Anglice, the Nore, in Ossory ; and its position is marked by the fort of Rath Bheathaidh op 6oip i n- Ctipjec-'Rop, now Rathveagh, on the Nore.

The frequent mention of chess in this Avork shows that chess-play- ing was one of the favorite amusements of the Irish chieftains. The word piccectll is translated " tabula? In Cormac's Glossary, the picceal is described as quadran- gular, having straight spots of black and white. It is referred to in the oldest Irish stories and historical tales extant, as in the very old one called Tochmarc Etaine, preserved in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, a Manuscript of the twelfth century, in which the piccell is thus re- ferred to: " Cict c'ainm-peo?

N i apoaipc pon, ol pe, ITIioip 6pej Ceic. Cib ooc poacc? Do imbipc pibcille ppicpu, ol pe. Qm maic pe em, ol Gochaio, pop piccill? Q ppomao bun, ol ITIioip. Gca, ol Gochaio ino pijran 1 n-a coclub, lp le in cech aca in piccell. Qca puno cenae, ol TTIibip piocell nao meppo. Gcpuio ITIibip in piocill lap pin.

Ni im- mep ace 01 jiull, ol Gochaio. Cio jell biapann? Cumma lim, ol Gochaio. Roc bia lim-pa, ol TTIiDip, ma cu bepep mo co- cell caegac jabup n-bubjlap. Midir then arranges the fithcheall. In another place, pa. L the fa- pichchill acup bpunoub ban, mily, brigade, or set of chessmen,— a chessboard ami white chessmen; which poipne pinna is the reading in MS. Ixiii i lien lore, unable to prove that pieces of different forms and powers, similar to those among other nations, were used by the Irish, but he is of opinion that they were. From the exact similarity, as well in style as in material, of the original, to those found in the Isle of Lewis, and which have been so learnedly illustrated by Sir Frederick Madden, in an Essay published in volume xxiv.

It would, at all events, seem certain that the Lewis chess-men and Dr. Petrie's are contempo- raneous, and belonged to the same people ; and no Scandinavian speci- color, white. The chess king in Dr. Petrie's cabinet is of bone, of very close texture, and is the same size as the above engraving. The Editor takes this opportunity of adding to the note on " swords," p.

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Petrie's specimen was given to him about thirty years ago by the late Dr. Tuke, a well-known collector of antiquities and other curiosities in Dublin; and, as that gentleman stated, was found with several others, some years previously, in a bog in the county of Meath. Capobuin bo Ueci bia pepaib piocilli oon rechcaipe co mboi pop lap a incinne. Again, in a romantic tale in the same MS. On a careful comparison of the two vellum copies of which we have spoken in the opening of this Introduction, it was found that the copy in the Book of Leacan, though not free from defects and errors, is by far the more correct one, and it has, therefore, been unhesitatingly adopted as the text of the present edition.

It has not been considered necessary to notice the omis- sions of the Book of Baile an Mhuta in all cases. The exact orthography of the Book of Leacan has been preserved throughout, but the contractions have been dispensed with ; and the grammatical marks, such as hyphens, apostrophes, and stops, and also the marks of long quantity, eclipsis, and aspiration, have been supplied according to the genius of the language and the most approved modern pronunciation, except in the first piece which is not part of Leabhar na g-Ceart, though usually prefixed to it , which has been printed without these latter marks, as a specimen of the text, showing to what a small extent the dot, as a mark of aspiration, was used of old a.

The letter h postfixed to consonants being capital letters to denote aspiration, and the 5- or other consonant prefixed to mark eclipsis have been enclosed in parentheses to point out to the reader the addition even of a letter made by the Editor, and to distinguish at once to his eye these latter from the additions [in brackets] obtained a See some further remarks connected Readings," at the end of the volume, p.

The reason for supplying the aspira- tions and eclipses must be evident to all those who understand the gram- matical structure of the Irish language, for in many instances the sense of the language, and particularly the syntactical concord, is uncertain without them. The Irish text, stripped of its aspirations and eclipses, might be said to resemble the Hebrew text of the Old Testa- ment given without the Masoretic points which determine the sounds ; but the use of the Irish marks is still more important.

It is true that if the language became a dead one it could be understood without the aspirations used at the middle and end of words, as, papugao, benam, mncub, which might be as intelligible to the eye as papujab, Denarii, mncnb; but the aspirations and eclipses which, at the beginning of words, point out the gender and number of words, and determine the force of particles, can never be dispensed with without obscuring the sense.

For example, the letter a, as a possessive pronoun, denotes some- times his, sometimes her, and at another time their: as, if it be required to say her head, the c will have its radical sound, a ceunn; if his head, the c will be aspirated, a ceann ; and if their head, the c will be eclipsed, a 5-ceann ; from which it is quite evident that, if the aspiration and eclipsis were omitted, the meaning of the word a could not be seen. It has been asserted that the ancient pronunciation differed from the modern in retaining the sounds of many consonants which are now aspirated ; but there is no proof of this, as the same letter in the same grammatical situation is found sometimes aspirated and some- times not, in the most ancient Irish MSS.

The eclips- ing consonants are also equally necessary to the sense, for when they are omitted, the sense is sometimes so obscured that the meaning can only be guessed at, or discovered by investigation too troublesome to impose at all times on a reader. Seachc n-upjapca pij h-6pino anopo. Ci peachc m-buaoa: lapc 6omoi [oa comailc]; piao 6uibniji; meap TManano ; ppaechmeap 6pij Ceichi 9 ; bipop 6popnaioi; uipce ehobaip Oilachr- 5a; milpao Maipi 10 : h-i Calaino Quguipc oo poichoip pin uili oo pig Ueampach. This Now only four provinces are recognised, word literally means a fifth part, and is and still CU15 cuiceao na h-Gipeann translated Quintana by O'Flaherty in his is a common expression to denote all Ireland.

Ogygia, p. See Keating's History of sinistrorsum. The restrictions and prohibitions of the king of Eire Ireland , and of the kings of the provinces 3 down here. Seven are the " urgharta" prohibitions of the king of Eire, i. His seven " buadha" prerogatives : The fish of the Boinn Boyne to eat; the deer of Luibneach; the fruit of Manann Mann ; the heath-fruit of Brigh Leithe; the cresses of the Brosnach ; the water of the well of Tlachtgha ; the venison of Nas Naas.

On the calends of August all these things reached the king of Teamhair Tara. The year in which he used to eat of these was not reckoned as life spent, and he was wont to rout his enemies before him on every side. The five prohibitions of the king of Laighin Leinster here, viz. In the Leabhar Brcac, fol. Q cuic buaoa. Coic upjapca pij choicib n-Oilneajmacc 19 anopo. Q choic buaoa. Cpipc, i.

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For it is westwards Christ's See the Introduction, face was [turned] on his cross, i. It is ftfogh Gipecinn. These are his " adha" prerogatives , viz. The five prohibitions of the king of Mumha Munster : To remain to enjoy the feast of Loch Lein from one Monday to another ; to feast by night in the beginning of harvest, before Geim d , at Leitreacha ; to encamp for nine days upon the Siuir ; to hold a bor- der meeting at Gabhran ; to listen to the groans of the women of Magh Feimhin when suffering violation. His five prerogatives, i.

The five prohibitions of the king of the province of Oilneagmacht f Connaught here: To make a treaty respecting Cruachan after making peace on Samhain's day ; to go in a speckled garment on a grey speckled steed to the heath of Luchaid in Dal Chais ; to go to an assembly of women at Seaghais ; to sit in Autumn on the sepulchral mounds of the wife of Maine; to contend in running with the rider of a grey one-eyed horse at Ath Gallta, between two posts.

See Cormac's Glos- natse of Ptolemanis. See O'Conor, l is- sary, voce Cincigep. Gachpaip "Raca 6ine icip b t al n-Qpaioe ; ecpeacc pe lua- main enjiall 58 Cinoi Saileach lap puineab n-gpeni 29 ; copouo peipi pop peoil caipb t aipi mic Daipi 30 ; ceace 31 a mip lTlapca 1 TTIuij Choba; uipce 60 Nemm 00 ol lop Da Doipchi. CI choic buaoa. See Keating's account of Uisneaeh, is that of a hill, now usually anglicized where it is added in the words of the Usny hill, or Usnagh hill, parish of Killare, translation by Gratianus Lucius " Census barony of Kathconrath, Westmeath.

Ac- autem, qui Regi Conacia? According to him, King part iii. For ma, qu. TCfojh Gijieann. To pay for his seat at Uisneach 8 every seventh year on taking his place, and this is also the right of every provincial king in Eire. After this these required of the king of Teamhair to make the feast of Teamhair h ; the kings of the provinces used to purchase their seats at Uisneach, and the purchase and price they paid was this, i. It is certain to the kings of Eire that if they avoid their " geasa" restrictions , and obtain their " buadha" prerogatives , they shall meet no mischance or misfortune ; no epidemic or mortality shall occur in their reigns, and they shall not experience the decay of age for the space of ninety years.

The poet or the learned historian who does not know the " adha" preroga- tives , and " urgharta" prohibitions of these kings, is not entitled to visitation or to sale' [for his poetry]. This is translated " comitia Te- the old Lives of St. Patrick, the authentic morenaa," by Colgan, Lynch, O'Flaherty, Irish annals, or the older manuscript ac- and others, but it is more truly rendered counts of Tara - See Petrie's History and " cena Tamrech," by Tighernach, and the Antiquities of Tara Hill, pp.

See original compiler of the Annals of Ulster.

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  7. CI pip am iaoap in c-each, lp me in c-O Ceochan 35 laioeach ; nom leic peachao lp reach ceano u puil aipbpij na h-Gipeano. CIp acum po gebchap do eolup — na ba h-imapjo — a peachc n-a6a imao m-bpij, la peachc n-upjapca aipopij. Do pij Uearhpach; oia coippeac bio coipcheach oo in calarh epic, bi6 cach-bua6ach caingen-jlic. For a very curious reference to which has been handed down to me as this custom see the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, published by Colgan, lib.

    Concerning which things Cuan 0'Lochan k the sage, thus sang: O noble man who closest the house 1 , I am the O'Lochan of the poems, Let me pass by thee into the powerful house, In which is the monarch of Eire. With me will be found for him The knowledge — it will be no fiction" 1 — Of his seven prerogatives of many virtues, With the seven prohibitions of a monarch.

    Let the seven prerogatives be read — what harm? For the king of Teamhair; if he observe them The ready earth shall be fruitful" for him, He shall be victorious in battle, wise of counsel. On the calends of August, to the king Were brought from each respective district, The fruits of Manann , a fine present; And the heath-fruit of Brigh Leithe p ; The venison of Nas q ; the fish of the Boinn r ; The cresses of the kindly Brosnach s ; of Ireland; but there were many places in am or ppaocoja, not the berries of Ireland so called, so that it is not abso- the heath, but bilberries or whortleberries, lutely certain that it is the Isle of Mann Some of the old Irish suppose that this, that is here referred to.

    Car- and the nunnery of Druimcheo, the for- bury, Kildare. It was the chief river of mer lying on the east, and the latter on the Irish monarch's territory of Meath, and the west side of it. Colgan, Acta SS. There is a remarkable earthen fort on the hill, said to have been originally erected by the mo- narch Tuathal Teachtmhar, towards the middle of the second century, where the Druids lighted their sacred fires on the eve of Samhain All-Hallows.

    The well referred to in the text is at the foot of the hill, but not now remarkable for any sa- cred characteristics. It was applied to a place on the borders of ancient Meath and Monster. See the Book of Leacan, fol. It is explained by O'Clery as compounded of parh-puin, i.

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    Fore, Westmeath, a short distance to the west of the town of Castlepollard. Let his seven restrictions be read, — no reproach. To the king of Teainhair ; if he observe them It will guard against treachery in battle, And the pollution of his high attributes. The apparent reason that the monarch was prohibited from entering this territory was, because Cairbre, the brother of the monarch Laeghaire, and this his territory of North Teffia, were cursed [on Tuesday] by St.

    Pa- trick. This would be anglicized Moyculltn. It is difficult to decide what plain this was, ;us there is more than one place of the name in Ireland. It was the name of a plain in the eastern part of the ancient Meath, compris- ing, according to Keating and others, five triocha-cheds or baronies. In latter ages, as appears from the places mentioned as in this plain, it would seem that it was the country lying between Dublin and Drogh- eda, or between the river Liff'ey and the Boyne, but its exact boundaries are not de- fined in any of our authorities.

    Druimni Breagh, which means dorsa Bregia; would appear to be the name of a hilly part of this territory. In Mac Firbisigh's Genealogical work Marquis of 12 geapct agup buaoha jpian paip b'epji 1 Cearhaip choip: plaibe a each 42 i Pan-chomaip. Perhaps the place here alluded to is the place called Comar near Clonard, in the south-west of the county of East Meath. Fan-ehomair is the slope or declivity of the Comar. See Horat. H Tuath Laighean, the north of Laighin or Leinster.

    See above, p. Dothra — This! It is explained nigra; t her ma: by the author of the Life of St. Coemhghin Kevin ; so, Col- gan, " Pars enim Liffei jluminis, in cujus ripa est ipsa eivitas, Hibernis olim vocaba- tur Dubh-linn, i.

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    The above prohibition may have owed its origin to the fact of some king TCfojli Gipecmn. Should I reach the king of Laighin, I shall not conceal from him his prerogatives, Nor his clearly-defined prohibitions. But we have evidences which will leave no doubt as to its exact situation, for in the Feilire jEn- guis the churches of Tigh Conaill, Tigh mic Dimmai, and Dun mor, are placed in Cualann. And in an inquisition taken at Wicklow on the 21st of April, 1G36, the limits of Fercoulen, i. Feara Cualann, are defined as follows : " The said Tirlagh O'Toole humbly de- sireth of his Majestie to have a certain ter- ritory of land called Fercoulen, which his ancestors had till they were expulsed by the earls of Kildare.

    That the said terri- tory containeth in length from Barnecullen, by east and south, and Glassyn[. Within the said territory were certain villages and craggs [recte creaghts] of old tyme, being now all desolate excepte onely Powerscourt, Killcollin, Beanaghebegge, Benaghmor, the Onenaghe, Ballycortie, Templeregan, Kilta- garrane, Cokiston, Ancrewyn, Killmollinky, Ballynbrowne, Killeger, and the Mainster.

    Harris, in his edi- tion of Ware's work, vol. Caippiul na pij paen in paich acaic cuic buaoa Dia plaich : ' Bealach Duibhlinne The road or pass of the Duibhlinn. See p. The situation of this glen is unknown to the Editor. Dinn Riogh, i. This is the most ancient palace of the kings of Leinster. I" 'Tis prohibited to him to go with a host On Monday over the Bealach Duibhlinne' ; It is prohibited to him on Magh Maistean', on any account, To ride on a dirty, black-heeled horse : These are — he shall not do them — The five things prohibited to the king of Laighin.

    Caiseal of the kings, of great prosperity, Its prince has five prerogatives : Hist. This place is still well known. Nothing remains of the palace ,. A war arose from this between Leinster and Leath Chuinn. The from a very early period. The Editor has Leinster, extending from the river Barrow not met anything to throw any light on the and Sliabh Mairge, to the foot of the Wick- origin of this extraordinary injunction.

    From the places mention- 8 The northern Leinster, i. Kilkea and Moone, in the county of Kil- Ri'ojh Gipeann. The king of Caiseal — it will embitter his feeling To wait for the feast of Loch Lein w — To stay from one Monday to another to enjoy it — It is the beginning of his last days ; 'Tis prohibited to him [to pass] a night in beginning of harvest Before Geim x at Leitreacha y ; To encamp for nine days on the silent Siuir z ; To hold a border meeting at Gabhran a ; dare.

    The Bit mountain, in the county of Tipperaiy, author of the Irish poem called Laoi na unites with the Barrow and the sea about Leacht, describing the monuments of Lein- one mile below Waterford. Patrick as the of the Lake of Killarney, in the county western portion of Leinster, " Occidentalis of Kerry. Laginensium plaga. But this claim was never established ; for the territory does not ap- pear to have comprised more than the pre- sent diocese of Ossory since the time of St.

    See Keating, reign of Cormac Mac Airt. It is described as ex- tending from the river Siuir northwards to Corca Eathrach, otherwise called Machaire Chaisil, from which it is evident that it comprised the whole of the barony of IfTa and Offa east. See Colgan's Trias Thaum. History of Ireland, vol. Here are — not trifling the regulation, The prerogatives and prohibitions of the king of Connacht The king of Connacht, who has not heard of him?

    He is not a hero without perpetual prerogatives. One of his prerogatives, which is before every prerogative, The taking of the hostages of the chilly Oirbsean ; The hunting of Sliabh Lugha d also ; The drinking of the fresh ale of Magh Muirisce e ; Good for him the rout of the Tri Rosa f , [and] To leave his cloak at Bearnas 2 Around the victorious oak of Breice' 1 In the strong, hardy north ; To hold a border meeting at Ath Luain' With the states of Teamhair of the grassy districts ; prising that part of the harony of Costello which belongs to the diocese of Achonry, viz.

    Sea plain There is a narrow plain of this name situated between the mountain of Cruach Phadraig Croagh- patrick and Cuan Modh Clew Bay , in the west of the county of Mayo. It also became the name of a small abbey situated in this plain, on the margin of the bay, from which the barony of Murrisk received its name. This name was also applied to a district in the barony of Tir Fhiachrach Tirtragh and county of Sligo, extending from the river Easkey to Dunnacoy, and comprising the townlands of Rosslee, Cloon- nagleavragh, Alternan, Dunaltan, Bally - kilcash, Dunheakin, Dunneill, and Bally - eskeen.

    It is difficult to decide which of these plains is the one referred to in the text. The ford is on the boundary between Connaught and Meath. Cluineao pij Lllab 53 aoa oopom pe meap bo pala 54 : cluichi Cuailjne cpob m-bapc m-beo: mapi pluaij a TTluipcheThneo; J Maen-magh, a celebrated plain in the present county of Galway, comprising the lake and town of Loughrea, the townlands of Mayode and Fimnire, and all the cham- paign country around Loughrea. See Tribes and Customs of the Ui Maine, p.