Guide Wilhelm von Kobell - Das mathematische Substrat der Landschaft (German Edition)

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Translation of «Substrat» into 25 languages

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Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie. An important aim for promoting clinical research and patient care in radiation oncology is to further professionalize planning and implementation of clinical trials in this field. Correct assessment, at an early stage, whether a trial needs to be approved by the BfS may reduce unneccesary costs and reduce the time needed for the approval procedure for those trials which need to be assessed by the BfS.

Bei der Abgrenzung zwischen ''Heilkunde'' und ''medizinischer Forschung'' kommt es bei radioonkologischen Studien immer wieder zu widerspruechlichen Einschaetzungen. Ziel ist es, eine Handreichung fuer Antragsteller, im Beantragungsprozess involvierte Personen und Institutionen sowie Ethikkommissionen zu liefern. Die Abgrenzung zwischen Heilkunde und medizinischer Forschung erfolgt anhand der Frage, ob es sich bei der therapeutischen Anwendung um ein nach Art und Umfang klinisch anerkanntes Strahlentherapieverfahren handelt oder nicht.

Zur Einordnung werden die bestmoegliche Evidenz aus klinischen Studien sowie Stellungnahmen wissenschaftlicher Fachgesellschaften herangezogen. Low-dose fractionated percutaneous teletherapy in age-related macular degeneration with subfoveolar neovascularization - 3 year results; 3 Jahre Erfahrung mit der niedrig dosierten fraktionierten perkutanen Teletherapie bei subfoveolaeren Neovaskularisationen. Klinische Ergebnisse. Schittkowski, M. Rostock Germany. Zur Auswertung, in die wegen okulaerer Nebenerkrankungen nur 78 Augen von 70 Patienten einbezogen werden konnten, wurden die Patientendaten nach dem Ausgangsvisus und der Art der chorioidalen Neovaskularisationen klassischokkult in Gruppen unterteilt.

Die maximale Nachbeobachtungsdauer betraegt 36 Monate. Die zehn Einzeldosen wurden an jeweils 5 aufeinander folgenden Wochentagen mit Wochenendpause appliziert. Ergebnisse: Schwerwiegende Nebenwirkungen konnten wir nicht beobachten. Die Therapie wurde bis auf subjektiv beobachtete Epiphora acht Patienten und passagere Siccasymptomatik vier Patienten gut vertragen und angenommen. Die Gruppe Ausgangsvisus 0,,2 zeigte einen durchschnittlichen Visusabfall von mehr als einer Zeile. Bei einem Ausgangsvisus 0,,5 fanden wir Visusstabilitaet bis zu 12 Monaten, danach langsame Visusreduktion.

Die Patienten der beiden letztgenannten Gruppen zeigten eine Abnahme der Metamorphopsien sowie gesteigerte Farb- und Kontrastwahrnehmung. Schlussfolgerung: Die vorliegende Untersuchung zeigt, dass die niedrig dosierte fraktionierte perkutane Teletherapie die subfoveolaere Membran, die Sehschaerfe und das Auftreten von Metamorphopsien beeinflusst. Dabei spielen Ausgangsvisus und Anamnesedauer eine entscheidende Rolle. Ein anhaltender Effekt scheint nicht zu bestehen; moeglicherweise kann ein Applikationsmodus mit erhoehter Dosis hilfreich sein.

Biogas in a future energy supply structure with a high proportion of fluctuating renewable energies; Biogas in einer zukuenftigen Energieversorgungsstruktur mit hohen Anteilen fluktuierender Erneuerbarer Energien. The power supply must integrate in the future an increasing share of renewable energies for the supply of electricity customers to meet the climate protection requirements. The proportion of weather-dependent renewable energy plays a leading role of renewable power supply in the future. These highly volatile provided electricity volumes do not match in base-load power generated amounts, as it has come in the past biogas park and still mostly delivers.

It seems necessary that the non-fluctuating production units ''make room'' the wind and PV electricity volumes in the energy system and provide the electricity in phases when the fluctuating renewable energy electricity volumes are not available. In this study, it is determined how the biogas park with its high number of production systems should behave from total cost perspective in the energy system in It primarily concerns the question whether the base-load electricity production of biogas parks should be changed and made more flexible from the perspective of the overall costs and if so, to what extent.

Der Anteil an wetterabhaengigen Erneuerbaren Energien nimmt dabei zukuenftig die tragende Rolle der Erneuerbaren Stromversorgung ein. Diese sehr volatil bereitgestellten Strommengen passen nicht zu in Grundlast erzeugten Strommengen, wie sie in der Vergangenheit der BiogasPark geliefert hat und immer noch groesstenteils liefert.

Es scheint erforderlich, dass die nicht fluktuierenden Erzeugungseinheiten den Wind-und PV-Strommengen im Energiesystem ''Platz machen'' und den Strom in Phasen bereitstellen, wenn die fluktuierende Erneuerbaren Energie-Strommengen nicht zur Verfuegung stehen. Market analysis Fukushima. Renewable energy, energy efficiency and energy conservation in Fukushima prefecture; Marktanalyse Fukushima.


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The use of renewable energy has experienced in Fukushima Prefecture in the years after the reactor accident in March , a substantial upswing. In total MW of renewable energy capacity have been installed. According to the plans of the prefecture this capacity should be increased in to a total of just over 8 gigawatts. As in the rest of the country parts also, the solar energy was primarily used; this accounted MW alone. In future, the priorities but more are in the areas of wind energy and hydropower.

Insgesamt wurden MW erneuerbare Energie Leistung installiert. Nach den Plaenen der Praefektur soll diese Kapazitaet bis auf insgesamt gut 8 Gigawatt gesteigert werden. Wie in den uebrigen Landesteilen auch, kam bisher vorwiegend die Solarenergie zum Zuge; diese machte allein MW aus.

Kuenftig sollen die Schwerpunkte jedoch staerker in den Bereichen von Windenergie und Wasserkraft liegen. Monitoring and evaluation of policy instruments to support renewable electricity in EU Member States. Ragwitz, M. Wien AT. Policy strategies for the promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources differ significantly among the Member States of the European Union with respect to the amount of additional installed capacity as well as concerning the country-specific support costs.

The present report aims to assess the effectiveness and the economic efficiency of the support policies in the EU based on both historical experiences and prospective model-based analysis.

Journal Article

The main message of the investigation is that the most effective policy instruments tend to be cost-efficient at the same time. In particular, feed-in tariff systems were identified as a successful instrument for supporting renewable energies in terms of effectiveness and efficiency, whereas quota systems still have to prove themselves in practice. Dies betrifft sowohl den Zubau an installierter Kapazitaet als auch die laenderspezifischen Foerderkosten des Ausbaus. In diesem Projekt erfolgte eine vergleichende Betrachtung der Wirksamkeit und der oekonomischen Effizienz der Foerderpolitiken in den Laendern der EU basierend auf historischen Erfahrungen als auch auf prospektiven modellbasierten Analysen.

Es zeigt sich, dass die wirksamsten Systeme auch haeufig die kostenguenstigsten sind. Insbesondere wird ersichtlich, dass garantierte Einspeisetarife ein sehr erfolgreiches Instrumentarium zur Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im Stromsektor darstellen, nicht allein bezueglich des generierten Marktwachstums sondern auch im Hinblick auf die oekonomische Effizienz, wogegen Quotensysteme ihre Praxistauglichkeit bezogen auf die genannten Kriterien noch nachweisen muessen. Economic evaluation of operational concepts for electrolysers with high proportions of renewable energies; Wirtschaftlichkeitsbewertung von Betriebskonzepten fuer Elektrolyseure bei hohen Anteilen Erneuerbarer Energien.

Competence Center Energietechnologien und Energiesysteme. This article examines different modes of electrolyzers in two future scenarios of the German energy system. It turns out that hydrolyzers need a high utilization to pay for themselves. An economic operation in in the scenario of moderate expansion of renewable energies is not possible. At strong expansion the investment is profitable when high revenues from secondary control power provision can be achieved. Generally it is clear that the secondary control power provision and also the direct sales of hydrogen in industry or in the transport sector allows higher revenues than the storage and reconversion.

Es zeigt sich, dass Elektrolyseure eine hohe Auslastung benoetigen, um sich zu amortisieren. Ein wirtschaftlicher Betrieb ist bis im Szenario mit moderatem Ausbau Erneuerbarer Energien nicht moeglich. Bei starkem Ausbau rentiert sich die Investition, wenn hohe Erloese aus Sekundaerregelleistungsvorhaltung erzielt werden koennen. Allgemein wird deutlich, dass die Sekundaerregelleistungsvorhaltung und auch der direkte Absatz von Wasserstoff in der Industrie oder im Verkehrssektor hoehere Erloese ermoeglichen als die Speicherung und Rueckverstromung.

Kassel symposium on energy systems engineering: On-site energy generation using renewable energy sources. Proceedings ; 5. Erneuerbare Energien - und rationelle Energieverwendung. Dezentrale Energieversorgung mit hohem regenerativen Anteil. The focal topic of the 5th Kassel Symposium on Energy Systems Engineering was ''Decentralised energy supply with a high share of renewable energies''. The contributions covered a wide range of issues including the potential of renewable energies, supply and operating concepts, components, systems engineering and future perspectives.

Es spannt hierzu einen Bogen von den Potenzialen der Erneuerbaren Energien ueber Versorgungs- und Betriebsfuehrungskonzepte sowie Komponenten und Systemtechnik bis hin zu zukuenftigen Perspektiven. This takes into account the substitution potential by renewable energy alternatives. For Switzerland's economy and society no unacceptable impacts will thereby result.

Dabei ist das Substitutionspotential durch erneuerbare Energien beruecksichtigt. Eine Halbierung ist im Verlaufe des 2. Quartals des Jahrhunderts erreichbar, wobei vorausgesetzt wird, dass die heute bekannten Technologien tatsaechlich genutzt werden und die Energie verteuert wird. Dabei werden f? Staging of primary head and neck tumors and detection of recurrences; Staging und Rezidivdiagnostik von Tumoren im Kopf-Hals- Bereich. Adams, S. Bochum, Marienhospital, Herne Germany. Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Baum, R.

Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin. Squamous cell carcinomas represent the vast majority of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. Lymph node involvement is the most important prognostic factor affecting survival of patients with head and neck cancer. The effectiveness of surgical treatment depends on the complete excision of all tumor tissue and an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Tumor-node-metastasis TNM staging is therefore mandatory. In comparison to positron emission tomography with fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose FDG PET , morphological imaging modalities CT, MRI have been applied for the localization of primary head and neck tumors because of their better anatomical resolution.

Increased FDG utpake has also been observed in benign inflammatory lesions after radiation therapy, therefore detection of local recurrence with FDG PET can be problematic. To ensure a high diagnostic accuracy it is been suggested to perform FDG PET not earlier than 3 months after radiation therapy Class 1a indication for the diagnosis of local recurrence. Ein wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor ist das Vorhandensein von Lymphknotenmetastasen. Die Entscheidung ueber das richtige therapeutische Vorgehen ist von der genauen Festlegung des primaeren Tumorstadiums abhaengig. Kasseler symposium on energy-related system engineering: renewable energy sources and rational energy use.

Tagungsband ' The ISET ended the 10th anniversary year since its foundation in with already the third Kassel symposium on energy-related system engineering: renewable energy sources and rational energy use. Covering several special subjects talks were given about the topics modelling and simulation in the fields of wind energy, photovoltaic systems, hybrid systems or sewage water treatment. The keen interest of the participants shows the importance that modelling of conditions or processes has gained in the meantime in the field of system engineering of renewable energy sources.

The core of each simulation is the integration of differential equations, which describe the system. Properties of the system can be easily varied and affects on the overall system can be easily investigated. Critical conditions can be discovered and be taken into consideration at the hardware engineering. Mistakes in terms of component design can be avoided and engineering cost can be reduced considerably. The present conference book gives an ideal overview of the topics discussed during the symposium. Fachgebietsuebergreifend wurde zu den Themen Modellbildung und Simulation in Bereichen wie Windenergie, Photovoltaik, Hybridsysteme oder Abwasserbehandlung referiert.

Das rege Interesse der Teilnehmer unterstreicht die Bedeutung, die die Modellierung von Zustaenden oder Prozessen in der Systementwicklung bei den erneuerbaren Energien inzwischen gewonnen hat. Der Kern einer jeden Simulation ist die Integration der systembeschreibenden Differentialgleichungen. Eigenschaften des Systems koennen in einfacher Weise variiert und die Auswirkungen auf das Gesamtsystem untersucht werden.

Kritische Zustaende koennen entdeckt und in der Entwicklung der Hardware entsprechend beruecksichtigt werden. Der Thesaurus wurde aus bereits bestehenden Thesauri automatisch gebildet. Die Erweiterung der Suchterme kann sowohl in der Laufzeit, als auch halbautomatisch erfolgen. In recent times, the problem of multi-lingual search is gaining more and more importance, because a lot of useful specialized information are published in several. Electric power in the competitive market - Investing capital for cleaner energy generation still a rewarding business?

New perspectives for electrical energy efficiency improvement, the cogeneration technology, and renewable energy generation; Strom im Wettbewerb - Lohnen sich Investitionen in saubere Energien noch? Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien. To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development.

The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources e. Cutting unemployment by a factor of two. Increased use of renewable energies would create new jobs; Nur noch halb so viele Arbeitslose. Vermehrte Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien wuerde Arbeitsplaetze schaffen. More news: if renewable energies solar and wind energy, biomass would be promoted with concrete targets, job creation balance would result in the positive result of about 63, new jobs.

These are conclusions from an economic study by Professor Ernst von Weizsaecker, ordered by the association 'Solar 91'. This confirms the energy policy adopted by the Swiss Association of air conditioning companies 'Clima Suisse'. Doch damit nicht genug: durch die gezielte Foerderung der erneuerbaren Energien Sonne, Wind, Biomasse koennten netto rund 63, neue Arbeitsplaetze geschaffen werden.

Dies hat eine Wirtschaftsstudie von Professor Ernst von Weizsaecker ergeben, welche die Arbeitsgemeinschaft 'Solar 91' in Auftrag gegeben hat. Der Branchenverband 'Clima Suisse' sieht sich durch diese Studie in seiner Energiepolitik bestaetigt.

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Climate protection by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases in households and the tertiary sector through climate-conscious behaviour. Private Haushalte. The aim of the project was to identify areas in households and the tertiary sector in which changes in behaviour could result in energy conservation and thus a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and to quantify the potentials for , and A second focus was on the analysis and evaluation of programmes and instruments to realise the potentials. With literature evaluation, expert interviews, and a household servey potentials and further technical development have been identified.

In sum, behavioural measures can contribute to the CO2 reduction by 64 million tons in in households and 27 in the commercial sector in which the potential decreases to 18 million tons in due to the autonomous technical development. Darauf aufbauend waren Programme und Instrumente zur Umsetzung aufzuzeigen und zu bewerten.

Gestuetzt auf Literaturrecherchen und Expertengespraeche wurden Einzelpotenziale, Rahmenbedingungen, Entwicklungstrends in der Technik und im Ausstattungsgrad ermittelt. Bis bleibt dieses Potenzial im Haushaltssektor in etwa gleich. Im Kleinverbrauch sinkt es infolge der autonomen Technikentwicklung auf 18 Mio t ab. The pellet wood gasification boiler - a modern and environment-friendly alternative for energy generation in the residential section. The decision to install a pellet wood gasification boiler is a conscious vote using renewable fuels in the residential sector.

This brochure has been elaborated to facilitate interested citizens the right selection of this boilers. So an effective evaluation of the listed boiler types is possible. Text and tables are based on a manufacturers questionnaire, taking place from to September respectively in October due to a fast technological development were actualized.

Furthermore new sellers appeared upgrading their product spectra in the heating sector by advanced wood gasification boilers. Um ineressierten Buergern die Auswahl geeigneter Kessel zu erleichtern, wurde die vorliegende Broschuere ausgearbeitet.

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Damit ist eine effektive Beurteilung der aufgelisteten Kesseltypen moeglich. Text und Tabellen basieren auf einer Herstellerumfrage aus dem Jahr , die im September bzw. Darueber hinaus sind gaenzlich neue Anbieter aufgetreten, die ihre Produktpalette im Heizungsbereich mit modernen Scheitholzvergaserkesseln aufwerten wollen Pflege des ''Oekoimage''.

Campaigns for renewable energy - the evaluation of 'Solar-na klar. As a result, the report details the main elements and conditions that are necessary for campaigns that cover all types of renewable energies, such campaigns are supported in principal by all stakeholder groups. Darueber hinaus schaetzte ca. Allerdings vermissten die Haushalte zum Teil weiterfuehrende Informationen.

Auch die befragten Handwerker aeusserten eine relativ grosse Zufriedenheit mit der Kampagne. Sie nutzten die bereitgestellten Informationsmaterialien der Kampagne jedoch nur sehr selten. Die Evaluation der internen Grundlagen und Prozesse fuehrt zu ambivalenten Ergebnissen: Beispielsweise ist es der Kampagne auf der einen Seite gelungen, eine breite und heterogene Traegerschaft zu gewinnen und flexibel auf aeussere Anforderungen zu reagieren. Auf der anderen Seite stellten sich Probleme in der Steuerung und im Konfliktmanagement ein. Hierzu trugen u. Die Evaluation muendet in der zentralen Empfehlung, die Kampagne in modififizierter Form fortzusetzen.

Verbesserungsmoeglichkeiten sehen die Evaluatoren u. Investigations into adverse effects on soil organisms at the concentration level of trigger values according to German Federal Soil Protection Act; Ermittlung der Wirkungen auf Bodenorganismen Lebensraumfunktion im Bereich der Pruefwerte. Um dies abzuklaeren, wurden mit ausgewaehlten Boeden, deren Belastung im Bereich der Pruefwerte Park- und Freizeitanlagen bzw. Ackerbau und Nutzgarten eingestellt wurde, gezielte oekotoxikologische Tests durchgefuehrt.

Die Bodenbelastung mit annaehernd einer Kontaminante wurde erreicht, indem zwei unbelastete Boeden unterschiedlicher Charakteristik mit stark belasteten Bodenproben vermischt wurden. Bei den stark belasteten Bodenproben handelte es sich um Altlastboeden, die weitgehend eine Monobelastung des jeweiligen Schadstoffs aufwiesen. Die fuer die oekotoxikologischen Tests ausgewaehlten Testorganismen decken verschiedene trophische Ebenen ab: Mikroorganismen originaere Population , Nitrifikation, Basalatmung, substratinduzierte Atmung; Nematoden zugesetzte Organismen , Reproduktionsrate; Regenwurm zugesetzte Organismen , Reproduktionsrate; Pflanzen, Keimrate, Biomasseproduktion.

Fuer Cadmium und Arsen ergaben sich vergleichbare Ergebnisse von belasteten Boeden und Kontrollboeden fuer Pflanzen, Nematoden und Mikroorganismen, so dass mit den bisher abgeleiteten Pruefwerten auf dem Schutzniveau der Park- und Freizeitanlagen bzw. Ackerbau und Nutzgarten auch die Lebensraumfunktion ausreichend gesichert zu sein scheint. Bei leichten Boeden koennte im Bereich der Pruefwerte eine Einschraenkung der Lebensraumfunktion fuer Regenwuermer gegeben sein. Aufgrund des hohen Anteils an kontaminiertem Boden in den Mischungen mit Benzo a pyren ist eine nochmalige Ueberpruefung speziell im Hinblick auf Wirkungen auf die Mikroflora und Eisenia fetida wuenschenswert.

Wind power project. Investigation of the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of wind power systems. Final report; Projekt Windkraftanlagen. Untersuchungen zur Raumnutzung ausgewaehlter heimischer Niederwildarten im Bereich von Windkraftanlagen. Acting on behalf of the State Hunting Association of Lower Saxony the Game Research Institute IWFo of Hannover Veterinary University carried out a three-year study from April through March on the habitat use of selected native small game species in the vicinity of aerogenerators.

This final report depicts the animals' preferred places, use of agricultural land, avoidance radius, if any, their activities and exposure to predator pressure. The target species were roe deer, hare, red fox, partridge and carrion crow. The study was carried out in Lower Saxony and Bremen on a total study area of All parameters were studied in terms of a comparison between aerogenerator and control areas. The objective was to identify differences in population, use of space and habitat and in behaviour. Im Weiteren wurden Aufenthaltspraeferenzen, Nutzung der landwirtschaftlichen Flaechen, moegliche Naeherungslimits und Aktivitaeten der Wildarten sowie der Beutegreiferdruck dargestellt.

Moegliche Unterschiede im Besatz bzw. Bestand, in Raum- und Habitatnutzung sowie im Verhalten wurden herausgearbeitet. Dental CT in the planning of surgery. Role in the oromaxillofacial area from the dentist's point of view; Dental-CT zur Planung chirurgischer Eingriffe. Bedeutung im oro-maxillofazialen Bereich aus zahnaerztlicher Sicht.

Solar, P. Dental computer assisted tomography Dental CT represents a valuable addition to the diagnostic spectrum for planning oral and maxillofacial surgery. High resolution CT and specially designed computer software allow representation of the jaws in different planes that are easy to match.

They further allow the display of very small structures relevant to oral surgical interventions and reveal their spatial relationship in three dimensions. Thus, communication between dentists and radiologists may be intensified and supported by usage of modern telecommunication systems. Dental CT is indicated, when clinical and conventional radiological techniques will not allow exact interpretation of the situation. It is modern oral implantology that primarily benefits from computer software enabling the assessment of surgical sites in the presurgical phase.

Such planning was not yet possible using two dimensional radiographic techniques. The dental-implantological part expects from radiography sharply defined contours of the external bony contours and the mandibular canal, exactly defined relation between slices and planes, no distortion in the orthoradial planes, tools for reliable measurements of distances, angles and volumes, possibility to transmit pictures electronically or on hardcopy without loss of quality.

Durch die Moeglichkeiten von hochaufloesendem CT und der Entwicklung von Software zur Darstellung des Kiefers in raeumlich leicht zuordenbaren Schichtebenen, lassen sich auch kleinste, zahnaerztlich-chirurgisch relevante Strukturen und ihre Lagebeziehung zueinander in allen drei Ebenen darstellen. Dadurch kann es zur intensiveren Kommunikation zwischen Zahnarzt und Radiologen kommen, was durch die Inanspruchnahme. Bereich Kern- und Strahlenphysik: Scientific report This annual report contains extended abstracts of the work performed at the named institute concerning research and development and a list of publications and speeches.

The abstracts concern the theory of nuclear and atomic physics with heavy ions, direct, deep inelastic, and fusion reactions of heavy ions, developments in nuclear physics experiments and computercontrolled data collection and analysis, the study of nuclear structure, crystal fields, and defects in metals by hyperfine structure experiments, atomic collisions, as well as the development of VICKSI.

HSI [de. Vorbeugende Verbraucherpolitik im Bereich neuer Technologien. Verbraucher- und Umweltorganisationen stehen diesen neuen Anwendungen jedoch durchaus Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio- chemo- therapy. Eine randomisierte Studie. Fietkau, R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ.

Medizinische Abt. Strahlentherapeutische Klinik. Tumoranorexie und -kachexie bei Patienten mit infauster Prognose ist bekannt. Ob sich ein supportiver Effekt von Megestrolacetat waehrend einer intensiven Radio- Chemo- Therapie ergibt, wurde bislang noch nicht untersucht. Ein Patient lehnte nach Randomisation die weitere Teilnahme ab. Weitere Nebenwirkungen wurden nicht beobachtet. Im Kontrollarm verschlechterten sich die Ernaehrungsparameter Koerpergewicht, Trizepshautfaltendicke und das subjektive Befinden unter der Bestrahlung sehr schnell und erholten sich anschliessend kaum.

Im Gegensatz dazu konnten die mit Megestrolacetat behandelten Patienten diese Werte auf dem Ausgangsniveau stabiliseren. Economic evaluation of innovative storage technologies in energy systems with a high share of renewable energies; Oekonomische Bewertung von innovativen Speichertechnologien in Energiesystemen mit einem hohen Anteil erneuerbarer Energien.

Anteilen an variablen erneuerbaren Energien vEE auftreten, koennen durch deren Integrationskosten gemessen werden. Die wissenschaftlichen Untersuchungen in Bezug auf den zusaetzlichen Speicher- bzw. Flexibilitaetsbedarf fuer ein solches Energiesystem setzen haeufig bei den Ungleichgewichten in der Systembilanz an.

Den jeweiligen Methoden liegen jedoch unterschiedliche Annahmen und Rahmenbedingungen zu Grunde, sodass die Ergebnisse nur eingeschraenkt miteinander verglichen werden koennen. Der stuendlich schwankende Grosshandelspreis an der Stromboerse ist ein wichtiger Indikator, um den Flexibilitaetsbedarf zu signalisieren. Viele Analysen legen historische oder auch prognostizierte Preiszeitreihen fuer eine Bewertung von Speicheroptionen zu Grunde. Jedoch wird dabei die Rueckkopplung der Betriebsweise eines Energiespeichers auf die Marktpreise aussen vor gelassen.

In dieser Arbeit wird deshalb eine Methode entwickelt, um den Einfluss eines steigenden Marktvolumens an Speichern und anderen Flexibilitaetsoptionen auf die Spotmarktpreise abzuschaetzen. Untersucht wird der Einfluss des Speichereinsatzes auf die Stromnachfrage und die Spotmarktpreise in sowie Die hierfuer zu definierenden Szenarien fuer den Strommarkt werden modellgestuetzt abgebildet und ausgewertet. Fuer die Beantwortung der Fragestellung werden techno-oekonomische Modelle, z. Full Text Available [english] Although both atypical fibroxanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma arise on top of sun-damaged skin of the elderly, there is no evidence in literature reporting a synchronous presentation of primary lesions of both malignancies in the head and neck regions.

We reviewed the literature for cases of head and neck atypical fibroxanthoma in association with other skin malignancies with an overview over the risk factors and modalities of treatment. We would like to raise the awareness for the concept of multiple synchronous primary malignant lesions and the importance to anticipate and differentiate between different pathologies in order to provide adequate investigations and treatment for the patient. Gewerbe, Handel und Dienstleistung.

The EEG as an instrument of the Federal areal management of renewable energies - also a contribution to the discussion about energy sectoral planning; Das EEG als Instrument des Bundes zur raeumlichen Steuerung der erneuerbaren Energien - zugleich ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um eine Energiefachplanung.

Forschungsgebiet Energieanlagen- und Infrastrukturrecht. Breite Bemessungsgrundlage und niedriger Proportionaltarif als alternative Erbschaftsteuerreform — Eine empirische Analyse. This submission deals with an alternative to the German Inheritance Tax Reform Act in form of an inheritance tax with a broad tax base and low tax rates.

In contrast to the new German Estate Tax Act we analyse an inheritance tax reform proposal that provides no tax relief for particular asset categories but contains low proportional tax rates. Our empirical analysis shows that abolishing of tax exemptions and market valuation of assets lead to a remarkable broadening of the inheritance t Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung.

The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control.

Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability.

Application to two epidemiological cohorts. Biological evidence of low ionizing radiation doses; Biologischer Nachweis niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung. Throughout life, every person is constantly exposed to different types of ionising radiation, without even noticing the exposure. The mean radiation exposure for people living in Germany amounts to approximately 4 mSv per year and encompasses the exposure from natural and man-made sources.

The risks associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are still the subject of intense and highly controversial discussions, emphasizing the social relevance of studies investigating the effects of low radiation doses. DSBs are among the most hazardous DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation, because this type of damage can easily lead to the loss of genetic information.

Consequently, the DSB presents a high risk for the genetic integrity of the cell. In the first project, extensive results uncovered the track structure of charged particles in a biological model tissue. This provided the first biological data that could be used for comparison with data that were measured or predicted using theoretical physical dosimetry methods and mathematical simulations. These cells receive a much lower dose deposition in the order of a few mGy. Moreover, the biological measurements indicate the presence of a background dose at larger distances from primary particles, which arises as a result of additive dose contributions from several independent particles.

In conclusion, this interdisciplinary project put emphasis on the transition between the physical and the biological radiation effects and provided extensive data for the biological verification of physical measurements and models. Some of these models are used for the planning of tumor treatment with charged particles. The second project built upon previously obtained data and focused on the investigation of the DSB repair efficiency of cells irradiated with low doses. For this project, radiation doses were selected that are comparable to the doses, which are routinely used during diagnostic medical examinations.

While a linear induction of DSBs with the applied dose was detected in human fibroblasts, these cells fail to repair DSBs efficiently after very low doses of X-rays. However, the repair efficiency was increased in cells pre-treated with low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that this induces a response, which is required for the repair of radiation-induced DSBs after exposure to low radiation doses Grudzenski et al. One interpretation of this finding is that a certain cellular radical level is required to efficiently activate the repair machinery.

To test this hypothesis, we asked if the DSB repair capacity at low doses can be further diminished when cells are treated with a radical scavenger prior to irradiation. Indeed, a decreased DSB repair capacity in cells pre-treated with the radical scavenger N-Acetylcystein was observed. Appropriate in vivo experiments with mice confirmed the physiological relevance of our cellular studies and suggests that the cellular radical level is critical for efficient DSB repair after low doses. In the third project, the inhomogeneous distribution of radon within the body of the mouse was investigated using a biological approach for the first time.

To determine the distribution of radon, the DSBs induced by the decay of radon and its daughter nucleotides were quantified in several tissues. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas, which can be found all over the world in different concentrations and contributes significantly to the natural radiation exposure of the population.

Although the exposure to radon is a well-characterized risk factor for the development of lung cancer, radon is a popular remedy for the treatment of patients suffering from painful inflammatory diseases.

Since conditions for the animal experiments were comparable to radon therapy sessions, the experimentally detected doses in the organs reflect their therapy-associated radiation exposure. Knowledge of the inhomogeneous radon distribution within the body and its resulting biological effects will help to shed light on the underlying mechanism that results in the therapeutic effect during the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The extensive biological data obtained here generally provides the unique possibility to verify and optimise mathematical models for risk assessment of radon exposures.

Collectively, the three projects of this thesis investigated consequences of the exposure to low radiation doses. The controversy surrounding the effects of low doses is still standing and the presented results support the view that every exposure leads to non-negligible biological effects. Therefore, detailed knowledge of radiation effects is essential for the therapeutic application as well as for radiation protection. Informationsaustausch ueber gefaehrliche Stoffe gestaerkt werden.

Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa. The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

Renewable energy sources, subsidised indefinitely? Ein ewiger Subventionstatbestand? The German Renewables Act, EEG, specified a guaranteed reimbursement rate for electric power from renewable energy sources. Normally, the reimbursement rate is far higher than the market value of the power generated and thus makes the plant economically interesting for its owner. It remains to be seen if the renewable energy sources with the biggest potential, i. Low-sintering condenser materials on the basis of barium titanate; Niedrig -sinternde Kondensatorwerkstoffe auf der Basis von Bariumtitanat.

The main objective of this work was the development of new barium titanate capacitor materials, which fully densified at a sintering temperature of C and exhibit a high and almost temperature-independent dielectric constant as well as low dielectric loss. In order to decrease the sintering temperature of barium titanate from ca. Li-containing sintering additives show the best result concerning densification and dielectric properties.

The sintered capacitor materials with the above mentioned additive combinations possess high dielectric constants from to Polymer electrolyte diaphragm fuel cells PEMFC are distinguished by high specific power densities which are necessary in the field of electrical drives, high efficiencies and no or very low emission of harmful substances, depending on the fuel. In the context of a leading project supported by BMBF, the development of improved and above all, more reasonably priced components for the PEMFC and the reforming of methanol is to work out the important technical basis for the subsequent economic conversion into a vehicle drive.

Promoting exports in the energy technology area; Foerderung des Exports im Bereich der Energietechnologien. Iten, R. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE examines the position of Switzerland as a leader in the investment goods markets for energy-efficiency products and for technologies for using renewable forms of energy. The report quotes figures for exports in these areas and discusses the difficulty of extracting useful data on these products from normal statistical data. Analyses made by a group of experts from the export-oriented technology field, energy service providers and representatives of export promotion institutions are presented and figures are quoted for various product categories.

Factors promoting the competitiveness of Swiss products are discussed as well as those impeding it. An analysis of export potential is presented and measures to promote export are discussed. The report also discusses the aids and promotion activities that are considered necessary by companies in the field and the macro-economic perspectives of increased export promotion. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations; Technologie-Monitoring - Weitere Bereiche - Vertiefungen.

Rigassi, R; Eicher, H [Dr. This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles.

Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered. Technology transfer in the field of small hydroelectric power stations; Technologietransfer im Bereich Kleinwasserkraft. The rate at which full-scale technology transfer takes place depends on the quality of the supply companies, i.

These parameters are discussed for the example of a water mill, and a flow diagram is presented. Hierbei sind Ausbildung, Organisationsentwicklung und Produktionsinfrastruktur besonders angesprochen. Fuer eine Wassermuehle werden diese Parameter konkret eroertert und an Durchlaufdiagrammen erlaeutert. This master's thesis discusses an important issue regarding how algorithmic decision making ADM is used in crime forecasting. In America forecasting tools are widely used by judiciary systems for making decisions about risk offenders based on criminal justice for risk offenders.

By making use of such tools, the judiciary relies on ADM in order to make error free judgement on offenders. Visualizing thesauri in the field of information retrieval; Visualisierung von Thesauri im Bereich des Information Retrieval. The first part of the paper comprises a brief historical review of the development of thesauri, providing an overview of tools for categorizing knowledge and covering a spectrum from wordnets to folksonomies.

The second part discusses existing strategies for displaying thesauri and explores basic considerations concerning the technical realization of visualizing a thesaurus as a Web application.

A problem experienced by users when navigating through hierarchical thesauri is the quasi-standard to display word blocks in tabular form. Starting from a top term all word block terms e. Human perception however is much better suited to grasp relationships by spatial clustering of items within a context. The shortcoming of the tabular approach is further amplified by the widespread practise of putting the top term in alphabetical context to other top terms in order to assist navigation.

However, using an alphabetical index for this purpose contradicts the paradigm of hierarchical thesauri in most cases. It is only in the domain of linguistic thesauri where the visualisation deviates from the classical tabular data view in favour of more intuitive visualisation paradigms.

Yet in those cases applications always fall back on additional software that needs to be installed into the Web browser. The approach chosen in the present project tries to solve both problem areas and provides an intuitively usable visualisation technique for hierarchical thesauri which runs on any current web browser natively i. A considerable portion of the publication is devoted to the concrete implementation of the INIS project. Special attention is given to the methodologies and techniques applied in client side programming, as completely new approaches have been developed in this area recently.

This annual report contains the extended abstracts of the work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and speeches. The work concerns theoretical nuclear physics, nuclear reactions, hyperfine interactions, atomic collisions, and developments of the VICKSI accelerator. See hints under the relevant topics. Novel, energy-optimized membrane design for biological waste water treatment systems; Ein neuentwickeltes Niedrig -Energie-Membransystem fuer Membran-Biologien. In industrial waste water treatment, circular movement of waste water, scarcity of space for erecting waste water treatment plants, and economy are factors of eminent importance, calling for innovative, efficient process techniques.

Up to now, separation of activated sludge from cleaned waste water has been done almost exclusively by means of sedimentation. Given that cleaning performance is directly proportional to biomass concentration, achieving higher biomass concentrations spells substantially enhanced efficiency per unit of space of biological systems, thus saving reaction volume.

For this task, membrane techniques are suitable, which, contrary to sedimentation, permit random-selection, operationally stable retention and concentration of biomass with a definitely smaller space requirement. Zur Abtrennung des Belebtschlammes vom gereinigten Abwasser wird bisher fast ausschliesslich die Sedimentation eingesetzt.

Der geringe Dichteunterschied zwischen Wasser und Biomasse macht jedoch grosse Nachklaerbecken notwendig und die erreichbaren Biomassekonzentrationen im Belebungsbecken bzw. Da die Reinigungsleistung der Biomassekonzentration direkt proportional ist, kann mit der Einstellung hoeherer Biomassekonzentrationen die Raumumsatzleistung biologischer Systeme erheblich gesteigert und somit Reaktionsvolumen eingespart werden.

Fuer diese Aufgabe koennen Membranverfahren eingesetzt werden, die im Gegensatz zur Sedimentation eine freie waehlbare betriebssichere Rueckhaltung und Aufkonzentrierung der Biomasse auf deutlich kleinerem Raum ermoeglichen. Renewable energy sources in Germany, through ; Erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland bis This brochure presents a picture of the rapid development of renewable energy sources in the years between and It shows the rapid growth and informs on the importance of renewable energy sources for climate protection. Apart from the effect of higher energy efficiency, this will also help Germany to make an ambitious contribution to climate protection world-wide.

Renewable energy sources are to provide the biggest share of power supply in the future. By , the EEG German Renewables Act envisages at least a 30 percent share for renewable energy sources as an intermediate goal. In the field of heat supply, at least 14 percent are envisaged fro Approaches for the financing of renewable energy in Europe; Finanzierungsansaetze fuer erneuerbare Energien in Europa.

This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE examines financing instruments that are already available in selected European countries and which could also be adapted for use in Switzerland, too. The study is limited to European countries that are comparable with Switzerland in terms of size, geography and gross national product.

Thus, the report considers biogas, solar, geothermal and small-hydro technologies in France, Austria, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Belgium and Switzerland. External and internal financing is considered as well as mezzanine capital. Risk management is discussed. Finally, the transferability of the various financing instruments to Switzerland is examined. Suggestions are made on how small and medium-sized enterprises can be supported in an active and growing Swiss market.

Feed-in prognoses for renewable forms of energy; Einspeiseprognosen fuer neue erneuerbare Energien - Schlussbericht. Dierer, S. The characteristics of the Swiss energy market are considered. Benefits of and potential for improvement are identified and recommendations for additional measures to be taken are given.

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The authors note that at present the forecast systems for wind energy are quite sophisticated, while there is room for improvement for solar energy and micro hydro unit forecasts. Ways of improving the forecasts are discussed. The business case developed within the framework of this project is to be completed and quantified as soon as data for is provided by the regulatory body 'swissgrid' and the balance group for renewable energies.

The report is completed with recommendations for further work. Renewable energy in district heating grids. A realistic perspective? Eine realistische Perspektive? Bruns, Elke [Technische Univ. Berlin Germany. These potentials can be tapped either by substituting fossil fuels in individual heating units or by using renewable energy in district heating networks, which may be more efficient. This paper asks for the options to increase the share of renewable energy in Germany's district heating infrastructure and for the restrictions that are hampering further development in this field.

It critically discusses the relevant technical, political and economic challenges and determinants. District heating networks fuelled by renewable energy are not only competing with fossil fuels in individual heating units. They are also facing the more fundamental question regarding the preconditions for a profitable and worthwhile operation of grid-bound heat supply.

The economic viability of heat grids has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis, since it depends predominantly on individual framework conditions. Those include a decreasing heat demand due to improving energy performance of buildings, competing gas grids already in place and the complex interest structures of the actors involved.

The growth rates that were observed in the last years were predominantly achieved in small renewably fuelled district heating networks. Even under favourable framework conditions, there is a need for additional supportive measures to increase the share of renewable energy in district heating grids. This mix of policy instruments should encompass measures to increase the implementation rates of municipal heat utilization concepts, measures to decrease the initial investments needed, as well as public relations to improve the user perception of grid-bound heat supply.

However, the options to increase the share of renewable heat in existing large-scale grids are considered to be rather limited. Energy autonomy. A new policy for renewable energies; Energieautonomie. Eine neue Politik fuer erneuerbare Energien. The petroleum resources are diminishing; resource conflicts invoke the new wars of our century.

With increasing energy demand the world races to its existential crisis. The renaissance of nuclear energy is therefore strongly promoted and energy industry is trying by all means to keep their predominance. It is gaming with fire, since only a holistic change over to the use of renewable energy sources can secure global energy demand. Why is rethinking so difficult and what strategies and technologies can help? Hermann Scheer descibes in his new book the manifold mental barriers, the power of traditional energy-thinking, but he also shows, how the change to renewables can be done and made irreversible.

The archimedic point is energy autonomy - a manifold feasible, technological, and economical concept. Energy autonomy can only be achieved with renewables and can be used at once and anywhere: decentralized, individually, with immediate noticable consequences. The new policy for renewables, developed by Scheer, frees the energy discussions from its prison fo specialized energy thinking.

A ideational and practical guideline for the overdue energy change. Second world renewable energy assembly WREA ; 2. Integration of renewable energies into the power supply system; Integration erneuerbarer Energien in das Stromversorgungssystem. In contrast to the record breaking speed with which the German government presented its new energy concept in response to the Fukushima reactor disaster, the practical task of transforming our energy supply system will take decades.

One of the greatest challenges involved in the energy turnaround will be that of integrating renewable energies into the power supply system. A holistic analysis and assessment of all aspects involved in this is therefore of utmost importance.