Manual American History, 1450-1580. Spain in America

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The encomienda has an institution has been well studied concerning its impacts on indigenous communities and how Spanish encomenderos profited from the system. This also had the effect of undermining the growing power of the encomendero group and the shift to free labor and the rise of the landed estate.

The encomienda there was less labor coercion than mobilizing networks of indigenous kin that Spaniards joined. Slave labor was utilized in various parts of Spanish America. African slave labor was introduced in the early Caribbean during the demographic collapse of the indigenous populations. The slave trade was in the hands of the Portuguese, who had an early monopoly on the coastal routes in Africa.

Africans learned skilled trades and functioned as artisans in cities and labor bosses over indigenous in the countryside. Studies of the African slave trade and the economic role of blacks in Spanish America have increased, particularly with the development of Atlantic history. Asian slaves in Spanish America have been less well studied, but monograph on Mexico indicates the promise of this topic.

The mobilization of indigenous labor in the Andes via the mita for the extraction of silver has been studied. There were multiple sites in Mexico, mainly in the north outside the zone of dense indigenous population, which initially necessitated pacification of the indigenous populations to secure the mining sites and the north-south transportation routes. Silver and silver mining have occupied an important place in the history of Spanish America and the Spanish Empire, since the two major sources of silver were found in the viceroyalties of New Spain Mexico and Peru, where there were significant numbers of indigenous and Spanish colonists.

With changes in eighteenth-century crown policies, silver production was revived after a slump in the seventeenth century. American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain. For a number of years scholars deeply researched landed estates, haciendas , and debated whether haciendas were feudal or capitalist and how they contributed to the economic development. Once Europeans developed a taste for chocolate, with the addition of sugar, cacao production expanded. The production of mind-altering commodities was an important source of profit for entrepreneurs and the Spanish administration.

Tobacco as a commodity was especially important in the late eighteenth century when the crown created a monopoly on its production and processing. Production and distribution of coca became big business, with non-indigenous owners of production sites, speculators, and merchants, but consumers consisting of indigenous male miners and local indigenous women sellers.

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The church benefited from coca production since it was by far the most valuable agricultural product and contributor to the tithe. Most high quality textiles were imported from Europe via the transatlantic trade controlled by Iberian merchants, but Mexico briefly produced silk. Cochineal was for Mexico its second most important export after silver, and the mechanisms to engage indigenous in Oaxaca involved crown officials and urban merchants.

From Spain, sailings to the major ports in Spanish America left from Seville. It was a distance up from the mouth of the Guadalquivir river, and its channel did not allow the largest transoceanic ships to dock there when fully loaded. Since trade and commerce were so integral to the rise of Spain's power, historians undertook studies of the policies and patterns. Parry 's classic The Spanish Seaborne Empire remains important for its clear explication of transatlantic trade, including ports, ships and ship building, [] and there is new work on Spanish politics and trade with information on the fleets.

Transatlantic trading companies based in Spain and with partners, usually other family members, established businesses to ship a variety of goods, sourced in Spain and elsewhere in Europe and shipped to the major ports of the overseas empire. The most important export from the New World was silver, which became essential for financing the Spanish crown and as other European powers became emboldened, the ships were targeted for their cargo.

The system of convoys or fleets Spanish: flota was established early on, with ships from Veracruz and from South America meeting in the Caribbean for a combined sailing to Spain. Transpacific trade with the Spanish archipelago of the Philippines was established, with Asian goods shipped from Manila to the port of Acapulco.

The Manila galleon brought silks, porcelains, and slaves to Mexico while Spanish silver was sent to Asia.

Historiography of Colonial Spanish America

The transpacific trade has been long neglected in comparison to the transatlantic trade and the rise of Atlantic history. Overland transportation of goods in Spanish America was generally by pack animals, especially mules, and in the Andean area llamas as well. But the Spanish did not build many roads allowing cart or carriage transport. Transportation costs and inefficiency were drags on economic development; the problem was not overcome until railroads were constructed in the late nineteenth century.

For bulky, low value foodstuffs, local supply was a necessity, which stimulated regional development of landed estates, particularly near mines. The ability to move silver from remote mining regions to ports was a priority, and the supplies to mines of mercury was essential. The environmental impact of economic activity has coalesced as a field in the late twentieth century, in particular Alfred Crosby 's work on the Columbian Exchange and "ecological imperialism. Melville's work on sheep grazing and ecological change in Mexico.

Independence in Spanish America occupies an ambiguous place in historiography, since it marks both the end of crown rule and the emergence of sovereign nations. The historiography of Spanish American independence has not had a unifying narrative, and has been generally linked to nation-centric accounts. He is one of many historians who have argued that political independence was by no means inevitable. The French capture of the Bourbon monarch Charles IV and his forced abdication in opened an era of political instability in Spain and Spanish America. Timothy Anna and Michael Costeloe have argued that the Bourbon monarchy collapsed, bringing into being new, sovereign nations, when American-born elites mainly sought autonomy within the existing system.

Spain itself entered a new era at the same time that Spanish American sovereign states were working out their new political reality. There are a number of standard works on independence, some of which have been revised in subsequent editions. Richard Graham 's Independence in Latin America remains a succinct examination. A classic work on the era is John Lynch 's The Spanish American Revolutions, , followed by many others on leaders "liberators" as well as the era generally.

General histories of colonial Latin America end with one or more chapters on independence. Brazil largely escaped these problems with the decamping of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil during the Napoleonic wars and the establishment of an independent Brazilian monarchy by a member of the Braganza dynasty in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Adams, Richard E. MacLeod , eds. II, Mesoamerica. New York: Cambridge University Press Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press , pp. The Cambridge History of Latin America. Colonial Latin America 9th edition. New York: Oxford University Press Burkholder, Mark A. Stanford: Stanford University Press Cline, Howard F.

Austin: University of Texas Press Delpar, Helen. University of Alabama Press Hamnett, Brian R. Princeton University Press Latin American Research Review vol. Lockhart, James and Stuart B. Schwartz , Early Latin American History. Schwartz , eds. The Early Spanish Main. Schroeder, Susan and Stafford Poole , eds. Religion in New Spain. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Stern, Steve J. Latin America portal. Austin: University of Texas Press, for a compendium of early modern sources and histories. Burrus, S. Prescott , History of the Conquest of Mexico and History of the Conquest of Peru , which have gone through multiple editions.

A new edition with a new introduction and supplementary bibliography was published in Howard F. Cline, ed. Austin: University of Texas Press , pp. Schwartz , Early Latin America. They state in the final sentence of the textbook that "at the deepest level, there are only two periods in the history of the Western Hemisphere, preconquest and postconquest, with the entire span since the arrival of the Europeans a single, unbroken continuum in most respects.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Latin American History: A new synthesis? History, 72 , American Historical Review , 90 5 , The History Teacher , 20 3 , The English Historical Review, , History, 72 , p. Johnson, Colonial Latin America 9th edition. Taylor , eds. New York: Oxford University Press, There is a significant portion of it on colonial history. Meyer and William H. Beezley, The Oxford History of Mexico. Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, Michael Francis, ed. Iberia and the Americas.

Chicago: Fitzroy and Dearborn Handbook of South American Indians 7 vols.

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Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press , p. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures. New York: Simon and Schuster Revised edition Norman: University of Oklahoma Press Princeton: Princeton University Press Johnson and Susan M. Durham: Duke University Press Greer and Walter Mignolo, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p. Hispanic American Historical Review Feb. Austin: University of Texas Press , p.

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Bolton, "The Epic of Greater America". The American Historical Review , — April London: Institute of Latin American Studies, Parry The Age of Reconnaissance. Floyd, The Columbus Dynasty in the Caribbean, Sauer, The Early Spanish Main. Tuscoloosa: University of Alabama Press Prentice Hall , pp. Arthur J. Anderson and Charles Dibble, translators and editors. Cline and Sarah Cline, editors and translators. Jorge Klor de Alva et al. Albany: State University of New York, The Broken Spears.

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Malden MA: Wiley-Blackwell , pp. New York: Routledge, Originally published in French New York: MacMillan Barbier, Reform and Politics in Bourbon Chile, — London: Athlone Farriss , Crown and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, — Hamnett, Politics and Trade in Southern Mexico, — Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press Madison: University of Wisconsin Press , revised Austin: University of Texas Press, Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos Boston: Beacon Press Boulder: Westview Press Berkeley: University of California Press Champion of Reform, Manuel Abad y Queipo.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press Westport and London: Greenwood Press II Mesoamerica.

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I South America. Cambridge University Press New Haven: Yale University Press Albuquerque: New Mexico, Stern, ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press Vienna: Bohlau Verlag Walker, The Tupac Amaru Rebellion.

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Cambridge: Harvard University Press Durham: Duke University Press. Hispanic American Historical Review Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Mexico City: Fuente Cultural New York: Vintage Books Boston: Little Brown Chance and William B. Milan: Olivetti Hispanic American Historical Review Nov. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press The Women of Colonial Latin America. Ladd, The Mexican Nobility at Independence, Johnson and Sonya Lipsett-Rivera, eds. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Margaret Sayers Peden. Kathleen Meyers and Amanda Powell. Indian Women of Early Mexico.

Durham: Duke University Press , pp. Sidney Evans and Meredith Dodge, trans. Michele Stepto and Gabriel Stepto, trans. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press , pp. Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, The spiritual conquest of Mexico: An essay on the apostolate and the evangelizing methods of the mendicant orders in New Spain, Lesley Byrd Simpson.

Spain in America, by Edward Gaylord Bourne

Berkeley, University of California Press, Sell and Louise Burkhart, Nahuatl Theater. Leiden: E. Brill Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press New York: Rizzoli Lima: stadium New York: The Brooklyn Museum The work deals exclusively with Spanish America. Phoebus: A Journal of Art History. Phoenix: Arizona State University Exhibition catalog. Denver: Denver Art Museum Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art Leonard, Baroque Times in Old Mexico.

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