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After these procedures, data from households belonging to the same stratum were grouped and then divided by the total number of residents in the stratum in order to express monthly per capita spending and household calorie availability. Eating away from home was then calculated as share of total food spending. Income and spending figures from the survey were corrected for inflation to make them consistent with those found in the survey.
We also calculated the mean years of schooling for the head of household and the proportion of individuals under five years and over 64 years of age. We began by examining the variation in the share of spending on eating away from home from to for the total population and according to strata consisting of socio-demographic and economic characteristics. Student t-test was used to test the difference between two means for independent samples, to verify the existence of significant differences in the study period. Using only the database, we also analyzed the association between the share of eating away from home in total food spending and monthly per capita income, adjusted for possible confounders socio-demographic characteristics of the strata.
Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate income elasticity coefficients. Food price can favorably alter macronutrient intake in China. J Nutr ; The general model used in the study can thus be described as:. An extension of the general regression model including the quadratic term for monthly per capita income was tested to identify a possible non-linear relationship between this variable and share of eating away from home in total food spending.
The same occurred with total monthly per capita food spending a significant increase from BRL From to , there was a significant increase in the share of eating away from home in total food spending for the Brazilian population as a whole from There was also a significant increase in share of eating away from home in total food spending in all the geographic regions and areas. As expected, in both surveys, the purchase of calories for consumption at the home showed an inverse association with the share of spending on eating away from home Table 2.
The increase in income was directly associated with spending on eating away from home, even after adjusting for confounding. Figure 1 showed the predicted values for share of eating away from home in total food spending according to variation in monthly per capita income in As family income increases, income elasticity decreases progressively until approaching zero 0.
This means an intense increase in the share of eating away from home in total food spending as income increases, especially among lower-income families. Brazil, The detailed record of food purchases in the and surveys showed an increase in eating away from home as a share of total food spending in Brazil.
Although always positive, the effect of income on the share of eating away from home decreased with increasing income. Public concern over the increase in food consumption away from home as shown in our results is justified by the reduction in nutritional quality associated with this behavior. Eating out of home: energy, macro- and micronutrient intakes in 10 European countries.
Nutritional quality of major meals consumed away from home in Brazil and its association with the overall diet quality. Dietary sensory variety and energy balance. Physiol Behav ; Away-from-home family dinner sources and associations with weight status, body composition, and related biomarkers of chronic disease among adolescents and their parents.
J Am Diet Assoc ; Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the Nationwide Dietary Survey. Br J Nutr ; Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, JAMA ; The current study extends our knowledge on eating away from home in Brazil by analyzing, for the first time, the short-term trend in this behavior using representative samples of the national population.
Furthermore, the statistical control adopted in this analysis of socio-demographic attributes that could act as confounders or effect modifiers in the association between eating away from home and family income contribute favorably to the quality of the findings. Still, as in any observational study, one cannot rule out the existence of confounding factors that were not included in our analysis.
Eating away from home occupied a major place in food spending by Brazilian families nearly one-third of total food spending. O mercado de food service no Brasil. Rev Nutr ; The new normal? American Journal of Agricultural Economics ; Agricultural and Resource Economics Review ; JL, Bai J. Household composition and food away from home expenditures in urban China.
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This scenario may be explained by the higher direct cost of eating away from home due to the additional costs in preparing storing, and marketing the foods , an important impediment to the increase in this behavior in low-income families. Likewise, the share of eating away from home also tended to be greater in more urbanized areas State capitals and metropolitan areas.
This can be explained by the higher per capita income and the larger supply of restaurants and other eating establishments that facilitate food consumption away from home. Thus, this study analyzed eating away from home as the share of total food spending and not food consumption per se. Even so, there is no reason to believe that the direction of the associations found by the study would have been different if it had been possible to evaluate the purchase of foods themselves for consumption away from home. Since the share of spending on eating away from home is inversely related to the amount of calories purchased for consumption at home, in both the and surveys it is acceptable to believe that spending is a good proxy for the amount of foods actually consumed away from home.
Another possible limitation relates to expenditures on foods to be consumed by residents of other households information included in the POF data of the IBGE. This limitation would tend to be minimal, because the beneficiaries of these expenditures some 0. Due to the great economic and geographic homogeneity of the strata, this hypothesis is highly possible, although it cannot be confirmed. This suggests that a favorable trend in income, especially among the poorer strata of the population, will lead to even more intense future increases in the share of eating away from home when compared to the increases observed in this study.
About the authors. Food Consumption; Nutrition Surveys; Income. Consumo de Alimentos; Encuestas Nutricionales; Renta. Introduction Patterns of food consumption and physical activity have changed radically in the Brazilian population in recent decades. Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of study units. Brazil, and