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Ecco i compagni del Fuoco in cui rimarranno in eterno. E Abramo: "Allah fa sorgere il sole da Oriente, fallo nascere da Occidente". Disse Allah: "Prendi quattro uccelli e falli a pezzi, poi mettine una parte su ogni monte e chiamali: verranno da te con volo veloce. Allah moltiplica il merito di chi vuole Lui. Essi non avranno nessun vantaggio dalle loro azioni. Allah non guida il popolo dei miscredenti. Allah osserva quello che fate. E chi riceve la saggezza, ha ricevuto un bene enome. E per gli iniqui non ci saranno soccorritori.

Li riconoscerai per questo segno, che non chiedono alla gente importunandola. Quanto a chi persiste, ecco i compagni del Fuoco. Vi rimarranno in perpetuo. Allah non ama nessun ingrato peccatore. Non fate torto e non subirete torto. Lo scriba non si rifiuti di scrivere secondo quel che Allah gli ha insegnato; che scriva dunque e sia il contraente a dettare, temendo il suo Signore Allah e badi a non diminuire in nulla.

E i testimoni non rifiutino quando sono chiamati. Non fatevi prendere da pigrizia nello scrivere il debito e il termine suo, sia piccolo o grande. Allah conosce tutte le cose. Se qualcuno affida qualcosa ad un altro, restituisca il deposito il depositario e tema Allah il suo Signore. Allah conosce tutto quello che fate.

Essays on Gender, Culture and History

E dicono: "Abbiamo ascoltato e obbediamo. Perdono, Signore! Signore, non caricarci di un peso grave come quello che imponesti a coloro che furono prima di noi. Assolvici, perdonaci, abbi misericordia di noi. Tu sei il nostro patrono, dacci la vittoria sui miscredenti ". E ha fatto scendere il Discrimine. Esso contiene versetti espliciti, che sono la Madre del Libro, e altri che si prestano ad interpretazioni diverse. Coloro che sono radicati nella scienza dicono: " Noi crediamo: tutto viene dal nostro Signore". Ma i soli a ricordarsene sempre sono i dotati di intelletto.

Saranno combustibile del Fuoco. Avevano tacciato di menzogna i Nostri segni. Allah li ha colti nel peccato. Che infame giaciglio! Ebbene, Allah presta il Suo aiuto a chi vuole. Ecco un argomento di riflessione per coloro che hanno intelletto. Per quelli che sono timorati ci sono, presso il Signore, giardini nei quali scorrono ruscelli ed essi vi resteranno in eterno, e spose purissime e il compiacimento di Allah". Allah osserva i Suoi servi. Quelli che ricevettero la Scrittura caddero nella discordia, nemici gli uni degli altri, solo dopo aver avuto la scienza Ma chi rifiuta i segni di Allah,.

Allah osserva i Suoi schiavi. E concedi a chi vuoi senza contare". Allah vi mette in guardia nei Suoi Stessi confronti. Ma se volgerete le spalle, ecco, Allah non ama i miscredenti". Accettalo da parte mia. Disse: " O Maria, da dove proviene questo? Disse: " Da parte di Allah". Allah fa quel che vuole". Ma ricorda molto il tuo Signore e glorificaLo al mattino e alla sera". Sono venuto a voi con un segno da parte del vostro Signore. Temete dunque Allah e obbeditemi. AdorateLo dunque: ecco la retta via". Noi crediamo in Allah, sii testimone della nostra sottomissione.

Abbiamo creduto in quello che hai fatto scendere e abbiamo seguito il messaggero, annoveraci tra coloro che testimoniano". Allah non ama i prevaricatori ". Se poi volgono le spalle allora dite: "Testimoniate che noi siamo musulmani". Non capite dunque? E non era uno degli associatori. Ma furono loro a perdersi e non ne sono coscienti. Forse si ricrederanno.

E consapevolmente dicono menzogne contro Allah. Dicono: "Proviene da Allah", mentre invece non proviene da Allah. E, consapevolmente, dicono menzogne contro Allah. Vi ordinerebbe la miscredenza mentre siete musulmani? Disse: "Accettate queste Mie condizioni? Allah non guida coloro che prevaricano.

Essi sono coloro che si sono persi. Tutto quello che donate Allah lo conosce. Quanto a colui che lo nega sappia che Allah fa a meno delle creature". Ecco coloro che prospereranno. Gustate il castigo della miscredenza". Questi sono i devoti. Ecco che vi manifestiamo i segni, se potete comprenderli. Mentre voi credete a tutta la Scrittura loro, quando vi incontrano, dicono: "Crediamo"; ma quando son soli, si mordono le dita rabbiosi contro di voi. Se un male vi colpisce, gioiscono. Allah abbraccia tutto quello che fanno.

I credenti ripongano fede in Allah. Temete Allah! Egli perdona chi vuole e castiga chi vuole. Che bella ricompensa per coloro che ben agiscono! Percorrete la terra e vedrete che fine hanno fatto coloro che tacciavano di menzogna. Allah ama i perseveranti. Allah ama coloro che fanno il bene. Se obbedite ai miscredenti, vi faranno tornare sui vostri passi e sarete sconfitti. Disobbediste, quando intravvedeste quello che desideravate. Allah vi ha fatto fuggire davanti a loro per mettervi alla prova e poi certamente vi ha perdonati. Dicevano: "Cosa abbiamo guadagnato in questa impresa?

Allah conosce quello che celano i cuori. Allah ne voleva fare un. Se fossi stato duro di cuore, si sarebbero allontanati da te. Perdona loro e supplica che siano assolti. Consultati con loro sugli ordini da impartire; poi, quando hai deciso abbi fiducia in Allah. Allah ama coloro che confidano in Lui. Confidino in Allah i credenti. Quando fu detto loro: "Venite a combattere sul sentiero di Allah o [almeno] difendetevi!

Le loro bocche non dicevano quello che celavano nel cuore. Ma Allah conosce bene quello che nascondevano. Sono vivi invece e ben provvisti dal loro Signore,. Allah possiede grazia immensa. Non abbiate paura di loro, ma temete Me se siete credenti. Avranno un castigo avvilente. Credete in Allah e nei Suoi messaggeri.

Se crederete e vi comporterete da timorati, avrete una ricompensa immensa. Siate perseveranti e devoti, ecco il miglior atteggiamento da assumere. Gloria a Te! Preservaci dal castigo del Fuoco. Signore, perdona i nostri peccati, cancella le nostre colpe e facci morire con i probi. Che infausto giaciglio. Ecco quelli che avranno la mercede da parte del loro Signore. Invero Allah veglia su di voi. Se graziosamente esse ve ne cedono una parte, godetevela pure e che vi sia propizia. E quando restituite i loro beni, chiamate i testimoni; ma Allah basta a tenere il conto di ogni cosa.

Ai genitori [del defunto] tocca un sesto, se. Se li hanno, vi spetta un quarto di quello che lasciano, dopo aver dato seguito al testamento e [pagato] i debiti. Se invece ne avete, avranno un ottavo di quello che lasciate, dopo aver dato seguito al testamento e pagato i debiti. Ecco la beatitudine immensa. Per costoro abbiamo preparato doloroso castigo. Comportatevi verso di loro convenientemente. Allah conosce meglio la vostra fede, voi provenite gli uni dagli altri. Sposatele con il consenso della gente loro, e versate la dote in modo conveniente; siano donne rispettabili e non libertine o amanti.

Chiedete ad Allah, alla grazia Sua. Date la loro parte a coloro coi quali avete stretto un patto. Le [donne] virtuose sono le devote, che proteggono nel segreto quello che Allah ha preservato. Abbiamo preparato un castigo doloroso per i miscredenti,. Chi ha Satana per compagno ha un compagno detestabile. Allah ben li conosce! Se siete malati o in viaggio, o se uscite da una latrina, o avete avuto rapporto con le donne e non trovate acqua, fate allora la lustrazione pulverale con terra pulita con cui sfregherete il viso e le mani. Comprano la perdizione e cercano di farvi allontanare dalla Retta via.

Allah li ha maledetti per la loro miscredenza. Credono molto debolmente. Ma chi attribuisce consimili a Allah, commette un peccato immenso. E non subiranno neppure un torto grande quanto una pellicola di dattero. Abbiamo dato alla famiglia di Abramo il Libro e la Saggezza e abbiamo dato loro immenso regno. Allah vi esorta al meglio. Ebbene, Satana vuole precipitarli nella perdizione.

Verranno da te giurando per Allah: "Perseguivamo il bene e la concordia! Se, dopo aver mancato nei loro stessi confronti, venissero da te e chiedessero il perdono di Allah e se il Messaggero chiedesse perdono per loro, troverebbero Allah pronto ad accogliere il pentimento, misericordioso. Basta Allah ad essere onnisciente. Preparatevi e poi partite in missione a gruppi o in massa.

Se fossi rimasto con loro avrei avuto un enorme guadagno". A chi combatte per la causa di Allah, sia ucciso o vittorioso, daremo presto ricompensa immensa. Combattete gli alleati di Satana. Deboli sono le astuzie di Satana. Se potessi rinviarci il termine! Non subirete neanche un danno grande come una pellicola di dattero. Se giunge loro un bene, dicono: "Viene da Allah". Se giunge un male, dicono: "Viene da te".

E quanto a coloro che volgono le spalle, non ti abbiamo inviato come loro guardiano! Ma Allah scrive quello che tramano nella notte. Non ti curar di loro e riponi la tua fiducia in Allah. Se provenisse da altri che da Allah, vi avrebbero trovato molte contraddizioni. Allah vigila su tutte le cose. Allah li ha respinti per quello che si sono meritati. Volete forse guidare coloro che Allah ha allontanato?

Women and Italy

A chi viene allontanato da Allah, non potrai trovare una via. Ma se vi volgono le spalle, allora afferrateli e uccideteli ovunque li troviate. Se Allah avesse voluto, avrebbe dato loro potere su di voi e vi avrebbero combattuti. Pertanto, se rimangono neutrali, non vi combatto no e vi offrono la pace, ebbene, Allah non vi concede nulla contro di loro. Ogni volta che hanno occasione di sedizione, vi si precipitano. Se non si mantengono neutrali, se non vi offrono la pace e non abbassano le armi, afferrateli e uccideteli ovunque li incontriate. Vi abbiamo dato su di loro evidente potere.

Chi, involontariamente, uccide un credente, affranchi uno schiavo credente e versi alla famiglia [della vittima] il prezzo del sangue, a meno che essi non vi rinuncino caritatevolmente. Se il morto, seppur credente, apparteneva a gente vostra nemica, venga affrancato uno schiavo credente. Se apparteneva a gente con la quale avete stipulato un patto, venga versato il prezzo del sangue alla [sua] famiglia e si affranchi uno schiavo credente. E chi non ne ha i mezzi, digiuni due mesi consecutivi per dimostrare il pentimento davanti ad Allah.

A questi Allah ha dato eccellenza su coloro che rimangono nelle loro case e una ricompensa immensa:. Qual tristo rifugio. Ai miscredenti piacerebbe vedere che abbandonate le armi e le salmerie per piombarvi addosso in un sol colpo. Non difendere la causa dei traditori. Allah abbraccia [nella Sua scienza tutto] quello che fanno. Allah ha fatto scendere su di te il Libro e la Saggezza e ti ha insegnato quello che non sapevi.

A chi fa questo per compiacimento di Allah daremo ricompensa mmensa. Qual triste destino. Ma chi attribuisce consimili ad Allah, si perde lontano nella perdizione. Non invocano altro che Satana il ribelle. Chi prende Satana per patrono al posto di Allah, si perde irrimediabilmente. Satana promette solo per ingannare. Allah prese Abramo per amico. Allah abbraccia [nella Sua scienza] tutte le cose. Allah conosce tutto il bene che operate. Allah ha tutto il potere di farlo.

Non vi abbiamo difeso contro i credenti? Non prendetevi per alleati i miscredenti invece che i credenti. Vorreste dare ad Allah un valido argomento con voi stessi? Allah tutto ascolta e conosce. Poi si presero il Vitello, dopo che ebbero le Prove. Coloro che sono in discordia a questo proposito, restano nel dubbio: non hanno altra scienza e non seguono altro che la congettura. Per certo non lo hanno ucciso. A quelli di loro che sono miscredenti, abbiamo preparato un castigo atroce. E abbiamo fatto scendere su di voi una Luce chiarissima.

Vi sono permessi gli animali dei greggi, eccetto quello che vi reciteremo. Non cacciate quando siete in stato di sacralizzazione. Allah comanda quello che vuole. Dopo che vi sarete desacralizzati, potrete cacciare liberamente. Temete Allah. Quando vi levate per la preghiera, lavatevi il volto, le mani [e gli avambracci] fino ai gomiti, passate le mani bagnate sulla testa e lavate i piedi fino alle caviglie. Se siete malati o in viaggio o uscendo da una latrina o dopo aver accostato le donne non trovate acqua, fate la lustrazione con terra pulita, passandola sul volto e sugli avambracci.

Confidino in Allah i credenti! Non cesserai di scoprire tradimenti da parte loro, eccetto alcuni. Sii indulgente con loro e dimentica. Allah ama i magnanimi. Ma dimenticarono una parte di quello che era stato loro ricordato. Suscitammo tra loro odio e inimicizia fino al Giorno della Resurrezione.

Una Luce e un Libro chiaro vi son giunti da Allah. Egli perdona a chi vuole e castiga chi vuole. Ricordate la grazia di Allah su di voi quando ha scelto tra voi i Profeti! E fece di voi dei re e vi diede quello che non aveva mai dato a nessun popolo al mondo. Va tu con il Signore tuo e combattete insieme. Lo uccise e divenne uno di coloro che si sono perduti.

Regime patrimoniale dei coniugi

I Nostri messaggeri sono venuti a loro con le prove! Eppure molti di loro commisero eccessi sulla terra. Avranno doloroso castigo. Avranno perpetuo tormento. Egli castiga chi vuole e perdona chi vuole. Se Allah vuole che un uomo cada nella tentazione, tu non puoi fare niente contro Allah [per proteggerlo]. Se vengono da te, sii arbitro tra loro o allontanati. E se ti allontanerai, non potranno mai nuocerti in nulla. Essi non sono credenti! Con essa giudicavano tra i giudei, i profeti sottomessi ad Allah, e i rabbini e i dottori: [giudicavano] in base a quella parte dei precetti di Allah che era stata loro affidata e della quale erano testimoni.

Non temete gli uomini, ma temete Me. E non svendete a vil prezzo i segni Miei. Coloro che non giudicano secondo quello che Allah ha fatto scendere, questi sono i miscredenti. Coloro che non giudicano secondo quello che Allah ha fatto scendere, questi sono gli ingiusti. Coloro che non giudicano secondo quello che Allah ha fatto scendere, questi sono gli iniqui. Ad ognuno di voi abbiamo assegnato una via e un percorso. Bada che non cerchino di allontanarti da una parte di quello che Allah ha fatto scendere su di te. Se poi ti volgon le spalle, sappi che Allah vuole colpirli per alcuni dei loro peccati.

Invero molti uomini sono perversi. Le loro opere si sono vanificate e saranno coloro che si perdono. Temete Allah se siete credenti. Allah conosce bene quello che nascondono. Siano incatenate le mani loro e siano maledetti per quel che hanno detto. Abbiamo destato tra loro odio e inimicizia fino al gior- no della Resurrezione. Ogni volta che accendono un fuoco di guerra, Allah lo spegne.

Gareggiano nel seminare disordine sulla terra, ma Allah non ama i corruttori. Invero Allah non guida un popolo di miscredenti. Non ti affliggere per i miscredenti. Poi Allah accolse il loro pentimento. Poi molti altri divennero ciechi e sordi. Gli ingiusti non avranno chi li soccorra!

Altri messaggeri era- no venuti prima di lui, e sua madre era una veridica. Eppure entrambi mangiavano cibo. Guarda come rendiamo evidenti i Nostri segni, quindi guarda come se ne allontanano. Non seguite le stesse passioni che seguirono coloro che si sono traviati e che hanno traviato molti altri, che hanno perduto la retta via. Rimarranno in perpetuo nel castigo. Non eccedete. E chi non ha i mezzi di farlo, digiuni allora per tre giorni. Tenete fede ai giuramenti! Ve ne asterrete? Non uccidete la selvaggina se siete in stato di consacrazione.

Allah conosce quello che manifestate e quello che tenete nascosto. I miscredenti inventano menzogne contro Allah, e la maggior parte di loro non ragiona. Anche se i loro avi non possedevano scienza alcuna e non erano sulla retta via? Noi non trasgrediremo. In tal caso saremmo tra gli ingiusti! Temete Allah e ascoltate. Allah non guida gli ingiusti. Guaristi, col Mio permesso, il cieco nato e il lebbroso. E col Mio permesso risuscitasti il morto. Tu sei testimone di tutte le cose. Eppure ancora dubitate! Conosce quello che nascondete, quello che palesate e quello che vi meritate.

Mandammo loro dal cielo pioggia in abbondanza e creammo fiumi che facemmo scorrere ai loro piedi. Se avessimo fatto scendere un angelo, la questione sarebbe stata chiusa: non avrebbero avuto dilazione alcuna. Quello di cui si burlavano, oggi li avvolge. Quelli che non credono preparano la loro stessa rovina. Coloro che non credono preparano la loro rovina. Non eravamo associatori!

Come le loro calunnie li abbandoneranno! Anche se vedessero ogni genere di segni, non crederebbero. Non operano che la loro stessa rovina, pur non essendone coscienti. Se anche li rimandassimo [sulla terra] rifarebbero quello che era loro vietato. Porteranno sulla schiena il loro fardello. Che orribile carico! Se Allah volesse, potrebbe metterli tutti sulla retta via. Non essere dunque fra gli ignoranti!

Non abbiamo dimenticato nulla nel Libro. Poi tutti saranno ricondotti verso il loro Signore. Allah svia chi vuole e pone chi vuole sulla retta via. La lode appartiene ad Allah, Signore dei mondi! Guarda come esplicitiamo per loro i Nostri segni, eppure se ne allontanano. Non riflettete dunque? Bramano il Suo Volto. Non renderai conto di loro e non renderanno conto di te. Se li scacciassi saresti tra gli ingiusti. Allah conosce meglio di ogni altro coloro che [Gli] sono grati. Allah conosce meglio di chiunque altro gli ingiusti.

Non cade una foglia senza che Egli non ne abbia conoscenza. E quando la morte si presenta a uno di voi, i Nostri angeli lo richiamano senza negligenza alcuna. Ecco coloro che sono stati abbandonati alla perdizione per quel che avranno fatto. Saranno dissetati con acqua bollente e avranno un castigo doloroso per la loro miscredenza. Volgeremo le spalle dopo che Allah ci ha guidato, come colui che viene indotto a vagabondare sulla terra dai demoni, mentre i suoi compagni lo richiamano sulla giusta pista. Nel giorno in cui dice: "Sii! Vedo che tu e il tuo popolo siete in palese errore!

Il mio Signore abbraccia tutte le cose nella Sua scienza. Non rifletterete dunque? Noi eleviamo il livello di chi vogliamo. Era tutta gente del bene. Concedemmo a tutti loro eccellenza sugli uomini. Se avessero attribuito ad Allah dei consimili, tutte le loro opere sarebbero state vane.

Quello che vi abbiamo concesso, lo avete gettato dietro le spalle. Non vediamo con voi i vostri intercessori, gli alleati che pretendevate fossero vostri soci. I legami tra voi sono stati tagliati e le vostre congetture vi hanno abbandonato. Come potete allontanarvi da Lui? Della notte fa un riposo, del sole e della luna una misura [del tempo]. Noi mostriamo i segni a coloro che comprendono. Certamente abbiamo dispiegato i segni per coloro che capiscono. E giardini piantati a vigna e olivi e melograni, che si assomigliano ma sono diversi gli uni dagli altri. Osserva i frutti quando si formano e maturano.

Ecco segni per gente che crede! E Gli hanno attribuito, senza nulla sapere, figli e figlie. Come potrebbe avere un figlio, se non ha compagna, Lui che ha creato ogni cosa e che tutto conosce? AdorateLo dunque. Allontanati dai politeisti. Non ti abbiamo nominato loro custode e neppure sei loro difensore. Ma la maggior parte di loro ignora! Lasciali soli con le loro invenzioni,. Non essere, dunque, tra coloro che dubitano. Egli ascolta e sa. Molti traviano gli altri a causa delle loro passioni e della loro ignoranza. Il tuo Signore conosce i trasgressori meglio di chiunque altro.

Coloro che si caricano del peccato saranno compensati per quello che avranno guadagnato. I diavoli ispirano ai loro amici la polemica con voi. Se li seguiste sareste associatori. Ma tramano solo contro loro stessi e non ne sono coscienti! Ma Allah sa meglio di loro dove porre il Suo Messaggio. Abbiamo spiegato i segni per il popolo che si sforza nel ricordo. La vita terrena li ha ingannati ed hanno testimoniato contro loro stessi di essere miscredenti.

Gli oppressori non prospereranno. Quale sciagurato giudizio! Se Allah volesse, non lo farebbero. Lasciali dunque alle loro bestemmie. Quali pretese! Forgiano menzogne contro di Lui! E se nasce morto, lo dividono fra tutti. Vietammo loro il grasso dei bovini e degli ovini, a parte quello del dorso, delle viscere o quello frammisto a ossa. Non avvicinatevi alle cose turpi, siano esse palesi o nascoste. E, a parte il buon diritto, non uccidete nessuno di coloro che Allah ha reso sacri.

Obbedite al patto con Allah. Ecco cosa vi ordina. Forse ve ne ricorderete. Ecco che dal vostro Signore vi sono giunte prove, guida e misericordia. Presto compenseremo quelli che si allontanano dai Nostri segni con un duro castigo per essersi allontanati. La loro sorte appartiene a Allah. Quanto poco ve ne ricordate! Quanto poco siete riconoscenti! Avrete sulla terra dimora e godimento prestabilito. Esso e i suoi alleati vi vedono da dove voi non li vedete.

A coloro che non credono abbiamo assegnato i diavoli per alleati. Non saremmo stati guidati, se Allah non ci avesse guidato. E voi avete verificato quello che vi era stato promesso? Non avrete niente da temere e non sarete afflitti. Ci sono intercessori che possano intercedere per noi, o potremo ritornare per poterci comportare diversamente da come ci siamo comportati?

Si sono rovinati da loro stessi e quello che inventavano li ha abbandonati. Ha coperto il giorno con la notte ed essi si susseguono instancabilmente. Il sole e la luna e le stelle sono sottomesse ai Suoi comandi. La lode [appartiene] ad Allah Signore dei mondi! InvocateLo con timore e desiderio. Forse rifletterete. Temo, per voi, il castigo di un Giorno terribile. Non Lo temerete? Se sei sincero, mostraci quello di cui ci minacci. Sono persone che vogliono esser pure!

Riempite la misura e date il giusto peso e non danneggiate gli uomini nei loro beni. Ricordatevi di quando eravate pochi ed Egli vi ha moltiplicati. Non potremo farvi ritorno - a meno che lo voglia Allah nostro Signore. Il nostro Signore possiede la scienza di ogni cosa. In Allah riponiamo la nostra fiducia. Come potrei ora essere afflitto per un popolo di miscredenti? Giunsero loro messaggeri con prove evidenti, ma essi non potevano credere in quello che prima avevano tacciato di menzogna.

Son giunto con una prova da parte del vostro Signore. Dopo che ebbero gettato, stregarono gli occhi della gente, la spaventarono e realizzarono un grande incantesimo. Ebbene, presto saprete:. Non dipendeva da Allah la loro sorte? Ma la maggior parte di loro non sapeva. Ma furono orgogliosi e rimasero un popolo di perversi. Incontrarono un popolo che cercava rifugio presso i propri idoli. Saranno compensati per altro che quello che avranno fatto? Non si accorsero che non parlava loro e che non li guidava su nessuna via? Volevate affrettare il decreto del vostro Signore?

In tal modo ricompensiamo i mentitori. In esse era scritta la guida e la misericordia per coloro che temono il loro Signore. Tu sei il nostro Patrono, perdonaci e usaci misericordia. Tu sei il migliore dei perdonatori. Allora inviammo contro di loro un castigo dal cielo, per il torto che avevano commesso. Tra loro ci sono genti del bene e altre [che non lo sono]. Se fossero giunti altri beni terreni, ugualmente se ne sarebbero appropriati! Forse ritorneranno. Fu come il cane che ansima se lo attacchi e ansima se lo lasci stare. Questi sono gli incuranti. Egli lascia che procedano alla cieca nella loro ribellione.

Ti interrogano come se tu ne fossi avvertito. Ma la maggior parte degli uomini non lo sa. Invocateli dunque e che vi rispondano, se siete sinceri! Li vedi: rivolgono lo sguardo verso di te, ma non vedono. Ecco [venirvi] dal vostro Signore un invito alla visione chiara: una direzione, una misericordia per coloro che credono. Temete Allah e mantenete la concordia tra di voi.

Obbedite ad Allah e al Suo Messaggero, se siete credenti. Nel Signore confidano,. I miscredenti avranno il castigo del Fuoco! Qual triste rifugio! Quando tiravi non eri tu che tiravi, ma era Allah che tirava, per provare i credenti con bella prova. Se invece ritornerete, Noi ritorneremo. Poi vi diede sicurezza e vi soccorse con il Suo aiuto e vi dette cibo eccellente. Sarete mai riconoscenti? Non tradite, consapevolmente, la fiducia riposta in voi.

Essi tramavano intrighi e Allah tesseva strategie. Se volessimo potremmo dire le stesse cose: queste non sono che favole degli antichi! Solo i timorati [di Allah] ne sono. Li dilapideranno, poi li rimpiangeranno e infine soccomberanno. Essi sono coloro che avranno perduto. Se poi smettono? Quale miglior patrono, quale miglior soccorritore. Se vi foste dati un appuntamento, sareste stati discordi sul luogo. Era necessario che Allah realizzasse un ordine che doveva essere eseguito. Tutte le cose sono ricondotte ad Allah.

Allah abbraccia [nel Suo sapere] tutto quello che fanno. Sono io il vostro patrono! Li facemmo perire per i loro peccati. Venti di voi, pazienti, ne domineranno duecento e cento di voi avranno il sopravvento su mille miscredenti. Cento di voi, perseveranti, ne domineranno duecento; e se sono mille, con il permesso di Allah, avranno il sopravvento su duemila. Non potrete allearvi con quelli che hanno creduto, ma che non sono emigrati, fino a che non emigrino. Se vi chiedono aiuto in nome della religione, prestateglielo pure, ma non contro genti con le quali avete stretto un patto.

Allah ben osserva quel che fate. Se non agirete in questo modo, ci saranno disordine e grande corruzione sulla terra. Messaggero, nei confronti di quei politeisti con i quali concludeste un patto. Allah svergogna i miscredenti. Annuncia, a coloro che non credono, un doloroso castigo. Allah ama coloro che [Lo] temono. Allah ama i timorati.

A parole vi compiace ranno, ma nel loro cuore vi rinnegano. Non ci sono giuramenti. Son loro che vi hanno attaccato per primi. Li temerete? Allah accoglie il pentimento di chi Egli vuole. Ecco quelli che vanificano le opere loro e che rimarranno perpetuamente nel Fuoco. Forse saranno tra coloro che sono ben diretti. Non sono uguali di fronte a Allah. Essi sono i vincenti.

Li annienti Allah. Quanto sono fuorviati! Gustate dunque quello che avete accumulato! Le peggiori azioni sono state rese belle ai loro occhi, ma Allah non guida il popolo dei miscredenti. Si perdono da loro stessi, ma Allah sa perfettamente che sono dei bugiardi. Allah conosce coloro che [Lo] temono. Ma Allah ben conosce gli ingiusti. E si allontanano esultanti. Sono loro, gli ipocriti, ad essere empi!. Allah li ha maledetti e avranno duraturo tormento. Godettero della loro parte e voi godete della vostra, come quelli che vennero prima di voi godettero della loro.

Voi polemizzate come essi polemizzarono. Messaggeri della loro gente recarono prove evidenti. Non fu Allah ad essere ingiusto con loro, sono loro che lo furono nei loro stessi confronti. Ecco coloro che godranno della misericordia di Allah. Li schernisca Allah. Avranno doloroso tormento! Se solo comprendessero! I loro cuori sono stati sigillati e non comprenderanno. Avranno le cose migliori. Essi sono coloro che prospereranno.

Allah ha sigillato i loro cuori ed essi non sanno. Allah ci ha informati sul vostro conto. Saranno loro ad essere sconfitti! Sono di certo un mezzo per avvicinarsi [ad Allah]. Per loro ha preparato Giardini in cui scorrono i ruscelli dove rimarranno in perpetuo. Tu non li conosci, Noi li conosciamo. Due volte li castigheremo e poi saranno avviati verso un castigo terribile. Le tue preghiere saranno un sollievo per loro. In essa vi sono uomini che amano purificarsi e Allah ama coloro che si purificano. Rallegratevi del baratto che avete fatto.

Dai la buona novella ai credenti. A Lui mi affido. Questi sono i versetti del Libro saggio. Rifletterete [in proposito]? Egli estrinseca i Suoi segni per la gente che conosce. Lasciamo [invece] procedere alla cieca, nella loro ribellione, coloro che non sperano nel Nostro incontro. Quando poi lo liberiamo dalla sua disgrazia si comporta come se non Ci avesse mai invocato a proposito della disgrazia che lo ha colto.

Messaggeri della loro gente avevano portato le prove, ma essi non furono disposti a credere. Sono rimasto tutta una vita tra voi prima di questo: non riflettete dunque? Gli empi non avranno riuscita! I Nostri angeli registrano le vostre trame. Quando siete su battelli che navigano col buon vento, [gli uomini] esultano.

Polvere e umiliazione non copriranno i loro volti. Essi sono i compagni del Giardino, e vi resteranno in perpetuo. Saranno avvolti nella vergogna, senza nessun protettore al cospetto di Allah, come se i loro volti fossero coperti da oscuri lembi di notte Essi sono i compagni del Fuoco, in cui rimarranno in perpetuo. Quanto siete sviati! Come vi siete distolti! Allah sa bene quello che fanno. E in tal modo accusarono di menzogna coloro che vennero prima di loro. Ebbene, considera quale fu la sorte degli ingiusti. Nasconderanno il loro rimpianto quando vedran- no il castigo.

Tutta la potenza appartiene ad Allah. Non inseguono che vane congetture, e non fanno che supposizioni. Prendete le vostre decisioni insieme coi vostri consoci e non abbiate scrupoli [nei miei confronti]. Stabilite quello che vole- te fare di me, senza porre indugi. Essi furono orgogliosi. Era gente perversa. I maghi non avranno riuscita alcuna. Non vi crederemo! Era tiranno sulla terra Faraone, era uno dei trasgressori. O Signor nostro, non fare di noi una tentazione per gli oppressori. Poi, quando fu sul punto di annegare,. This itinerary was, though not perceived as such, a veritable cultural crippling; in fact the peninsula space was delimited by a series of confines which divided accessible spaces the great cities of art from those that were not accessible for example the Adriatic coast.

In , following the Anglo-American fashion of the period, she came to Bagni di Lucca, where she hoped to pass the summer months peaceably. The Brownings were already comfortably lodged at 'Casa Betti', when Blagden arrived accompanied by Annette Bracken who at that period shared the villa Brichieri-Colombi with the writer and Robert Lytton. She took lodging in a hotel, the 'Pelican', but the holdiday was far other than peaceable, seeing that Lytton soon took ill.

Bagni di Lucca was a holiday place that particularly pleased the Brownings, who came there in the summers of and In Blagden's mind however the place became associated with unpleasing memories and Elizabeth Barrett was sure that she would never return. Nevertheless, ten years later the writer returned to the Luccan hills and this time succeeded in appreciating their beauty, so much that she remained for several months, from May to October in Anche Blagden prese in affitto una villa nelle vicinanze.

That at Bagni di Lucca was not the only holiday spent with the Brownings. In September she was, together with Kate Field, a guest at Villa Alberti, a building situated in the Sienese countryside, which the Brownings had rented for the summer and where the following year the married couple returned to stay. Even Blagden came to rent a villa in the vicinity. That summer, beside, in the Sienese countryside were also Landor and the sculptor William Wetmore Story and his family.

Barrett Browning herself affirmed: 'this makes a sort of colonization of the country here'. Afterwards, Blagden returned to spend the summer in Siena in , when Barrett Browning and Landor were already deceased and Robert Browning was for a long time in England. Apart from places like Bagni di Lucca and the Sienese countryside, which during the summer months came to be colonized by Anglo-Americans, for Isa Blagden visits to Rome and Venice were very important, the two Italian cities which, together with Florence, foreign tourists considered more worthy of attention.

The term 'visit' is not at all exact in reference to Rome, given that Blagden on two occasions resided in the cities for various months. Although Florence was the chosen place of residence for a great number of writers, few artists among whom we must, however, remember Hiram Powers, a dear friend of Blagden had decided to establish themselves definitively in the Tuscan capital, preferring Rome. The list of sculptors and painters who made the future capital their place of permanent or at least prolonged residence, is long and includes among others John Gibson, William Wetmore Story, William Page and Harriet Hosmer, all persons with whom Blagden was in contact.

Sometimes it happened that those who chose Florence as their adoptive city, would pass some months of the year, in particular those of the winter, at Rome. Blagden therefore, with her choise of staying for a period in the city preferred by artists, could not but follow the ingrained habit of the Anglo-Americans resident in Florence. Even the Brownings passed more than one winter in the 'Eternal City'.

For Blagden this immersion in the Rome 'of the artists' was most useful from the literary point of view, suffice to think of her first novel, Agnes Tremorne , whose eponymous protagonist, is an English painter who lives in Rome. The writer returned to Rome in later periods, but never again rented a house; here she was a guest of those who knew her, as when in she was welcomed by Charlotte Cushman. Isabella Blagden probably went to Venice almost certainly before , the year in which her second work in prose, The Woman I Loved and the Woman who Loved Me, was published.

The city is in fact one of the places in which she develops the story, although the novel is mainly set in England. It is certain anyway that the writer returned there in May , as guest of William Bracken, relative of that Annette Bracken, with whom she had shared Villa Brichieri-Colombi. It was a particularly sad time for the writer, since shortly before her friend Theodosia Trollope had died, whom she had nursed during the last days of her illness. The journey however succeeded in distracting her and gave the inspiration for an article, titled 'A Holiday in Venice', which was published in Cornhill Magazine , in October of that same year.

Isabelle Blagden did not limit herself to travel in Italy, often going for long periods also abroad. From November to March of the following year, she stayed in Madrid. In July of the writer visited Austria, but England was the place which she visited as often as she could permit herself to do so.

Principally she chose London as goal, but visited also other areas, almost always as a guest of friends. She went to that country in and later between and She left Villa Brichieri-Colombi at the death of Elizabeth Barrett Browning with the intention of settling in the British Isles, but after about a year returned to Bellosguardo. She returned to England in the summer of and in that of when she also visited Scotland.

Blagden's last visit to that country goes back to the summer of In January of the following year she died. During Isa Blagden's lifetime travel played a fundamental role and this is noted also in her novels: from an initial reading it is easy to observe how almost all of her characters travel, for one motive or another: for their health, for their education or, more often, to flee the sorrow brought on by sentimental delusions.

Blagden drew the material for her writing from her pilgrimages; although she had not left works that could be placed in the field of travel literature, in her novels and in her poems are visible traces that witness to her experiences as a traveller. Blagden 'appropriates' the space she encountered while travelling in her writing; her interior life was transformed into something she could transmit. So then it was the Italian cities she had visited and in which she had lived which became the argument of her articles, the point of departure for composing a poem, the setting for her novels.

The death of the author of Aurora Leigh , in June of , was the first and perhaps the greatest break in Blagden's circle of friends. In the summer of the same year the young journalist Kate Field, who had lived for a time at Villa Brichieri with Blagden, returned to America. Four years after the 'closure' of Casa Guidi, Villino Trollope also ceased to exist, because Thomas Adolphus, after the death of his mother and of his wife, decided to sell the property and establish himself at Ricorboli. Of the three dwellings that had been such important gathering places for English-speaking persons, remained only Blagden's villa, and that no longer the Brichieri-Colombi.

To say the truth, after the death of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, even Isabella Blagden had thought of leaving the Florentine capital to move to England, as witnesses a letter that Robert Browning wrote to the sculptor William Wetmore Story. Blagden remained away from Italy from August of until the same month of the following year. In England she was constrained, for economic reasons, to change addresses frequently; besides she felt physically the change in climate and her health began to worsen.

Even Browning realized that for Blagden to continue to live in England was not advisable; in a letter he begged her to return to Italy where 'the life there and ways are become yours'. Returning to her hill at Bellosguardo Isabella Blagden rented the Villa Giglioni where she remained until From to Isabella Blagden lived in a house called Isetta, then she moved to one which was to be her last dwelling: the Villa Saracino at Belvedere.

In all these houses Blagden continued to receive her friends, but the gatherings never returned to being those of the time when Elizabeth Barrett Browning was still alive. These are revealed above all as years of intense artistic production: from to Blagden published five novels, wrote much poetry and numerous articles for various journals. Dal , data della pubblicazione della prima opera, al , anno della sua morte, ha scritto complessivamente sei romanzi, cinque dei quali pubblicati in volume e il rimanente apparso a puntate su una rivista.

Isa Blagden did not begin to write when very young; in fact, her Agnes Tremorne was published when the writer was more than From , from the publication of her first work, to , the year of her death, she wrote in all six novels, five of them published in volumes and the last appearing serially in a review. Infatti, viene considerata semplicemente come una scrittrice di sottordine, una delle tante lady writers vittoriane, che scriveva romanzi di stampo sentimentale per ragioni meramente economiche.

The reconstruction of the figure of Blagden cannot omit her works, which instead have been undervalued. In fact, she is considered simply as a writer of the lower sort, one of the many Victorian lady writers, who wrote sentimental novels for merely economic reasons. The literary canon that functions as a parameter of value and taste, seems to have irremediably relegated her works to the region of 'low', popular literature.

Thus these texts have been at first marginalized and later forgotten. We cannot deny that Blagden's texts contain pages which are artistically lacking: it is enough to think of the way in which the writer shows the inhabitants of the peninsula to realize that she remained imprisoned within the most common stereotypes of Anglo-American culture.

And it is also undeniable that Blagden's tendency to submit herself both to the exigencies of the publishing market which required triple decker novels or novels adapted for serial publication and to the norms that Victorian society dictated to women's productivity. One thinks of her themes, such as love and marriage and the 'just' ending, almost always present, that determined the marriage or the death of the rebellious heroine.

Notwithstanding this the works of Blagden have some literary merit; the plots are enthralling and the writer succeeds in safeguarding her originality. Ma i suoi romanzi sono interessantissimi soprattutto se di considera il discorso dei diritti delle donne, che entra a far parte dei suoi scritti. But her romances are most interesting above all when considering the discourse on the rights of woman, which enters into part of her writings. Isabella Blagden created very beautiful female figures, who take up a primary role within the narrative structure, questioning the position of women within Victorian society and proposing different choices that those dictated by her contemporary culture.

Among these the single woman and the shared living among women as alternative to the conjugal marriage and the demand to the right to work, to be compensated in the same way as are men. Lo scrittore anglofiorentino pensava che la morte prematura avrebbe potuto essere evitata; spiega come Isa vivesse sola e come fosse ostinata a non voler chiamare un medico quando si trattava della sua salute. Thomas Adolphus Trollope records in his autography the sad passing of his friend.

The Anglo-Florentine writer thought that the premature death could have been averted; he explained how Isa lived alone and was obstinate about not calling for a doctor when it came to her health. The doctor only visited her the second day of her illness, but Trollope thought that she could have been cured. The writer was momentarily absent from Florence and when he returned he learned of the news of his friend's demise. Isabella Blagden was buried in the Protestant Cemetery of Florence, besides the numerous and dear friends who shared with her the love for the city and for Italy.

The truth was that nobody knew anything about Miriam, either for good or evil. She had made her appearance without introduction, had taken a studio, put her card upon the door, and showed very considerable talent as a painter in oils. I, e vol. II, 5. II, ; e Browning, Dearest Isa , II, Poems , xxii. II, 14 e segg. I call him our adopted son. Browning, Dearest Isa , She suffered too much last time — and she hates the place besides. She goes to Clifton, in all probability, where Miss Cobbe is to see her comfortably settled.

I cannot believe she will bear the change. So consider: why should Italy be barred to you? But if you were up at Clifton and suffering beside, I should be practically as far off as if you were at Florence. Matthew Arnold, Thyrsis 1. Vi avrebbe soggiornato con i genitori e la sorella fino al giugno del seguente anno. Nel corso del soggiorno Susan tenne un diario ora conservato negli archivi del British Institute di Firenze.

In quel diario sono nominati i quattro personaggi che sono accomunati dal loro essere sepolti nel cimitero presso Porta a Pinti e di cui si occupa questa relazione. Susan Horner and her sister Joanna were the third and the sixth daughters of Leonard Horner the geologist and social reformer, and nieces of Francis Horner, co-founder of the Edinburgh Review and politician. All the sisters except Mary published in their lifetimes, either original works or translations from the German and the Italian.

The family was very well connected in liberal intellectual circles. Infine Leonora aveva sposato lo storico tedesco Georg Heinrich Pertz. Vasta era la rete di rapporti che la famiglia intratteneva con gli ambienti intellettuali liberali. Once in Florence, and unlike the majority of English residents of the period, the Horners made the acquaintance of and mixed with Italian residents. Some introductions to these people came through their friend the scientist and astronomer Mary Somerville who was by then living in Italy.

Susan herself spent a great deal of her time researching at the Uffizi with the help of Migliarini. Moving on to the tombs, the first thing to be said about all four tombs under discussion is how very English they are, and more than just English they are Victorian. It is as though the Victorian way of death has been lifted from English soil and replanted in Florence. In the case of one of the four, both stone and body were quite literally transplanted.

Venendo adesso a parlare delle tombe, possiamo subito osservare come tutte e quattro rivelino un gusto marcatamente inglese, per non dire vittoriano. I take up the tomb of Arthur Hugh Clough first, both because, unlike the other three, he was not a member of the Horner household and because his death is chronologically the first. Clough had been to Italy before. In the s he worked as an administrator until his health drove him abroad. His arrival in Florence in October was the last stop on that journey. As the symbol of a solar deity it wards off evil and protects sacred territory from malign influences.

Tale immagine, circondata da serpenti, rappresenta un motivo frequente sugli stipiti e le porte degli antichi tempi egizi, allontanando il male e proteggendo dagli spiriti maligni. All her six daughters are mentioned on the tomb, though only Susan and Joanna are named. This is verse nine of the poem and it has been transcribed accurately to the stone,. Tutte e sei le figlie vengono ricordate sulla lapide, anche se solo i nomi di Susan e Joanna vi sono menzionati. See Enlargement. So, Leonard Horner intended to revisit the tomb as early as but died before he could do so.

The Latin inscription carved around the medallion tells us that the children have done what the husband wished. A puzzle here requires further research. Beside Anne Horner's plot is one that is apparently empty. Ma a questo punto si apre un ulteriore interrogativo. Forse Leonard Horner aveva ipotizzato di potervi seppellire altri componenti della famiglia? Here we are assisted by the two remaining tombs. Pertanto le sorelle dovevano probabilmente essere tornate nuovamente in Italia durante gli anni per rifinire il libro che sarebbe stato pubblicato nel Ad arricchire il mosaico troviamo le altre due tombe che abbiamo menzionato.

Ambedue morirono in un periodo cui il diario di Susan non fa riferimento ma ambedue vi vengono menzionate. This child died in England in aged five and a half. Her tombstone in the English cemetery here in Florence was made in England. The lead lettering on stone will be familiar to anyone who has visited English cemeteries. The stone informs us though that her remains were brought to Florence a year and a half after her death. Following the customary Biblical reference are some jumbled lines from that same Longfellow poem Resignation. The lines are taken from verses six and seven of this thirteen verse poem,.

Ma da questa invece apprendiamo che i suoi resti mortali furono portati a Firenze un anno e mezzo dopo la sua morte. In that great cloister's stillness and seclusion, By guardian angels led, Safe from temptation, safe from sin's pollution, She lives, whom we call dead,.

After her birth on 15 December this child became the focus of attention in the household. There was a strong bond between Leonard Horner and Massimiliano. Da quando era nata, il 15 dicembre , la bambina aveva costituito un centro di attrazione per tutta la famiglia Horner. Non solo era stata chiamata Joanna, ma portava anche il cognome della famiglia Horner. Margaret Edmund Zileri died in Florence in , aged only Margaret Edmund Zileri era morta a Firenze nel , a soli quarantanove anni. Did the Zileris return to Florence in with the Horner sisters?

It is safe to assume that this was the case. Margherita Ciacci. Champollion le jeune, Lettre a M. The bridegroom was thirty-eight and the bride was thirty-two. The service was officiated by the very Reverend Richard Maul. The best man was William Rossetti, civil servant, art critic and chronicler to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. An affectionate kiss given to this young attendant was to become a cherished memory for many years to come. Seen also in Fanny Holman Hunt's portrait by her husband, painted in Florence, later given to her sister, and his second wife, Edith.

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It was not until August , instead of the early spring as originally planned, that the happy couple finally left England for the Holy Land. Hunt wanted to return to the East in order to continue his pursuit of painting the actual sites of Biblical events. Hunt heard that it was possible to embark from Leghorn and reach Alexandria via Malta. Despite Fanny being heavily pregnant he decided they would cross the Maritime Alps to Florence.

When they reached Florence they heard that bans has been imposed on all Italian ports and that Egypt had been quarantined also. Lodgings were secured at 32 Via Montebello with a studio for Hunt. Using his attractive wife as a model Hunt set to work painting. He asked her to pose in a standing position for many hours.

This placed great strains upon her constitution as she was constantly bathed in perspiration from the merciless heat, with swollen feet and of course, the baby becoming heavier. The reason he did not use professional models was not because of financial restraint but because he was so enamoured with his wife. These items they believed to be shrewd investments for the future. According to Consular records on October 27th Fanny gave birth to a son with an Italian doctor in attendance.

The delivery was a difficult and painful one with forceps being used as a necessity. She finally contracted both puerperal and miliary fevers this last fever common to Florence and died on December 20th exhausted. Her death was eight days short of her first wedding anniversary.

Hunt and the Waughs were totally distraught. Their offers were refused and a wet-nurse found. Hunt placed the baby in the care of his English friends the Spencer Stanhopes whose own child had died.


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Hunt then moved from the rooms he had shared with Fanny because they held too many potent memories. He rented a new studio at 14, Lungarno Acciajoli. This new studio had been recently vacated by his friend the artist Simeon Solomon. Her body was buried in the English Cemetery Florence. He arranged a wetnurse for his son and commissioned a stonemason to work on a tomb in memory of Fanny.

He finally arrived on October 9th at Queensborough Terrace, London with a dying Cyril but his sensible mother-in-law realised that the child was starving and that the wet-nurse had no milk. The nurse was promptly dismissed and the child was fed. Cyril began to thrive. The villa is probably one of the most impressive of the Medici Villas in Florence and was surrounded by a beautiful garden.

Villa Medici is towards the top. Hunt used the stables as a studio. William Blundell Spence, an affluent amateur dealer in Florentine art, was his landlord. It was during this second stay that he painted Bianca currently in the Galleria degli Uffizi exhibition, 'I giardini delle regine' ,. Tuscan Straw Plaiters and a number of views of Florence.

During this period he sketched a self-portrait which shows him with a shaggy mane of a beard sitting alone in a restaurant drinking Chianti. By this we know that Hunt had not with him stone-working tools of his own. He then set to work in earnest designing a tomb worthy of the memory of his beloved wife Fanny. A plan of the design exists on paper. It is interesting that Hunt, whom we regard as a painter and who we know made models in clay in order to assist his painting, felt competent enough to tackle this project. We know that he was friendly with Alexander Munro and Thomas Woolner his brother-in-law both sculptors, yet this does not explain his confidence in this trade.

There has been comparatively little research into these sculptural abilities of this major Pre-Raphaelite artist. The tomb is sarcophagus in shape upon a sandstone pedestal. The pedestal has begun to flake at the corners and in areas which are in contact with the ground. The principal part of the monument appears to be carved from a type of limestone which over the years has become granular and sugary in texture due to natural erosion, the elements and pollution.

The sarcophagus appears to be floating upon waves. Diaper patterns have been carved into the stone separating the sarcophagus into a base and cover. Lilies are at each end, but at one end they embellish a large cross, while on the other they surround a Pelican in its Piety. The 'Pelican in its Piety' is unusual in seeming also to be a dove and holding in its beak an olive branch, as in the account of Noah and the Ark, conflating both images.

Ornamental medallions are incised into the stone, one of which is a trefoil and triangle entwined, and the following texts are written in the medallions:. The inscription on the tomb makes references to floods, waters and love. Hunt wishes to convey to his loved one that there is no need for to her to be fearful in her journey into the unknown. Jesus Christ is with her.

He then expresses the point that their love for each other transcends both the spiritual world the Kingdom of Heaven and the Earth itself. The tomb decoration abounds with symbolic meaning. The most dramatic and competent of the carving is the waves upon which the tomb appears to float. Water symbolically represents purification and the Christian sacrament of baptism — the cleansing of the soul from Original Sin. John the Baptist baptised Jesus in the river Jordan. According to the Bible and the Creation we are told that water was created on the second day.

Water represents salvation of our spiritual life and it is an attribute of the Blessed Virgin Mary and her Immaculate Conception. The comparison made is between Mary our spiritual Mother and Fanny being the earthly mother of Cyril Benoni, her baby son. We are told in Genesis that the Garden of Eden is watered by four rivers. In the Middle Ages these rivers symbolised the Gospels. Often in early Christian Art Christ or the Lamb Agnes Dei is represented standing on a small mound from which four streams flow.

He is therefore the river or fountain of life. In mythology the fountain in the Garden of Love is crowned by the figure of Cupid, a comforting thought for a grieving widower. Also Charon is the ferryman who rowed the souls of the dead across one of the four rivers of Hades. The river across which he rowed was the Styx where the infant Achilles was dipped. Ferrymen represented in Christian Art are St. Christopher and St. Julian The Hospitaler. Lilies are a motif used on the tomb.

They are a symbol of purity particularly associated with our Blessed Virgin Mary. In depictions of the Annunciation they may be held in the hand of the Angel Gabriel or seen in a vase. Christ in Judgement may have a lily and a sword on either side of his face. Here the flower represents both purity and majesty. The Iris, often mistaken for the Lily, is the symbol of Florence. The trefoil and the triangle are symbols of the Holy Trinity. A triangular halo represents God the Father.

The pelican in its piety, a symbol used by Hunt, is a particularly poignant one. The medieval church sanctified Faith, Hope and Charity and called them the three cardinal virtues. Charity was seen to be the mother of the virtues. Augustine saw Charity as the link between God and mankind.

Fanny Hunt offered God the Father the ultimate gift through the birth of her son — her mortal life. The Latin cross with its single transverse arm is thought to be the type of cross Christ was crucified on. Hunt carved a large cross at one end of the tomb with lilies that appear to be blooming from each end and the end of both arms of the cross.

In was June when Hunt finally completed his homage to his dear wife Fanny. He then left Florence and visited both Venice and Rome before finally returning to England where he was reunited with his young son Cyril. His second wife chose to be known by her middle name Edith. Both pieces of silver are now kept at St. Blessed are the pure in heart. During the s he painted two magnificent altarpieces for the church of Holy Trinity in Florence. The first altarpiece consisted of fourteen individual panel paintings, while the second one was comprised of four and had been specifically created as a memorial to Mary.

When Judy and I first learned about these paintings in , all eighteen of them were missing. This intrigued us so much that we decided to find out what had happened to them. In the first part of our presentation we will explain precisely how we came to investigate this mysterious affair.

In the second part we will outline our methods and describe the missing paintings. In parts three and four we will assess their significance within the life and career of the artist John Roddam Spencer Stanhope and assign them a place in 19th century art history. Throughout this presentation we want to demonstrate how the study of these two altarpieces contributes to a better understanding of the career of Stanhope, an important but neglected artist, and also how this study provides us with a clearer view of early Italian art's influence on British art. A Ramble Around Florence ctually it all began with a letter that was written almost a hundred years ago.

Judy brought it to my attention early in The author of the letter was the artist Evelyn De Morgan The recipient was her sister Wilhelmina Stirling In her letter De Morgan mentions the Florentine church paintings of their uncle Stanhope. As a painter Stanhope was part of the British Pre-Raphaelite Movement although from until his death in he lived permanently in Florence. I think attention ought to be drawn to that. It seemed to me that taking a week off in Florence to visit its Anglican church and study Stanhope's work there would quickly provide me with all the necessary information to write an original article.

I was deluding myself. The hunt for these masterpieces has involved numerous conundrums and is still ongoing 12 months after it was first begun. As it turned out, the first of these mysteries was the location of the church De Morgan had referred to. I arranged with the vicar, Father Lawrence MacLean, to be given a tour of this building which had originally been a fifteenth-century palazzo. During our tour he revealed that there were no actual paintings by Stanhope in Saint Mark's other than the ceiling decoration and wall stenciling much of which had been destroyed during the flood.

In the building on Via Micheli had been sold to the Waldensian community and since then has become known as the Chiesa Valdese. When I finally met the churchwarden there, he had distressing news for me. He told me that not long after the Waldensians had taken possession of the building it had been gutted. I further learned that up until it had contained two polyptychs by Stanhope. In other words, they had vanished into thin air!!

Soon, however, I began to ponder my failure to find the works of which Evelyn De Morgan had spoken so highly and mentally I even asked her what I should do next. I decided that it might be enjoyable to visit this cemetery but I found that it was closed. Just as I was about to bemoan another stroke of bad timing the iron gate — as if by miracle — swung wide open. A lady suddenly appeared and I explained to her that I had come a long way to see the famous tomb of Elizabeth Barrett Browing. She took pity on me and let me pass. It was dedicated to none other than Mary Spencer Stanhope. At last, I had found a concrete trace!

Here was the tomb of the young daughter of Stanhope to whom the Memorial Chapel altarpiece had been dedicated. After taking pictures of both tombs I returned to the gatehouse where the lady introduced herself as Julia Bolton Holloway. We had a long conversation in her library during which I explained what had brought me to Florence and she invited me to speak about it at this conference. Nic's discovery that the altarpieces John Roddam Spencer Stanhope had donated to Holy Trinity in the s were now missing only served to pique our interest and so as art historians we began to feel compelled to search for these lost masterpieces.

As an artist whose total output was not large, the loss of these two multi-panelled works was significant to a comprehensive appraisal of Stanhope's role as a Pre-Raphaelite artist who also designed works for ecclesiastical settings. The disappearance of the altarpieces has also prevented scholars from being able to assess the full impact of early Italian art upon this English artist who had chosen Florence as his adopted home. We soon became obsessed with the search for evidence of the altarpieces' physical existence and of their current whereabouts. Our search for the missing masterpieces would employ a variety of methodologies: conventional primary and secondary source research; web surfing; personal contacts; and travel.

We would find the basic outline of how and why Stanhope came to create these altarpieces for Holy Trinity Church in the writings of the previously mentioned Mrs. She was the biographer of both her sister Evelyn De Morgan and their uncle Stanhope. Having made the first of many visits to Florence in he spent time regularly there from on, and in he purchased the Villa Nuti now Villa lo Strozzino , in Bellosguardo. Finally, in , he would move permanently to Italy.

Related Interests

Stirling draws a brief sketch of his artistic contributions to Saint Mark's and to Holy Trinity in her book entitled Life's Little Day. Though she seems to have conflated both projects into one, her description is worth noting because it conveys the enthusiasm he had for both these projects. Concurrent with finding out why the art works had been created we also began to learn more about what they looked like.

We discovered black and white photos of both altarpieces, which had been taken in Stanhope's own studio. From these photos we learned that the larger of the two pieces was constructed around two main scenes of the Annunciation and Crucifixion flanked by prophets and angels. The smaller Memorial Chapel altarpiece had main scenes of the Resurrected Christ and the Three Maries at the Tomb and two angel panels. Both reredos were in elaborate gold frames. However, because the photos were black and white, our next task was to discover what colors Stanhope had employed for these altarpieces.

This was particularly critical because one of the hallmarks of the artist's work was his use of color. His fellow artist, Edward Burne-Jones, had said of him: "His color was beyond any the finest in Europe. Though slightly different from the finished work it reveals much about artistic intent. This study displays a rich use of gold and deeply saturated red, green and blue tones throughout, which is further enhanced by the ornate gold frame.

The Prophet figures of Jeremiah, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and John the Baptist are seen in full figure profile on the outer edges of the altarpiece. Moving inwards toward the center of the altarpiece is a series of eight angels, each of whom is playing a musical instrument and is placed in front of a golden screen. At the center of the reredos are larger scenes of the Annunciation and the Crucifixion.

The Annunciation is a shallow composition showing the Angel Gabriel making his announcement to a young Mary with a group of three angels looking on. The Crucifixion is a densely packed composition showing Christ flanked by several tiers of angels and being mourned by Saint John and an older Virgin Mary.

While the gathering of this information would provide us with vital documentation about the creation of the altarpieces and clues to their physical appearance, the information about the dispersal of the works and their current whereabouts was much harder to come by. As already mentioned sometime around both works were removed from the church building and dispersed through sale and auction. We would find sale and auction evidence from , , and but despite our best efforts we could find no further auction activity or trace of any of the works.

As if by magic this 4-piece polyptych had not only re-assembled itself but was set to materialise in Florence to coincide with our visit. They operate on a variety of personal and aesthetic levels. As a Pre-Raphaelite, Stanhope was fascinated by early Italian art and would have been well acquainted with it from exhibitions in London 5 even before his first trip to Italy. The subject matter and composition of the Holy Trinity panels are clearly reminiscent of Stanhope's illustrious Florentine forebears. It is, for instance, hard to imagine that he was not familiar with Fra Angelico's work at the Convent of San Marco entitled Christ Resurrected and the Maries at the Tomb Another Florentine master that Stanhope greatly admired was Sandro Botticelli.

We have already mentioned that he owned a painting by this artist and considered it amongst "his most treasured possessions". On the other hand, Stanhope's prophet panels quote the more sculptural appraoch of Piero della Francesca a Florentine in spirit if not in domicile. Stanhope was extremely thorough in his tribute to the early Florentines. First of all he pioneered the redevelopment of the meticulous tempera on panel method. Secondly, for his donation to Holy Trinity he deliberately chose the altarpiece, which was the quintessential format for their art.

Though the artist paid homage to the early Florentine masters, he nevertheless developed his own distinct personal style. Because Stanhope actually came to live and work permanently in Florence and his altarpieces were created after he had already spent many years in this city, their character is just as much Italian as it is British. The importance of these particular panel paintings lies in their unique fusion of Pre-Raphaelite candor, Florentine subtlety, and, in their intensity of color, something that is typically John Roddam Spencer Stanhope.

Despite the fact that childhood illness and mortality were commonplace occurrences in the 19th century, the loss of their only child must have been devastating to the artist and his wife, Lilla. Mary's headstone was designed by her grieving father and is inscribed with consoling verses from the Twenty-Third Psalm.

The decoration on the back includes three floral motifs. On top we find the Fleur-de-lis, 9 the symbol of Florence. At the bottom we see the daffodil, representing those who died young, 10 and the poppy, the flower of sleep and death. This painful loss must have left a strong impression upon the artist.

Throughout the following decades he regularly painted scenes exploring the afterlife, one of the most impressive being Charon and Psyche c. Later, however, Psyche manages to return to the world of the living and ultimately even becomes immortal. The painting represents Psyche as a young adult and in the Victorian era it was not unusual for parents who had lost young children to believe that they lived on to achieve adulthood in another existence. The Memorial Chapel altarpiece was painted nearly thirty years after Mary had passed away. The artist painted the same subject c.

The three paintings are nearly identical but the Memorial Chapel version stands out as the most dramatically powerful of all of them and, indeed, of all the Holy Trinity paintings. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood had taken the art world by storm in by introducing piety, religious symbolism, and a love of Italian art into English literary painting. The Pre-Raphaelites successfully translated onto canvas the enthusiasm for early Italian art and its sacred subjects that had been promoted by aestheticians such as John Ruskin and by the Oxford Movement within the Anglican church.

Their re-interpretation of sacred subjects taken from the bible and the lives of the Virgin Mary, Christ, and the saints not only invigorated mid-century British painting but also church decoration. Working in collaboration with gothic revival architects, these artists, especially William Morris, would extend this aspect of Pre-Raphaelitism into the realm of ecclesiastical art by producing altarpieces, church furnishings, and brilliant stained glass.

Because Stanhope had the good fortune to live in daily communion with the Quattrocento men of genius he was able to view their art not only in galleries but also in the original sacred spaces for which they were created. Consequently, in addition to his own individual paintings on sacred subjects such as The Winepress , the artist would also produce a significant body of work destined for ecclesiastical settings in both Florence and his native England.

These would include panel painting, pulpits, stained glass, and altarpieces. His most extensive project was his work for the Chapel of Saint Michael and All Angels at Marlborough College in Wiltshire executed between and This project was the first of several collaborations with George Frederick Bodley , one of Britain's most prominent Gothic Revival architects.

The Marlborough project consisted of a series of twelve panels entitled The Ministration of Angels on Earth and was accompanied by another eight panels of angels playing musical instruments. In general, the ecclesiastical works of Stanhope are accomplished in a style that is more decorative, restrained, and highly colored than the rest of his work.

They pay homage to both early Italian painting and to the decorative work of his compatriots, the Pre-Raphaelites. Conclusion In conclusion our ongoing search for John Roddam Stanhope's Florentine altarpieces has become both an intriguing art mystery and a mission to contribute to a better understanding of the career of this neglected artist.

The Holy Trinity works stand apart from his body of work as a unique expression of his respect for Italy and its artists; the need to create a lasting memorial for his beloved daughter and a desire to make a lasting contribution to his adopted community of Florence. By creating them Stanhope modestly placed himself within the great tradition of artists who had designed sacred works for ecclesiastical settings in Florence. Evelyn De Morgan was indeed correct when she told her sister and us that "attention should be drawn" to these works.

Almost years on, we hope that we are finally honoring her request. Charon and Psyche , c. Holy Trinity Main Altar Polyptych , , tempera and gold on panel, location unknown. Holy Trinity Memorial Chapel Polyptych , , tempera and gold on panel, private collections. Michael and All Angels, Wiltshire. The Wine Press , , Oil on canvas, 99 X Louisa loved Italy; she was 'hotly Italian', said her brother Henry. In Florence they leased a grand apartment in the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore, employed a staff of servants, and went about constantly in an upper class society, a group composed of Americans as well as English, Italians, French, Germans, Greeks and Russians.

Louisa and Charles were eager Anglo-Florentines: they promenaded in the Cascine park, attended the opera, and danced all night at parties during Carneval. They both studied Italian. He lunched at the Jockey Club and read newspapers at the Gabinetto Vieusseux library. She circulated in Florentine society, paying and receiving social calls, and also hosting lunches and dinners.

In addition to living the 'gay' life in Florence, Louisa wrote twenty-six letters to her parents in America, letters that demonstrated remarkable powers of observation and expression; some of her prose was lyrical, almost poetical. She reported numerous details of her social and domestic lives, on several occasions demonstrating she was subject completely to the whim and will of her husband, She commented intelligently on political affairs, both American and Italian.

In some letters she praised her father's achievements as a freshman Congressman, and in others, she reported the progress of Tuscany and Florence in the Risorgimento , the ongoing movement for the unification of Italy. On 31 March , she gleefully reported the results of a Tuscan plebiscite: 'we are annexed to Piedmont'. In they lived again in Florence and summered in nearby Bagni di Lucca. While residing at the Hotel d'Amerique in Bagni di Lucca, Louisa suffered minor foot injuries in a carriage accident, injuries that caused a tetanus infection and resulted in an agonizing death on the 13th of July.

Two nineteenth-century scholars, one an Englishman and one American, both of them connected to Florence and both enthusiastic about Iceland and Icelandic literature, visited Iceland. Both wrote diaries during their stay which are valuable sources for their impressions of the country and the literature. Both men were strange with strong wills. William Morris , an English poet, designer and socialist belonged to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and is still famous for his designs such as his wallpapers, typography and his books printed in the Kelmscott Press His patterns refer to the Gothic and Orient traditions and his colourful and decorative plants became widely and well known and influenced for example the style of Jugend.

His motto was that 'Art must be useful', and he wished that every single little thing in people's homes should be a piece of art. In his spare time, besides writing poems and stories, Morris was modelling in clay, carving in wood and stone and working at illumination and embroidery. Thus the pattern to be followed all his life of running a number of different crafts simultaneously, and jumping from one to the other as the humour took him, was established early.

Morris was already developing his natural facility for pattern designing, in which he at first followed the example of illuminated manuscripts in the Bodleian Library and the British Museum. He visited Florence in and was very fond of the city with all wealth of craft and art. Daniel Willard Fiske is remembered today primarily as a book collector, and rightfully so. His Icelandic Collection, his Dante Collection, his Petrarch Collection, all of which he donated to the Cornell University Library, are lasting monuments to his scholarly and bibliophile interests.

The Icelandic Collection, that is largest one, was closest to his heart, and is best known in the scholarly world today. Villa La Torraccia is towards the middle right of the map. Iceland was still a poor society, enduring deeply difficult years, including periods of famine and heavy emigration, but the granting of a new constitution by the Danish Crown introduced a measure of home rule that marked a first step on the road to independence.

Under any circumstances a tour in Iceland involved a good deal of discomfort, and roughing it in a manner to which few travellers were accustomed; hence it happened that the comparatively small number of persons who visited its shores usually did so with some definite object in view, other than simple change of air and scene. The principal objects were geographical researches, sports and literature. The main feeling for Iceland of foreign travellers was the the country was either like heaven or like hell.

Fiske was of the first opinion. Morris was not so sure! Morris belonged to the so-called Pre-Raphaelite Brethren, founded , that were a group of people, educated artists such as English painters and poets, who wanted to emphasise that they belonged to the Italian fifteenth-century masters, i. They wanted to make art more simple and more profound and they were admired medieval impression and adoration of Romantic beauty.

In this group were for example. Later on people like the painter Edward Burne-Jones as well as the art critic John Ruskin joined the Brotherhood. Morris threw himself passionately into Icelandic literature.