The former is good. With compromise comes lower personal standards. People don't naturally drift upstream. Unless people are willing to swim against the tide through vigorous application of Scripture, a church will inevitable move to lower standards--as Pergamum did. What is Jesus' solution to compromise? He leaves us in no doubt. The Greek form of the word implies that repentance is something they must start.
The Pergamenes evidently don't think they need to repent, but Jesus insists that the wrong kind of tolerance requires repentance. If the church's leadership won't confront the people who are destroying the church, He will come and "make war with them by means of the sword of His mouth. To repent is to make a total turn in your life, to renew spiritual disciplines. It means to stop drifting along and doing what feels good or what comes naturally.
Repentance requires that you become intentional in what you do spiritually by scheduling time for prayer and study. And to provide time in your life for the things that God would have you to do, such as sharing your faith. No matter what you've done or where you've been, it's not too late to turn things around. Lord, open my eyes to the hidden compromises in my own life. I invite the spirit of repentance into my heart. But I have a few things against you, namely that you have some there who hold to the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to place an occasion for sin before the sons of Israel, to eat food offered to idols and to commit fornication.
Similarly, you have those who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans. The word for fornication in Greek is closely related to the word for prostitution. Christians are often horrified that people would value themselves so lowly as to offer their bodies sexually in exchange for a relatively small amount of money. Yet those same Christians sometimes think that a little sex between "consenting adults" should not be a major issue. But if it is wrong to sell our sexuality to another, is it any better to give it away for free?
The Bible teaches us to save our sexuality for the one who will value us so highly that he or she will be willing to commit their entire life to us. Promiscuous sexuality tends to occur when people have a low sense of worth. What they do not value they freely throw away.
Give me one reason we should wait. I'll give you three. First, if you are preparing for marriage, you need to build a relationship that will last a lifetime. To achieve that, you will need a strong relational 'infrastructure,' and that means spending a lot of time getting to know each other mentally, emotionally, and spiritually.
Once a couple gets physical they start neglecting the other aspects of their relationship, and these are the ones that really count if you're going to spend the rest of your lives together. The brain tends to take the path of least resistance. Once you have worn down a certain path for a while, it is much easier to go that way again in the future. A 'trial marriage' is one of the best ways to ensure that the marriage itself will not last.
No matter how faithful you are, she will think. Well, he did it with me when we weren't married, so what's to stop him doing it with someone else he isn't married to? Marriage is tough enough without throwing that kind of distrust into the mix. I choose to put my trust in the whats of Your Word, even when I don't understand the whys.
Eating food offered to an idol may seem a rather small issue to complain about. And young people often ask, "What could possibly be wrong with 'a little harmless sex'? But when temptation leads to sin, we often discover that its consequences vastly outweigh any pleasure that may have occurred.
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The end result of Baal-Peor, the event in the Old Testament that our text refers to, was the death of 24, Israelites. Recent discoveries give us a new understanding of the complexities of outer space. Long supposed by theory but never confirmed, scientists now know that so-called black holes are massive fields of gravity that can literally rip a star apart.
Invisible to the naked eye, X-ray telescopes such as those at the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, can detect them. Photographs made at Chandra are the first strong evidence for this phenomenon. They show a star disintegrating from the pull of a black hole. It consumed only 1 percent of the star's total mass. But the momentum and energy it triggered actually flung most of the star's gas away from the black hole. All the black hole did was initiate the process by eroding the star's critical mass.
Once the black hole disrupted the star in this way, the star's destruction took on a life of its own, and it disintegrated from there. Sin is like this black hole. Its attraction on our lives is as powerful as gravity. Seductive temptations draw us constantly and steadily into the hold of its gravitational pull.
And like the black hole that destroys the star by just breaking apart its vital structure, yielding to sin can damage us just enough to set a process of ultimate annihilation into motion. The Word of God is clear that even small sins can lead to destruction and eventually death! Lord, help me to take sin very seriously. I know that salvation is by grace, yet sin attracts me away from You and Your grace, leading in dangerous and destructive directions. I therefore choose to yield my body and mind to Your complete control today. Apparently, some in the church at Pergamum held teachings similar to those of Balaam.
They, like him, attempted to entice others away with their ideas. The text also mentions the teaching of the Nicolaitans. The Greek root for the word Nicolaitans nikolaos means "the one who conquers the people" while the Hebrew name Balaam means "one who swallows up the people. When the king of Moab saw the Israelites coming, he realized that the God of Israel was far too powerful for his armies to overcome.
So the monarch, Balak, had a brilliant idea. Then perhaps their deity would forsake them and Balak could conquer them in battle.
Having heard about Balaam, Balak sent a representative to him: "The king of Moab is offering you a large sum of money if you will come and curse Israel. On his way to Moab Balaam had his famous conversation with a donkey. In spite of the divine hint that he was on the wrong track, he continued on his journey and tried to curse Israel. The king who hired him was furious see Num.
Balaam's consistent message, however, was "I'm a prophet of Yahweh and can only say what Yahweh puts in my mouth. Then he had a brilliant idea. As a result, God withdrew His protection from Israel, and a great plague destroyed many of them see Num.
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The story of Balaam illustrates our dependence on God's protection. The church at Pergamum felt justified in its compromises, yet placed itself in grave danger. Lord, help me discern the unintended consequences of my daily action and respond accordingly. You are holding fast to My name and have not denied My faith even in the days of Antipas, My faithful martyr who was put to death among you, where Satan lives.
The book of Revelation reports the execution of a Christian named Antipas. Why not phneumonia [sic]? No, that sounds common. But typhoid would do pretty well. But not enough of a shock in that. Shooting is better — a mysterious shooting. The mystery will make it more effective. Clara Denhart mysteriously shot; she calls for you constantly in her delirium.
No, that would never do. It would be too humiliating, and I have too much pride to call for a man. Oh, yes! I might whisper his name while delirious, but I must not call for him. It seems unrefined and bold to cry for a man. That is, if he loves me. Thinking all the foregoing plans over deliberately, the child-like girl-lover wrote the following telegram:. Kendric RuDell: —. Miss Clara Denhart mysteriously shot at Meadow Shade. Whispers your name while delirious.
If you wish to see her alive, come quickly. Secretly, Clara took the next car for the city and sent the telegram. Altho [sic] feeling very guil-. Hurrying back to her home, Clara remained prepared to met RuDell when he came in sight of the house, lest the family might learn of her trick. Clara had an anxious time of it after the telegram had been sent. She hoped and she doubted; she hoped more than she doubted, but there was enough of doubt to keep her in a state of nervous excitement. She considered all the possibilities, and then considered them again, and each time she reduced them to questions and hurled them at herself.
Would he come?
Would he even write? How would he take the news? The time that must elapse before they could expect to hear had been figured almost to minutes. Then, at any rate, she would know the worst — or the best. This was not a matter that admitted of delay ; he would come at once or he. If he came, all would be well; if lie wrote, much would depend upon what he wrote; if he did neither, she would know that her dream was over.
I must see her as quickly as a train will carry me. There was no thought of the rebuff he had so recently received. He was so straightforward and certain in his own decision that it had never occurred to him that a misunderstanding might occur between them. While he had been both hurt and angered by her apparent change of heart, sympathy for her left room for nothing of resentment now.
It was enough that she needed him. His heart thrilled, in spite of his anxiety, at the knowledge that his name was on her lips, yet it was love and sympathy, rather than hope, that dictated his decision to go to her at once. Nor did these reflections, and his hopes and fears, delay the decision of his visit. He was thinking very tenderly of her — thinking unselfishly of her suffering and danger, without reference to the possible effect upon his own life. Immediately he looked up the time of departure of the first available train, and then he notified his partner that he was going.
He thought of telegraphing for definite information, but decided that there would not be time to get an answer. One day we crossed a "canon'' and over a "divide," and got into a peraira, whar was green grass, and green trees, and green leaves on the trees, and birds singing in the green leaves, and this in Febrary, wagh! Our animals was like to die when they see the green grass, and we all sung out, "hurrraw for summer doins.
Schru-k — goes the axe agin the tree, and out comes a bit of the blade as big as my hand. Young Sublette comes up, and he'd been clerking down to the fort on Platte, so he know'd something. He looks and looks, and scrapes the trees with his butcher knife, and snaps the grass like pipe stems, and breaks the leaves a snapping like Californy shells. Why, did the leaves, and the trees, and the grass smell badly? No, marm; this child didn't know what putrefactions was, and young Sublette's varsion wouldn't "shine" nohow, so I chips a piece out of a tree and puts it in my trap-sack, and carries it safe to Laramie.
Well, old Captain Stewart a clever man was that, though he was an Englishman , he comes along next spring, and a Dutch doctor chap was along too. I shows him the piece I chipped out of the tree and he called it a putrefaction, too ; and so, marm, if that wasn't a putrefied peraira, what was it? For this hos doesn't know, and he knows "fat cow" from "poor bull," anyhow. James Bridger was born in Eichmond, Va.
He must have gone west at a very early age, for he is known to have been in the mountains in In he had become a resident partner in the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. That he was a recognized leader among the early mountaineers while yet in his minority seems beyond question. He became "The Old Man of the Mountains" before he was thirty years of aire. Among the more prominent achievements of Bridgets life may be noted the following: He was long a lead- ing spirit in the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. He discovered Great Salt Lake and the noted Pass that bears his name.
He built Fort Bridger in the lovely valley of Black Fork of Green River, where transpired many thrill- ing events connected with the history of the Mormons and "Forty-niners. In person he was tall and spare, straight and agile, eyes gray, hair brown and long, and abundant even in old age; expression mild, and manners agreeable.
He was hospita- ble and generous, and was always trusted and respected. He possessed to a high degree the confidence of the In- dians, one of whom, a Shoshone woman, he made his wife. Unquestionably Bridgets chief claim to remembrance by posterity rests upon the extraordinary part he bore in the exploration of the West. The common verdict of his many employers, from Robert Campbell down to Captain Raynolds, is that as a guide he was without an equal.
He was a born topograjmer. The whole West was mapped out in his mind as in an exhaustive atlas. Such was his instinctive sense of locality and direction that it used to be said that he could "smell his way" where he could not see it. He was not only a good topographer in the field, but he could reproduce his impressions in sketches. His lifetime measures that period of our history during which the West was changed from a trackless wilderness to a settled and civilized country. He was among the first who went to the mountains, and he lived to see all that had made a life like his possible swept away forever.
On the 13th of April, , Captain W. Eaynolds, of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, U. It is interesting to us, not for what it accomplished — for it fortunately failed to penetrate the Upper Yellowstone country — but because it gives an ad- mirable resume, in the form of a report and a map, of the geographical knowledge of that country down to the date of actual discovery. Captain Eaynolds was in the field during the two seasons of 18r59 and ; but it was only in the summer of that he directed his efforts toward the country in which we are particularly interested.
In May of that year the expe- dition left its winter quarters at Deer Creek, Wyo. Here the party divided. One division under Captain Eaynolds was to ascend the Wind Eiver to its source and then cross to the head waters of the Yellowstone. Hayden, whose name is so intimately connected with the his- tory of the Yellowstone Park. James Bridger was guide to the party. Map of Raynolds' Explorations. The other party, under Lieutenant Maynadier, was to skirt the east and north flanks of the Absaroka Range and to join the first party at the Three Forks, if possible, not later than July 1st.
Captain Raynolds was charged with other instructions than those mentioned in his order, which must be kept in mind in order properly to account for the final outcome of the expedition. A total eclipse of the sun was to occur on July 18th of that year, and its line of greatest occultation lay north of the British boundary. It was desired that Captain Raynolds should be present in that locality in time to observe the eclipse.
This condition, rather than impas- sable mountains or unmelted snows, was the chief obstacle to a thorough exploration of the Upper Yellowstone. The two parties separated May 2-ith. Captain Raynolds, according to his programme, kept up the Wind River valley, and with much difficulty effected a crossing by way of Union Pass — which he named — to the western slope of the mountains. He then turned north seeking a passage to the head waters of the Yellowstone. When nearly oppo- site Two-Ocean Pass, he made a strenuous effort to force his way through, spending two days in the attempt. But it was still June and the snow lay deep on the mountains.
It was a physical impossibility to get through at that point, and the risk of missing the eclipse forbade efforts else- where. The Captain was deeply disappointed at this result. He writes: "My fondly cherished schemes of this nature were all dissipated by the prospect before us ;. Lieutenant Maynadier wisely made no attempt to cross the Absaroka Range, which rose continuously on his left. Had he done so, the deep snow at that season would have rendered his efforts futile. He kept close to the flank of the mountains until he reached the valley of the Yellow- stone north of the Park, and then hastened to join his com- manding officer at the appointed rendezvous.
He reached the Three Forks on the 3d day of July. The expedition had now completely encircled the region of the Upper Yellowstone. At one point Captain Eaynolds had stood where his eye could range over all that country which has since become so famous; but this was the limit of his endeavor.
The Yellowstone wonderland was spared the misfortune of being discovered at so early a day — a fact quite as fortunate as any other in its history. It will be interesting now to survey this region as known at the time of the Eaynolds Expedition. Nothing of importance occurred to increase public knowledge of it until , and Captain Eaynolds' Eeport is therefore the latest authentic utterance concerning it prior to the date of actual discovery. In this report Captain Eaynolds says : "Beyond these [the mountains southeast of the Park] is the valley of the Upper Yellowstone, which is as yet a ierra incognita.
My expedition passed entirely around, but could not penetrate it. Although it was June, the immense body of snow baffled all our exertions, and we were compelled to content ourselves with listening to mar- velous tales of burning plains, immense lakes, and boiling springs, without being able to verify these wonders.
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I know of but two men who claim to have ever visited this part of the Yellowstone Valley — James Bridger and Eobert Meldrum. The narratives of both these men are very remarkable, and Bridger, in one of his recitals, describes 59 an immense boiling spring, that is a perfect counterpart of the geysers of Iceland.
As he is uneducated, and had prob- ably never heard of the existence of such natural wonders elsewhere, I have little doubt that he spoke of that which he had actually seen. The vast Importance of that extensive mass of mountains, as a reservoir of waters for the country round about, impressed him deeply. He Bays, somewhat ostentatiously: "As my fancy warmed with the wealth of desolation before me, I found something to admire in the calm self- denial with which this region, content with barren magnifi- cence, gives up its water and soil to more favorable coun- tries.
But it is the map prepared by Captain Eaynolds that tells a more interesting story even than his written report. It reveals at once to the eye what was known as well as what was unknown of the Upper Yellowstone. Extend- ing in a southeasterly and northwesterly direction, is a large elliptical space, within which geographical features are represented by dotted lines, indicating that they are put in by hearsay only. In the midst of a surrounding country, which is already mapped with great accuracy, there is a region wholly unknown to the geographer.
A cordon of mountains encircles it, and shows the limit of official effort to gain a correct knowledge of it. Within this enchanted inclosure lies the region approximately defined by the 44th and 45th parallels of latitude and the th ind th meridians of longitude, which now constitutes the Yellowstone National Park. This was the net result of fifty years' desultory wandering in and about and over this "mystic" region. Eaynolds' report was the first official recognition in any form of the probable existence of extensive volcanic phe- nomena in the region of the Upper Yellowstone. Had it been published immediately after the expedition, and had not public attention been totally engrossed with other matters of overshadowing importance, this region must have become fully known in the early Sixties.
But within a month after the return of Captain Eaynolds to civiliza- tion there had taken place the national election which was the signal for attempted armed disruption of the Union. A year later found every officer of the Army called to new fields of duty. Captain Eaynolds' report did not appear until , although his map was published several years earlier in order to meet a demand for it by the new settlers in Western Montana. Nothing transpired in the meantime to make the general public familiar with this region, and the picture here given is therefore substantially correct down to the date of the celebrated Washburn expedition.
Among the most fascinating pages of American history are those which recount the annals of the discoveries of gold and silver. No one can appreciate the magnitude of those various movements by a simple perusal of statistics of the mineral wealth which they disclosed. He must pass through the mining belts and note how almost every rod of ground, over vast tracts of country, is filled with prospect holes that attest the miner's former presence. If the trapper carried the tools of his trade to haunts remote and inaccessible, the miner, with his pick and shovel, certainly outdid him.
One can readily understand that, as soon as such a movement should be directed toward the region of the Upper Yellowstone, the wonders of that region would speedily be revealed. The presence of gold in the mountains of Montana was first noticed as far back as Later, in , the Stuart brothers, James and Granville, founders of Montana, discovered gold in the Deer Lodge Valley; but they were destitute of equipments, and so constantly exposed to the hostility of the Blackfeet, that they went to Fort Bridger in the southwest corner of Wyoming, and did not return until late in 18G0.
It was in and that the rich mines on the Salmon and Boise Rivers were discovered. In the tide of discovery swept across the mountains into Montana. Although there were scarcely a thousand people in Montana in the winter of , the news of the great discoveries marshaled a host of immi- grants ready to enter the territory in the following spring.
These were largely re-enforced by adventurers from both the Northern and Southern States, who sought in these remote regions exemption from the tributes and levies of war. The immigrants were welcomed in the spring of 18 G3 by the news of the discovery of Alder Gulch, the richest of all gold placers. The work of prospecting, already being pushed with vigor, was stimulated to an extraordinary degree by this magnificent discovery. Pros- pecting parties scoured the country in all directions, often with loss of life through the Indians, but rarely, after the first two or three years, with any substantial success.
Some of these expeditions have a particular connection with our narrative because they passed across portions of what is now the Yellowstone Park. The most important of them occurred in August and September, It was led by Walter W. DeLacy, an engineer and surveyor of some distinction in the early history of Montana. The party at one time numbered forty-two men, although this number did not continue constant throughout the expedition.
Its sole object was to "prospect" the country. Evidently nothing in the line of topographical reconnaissance was thought of, for Captain DeLacy says "there was not a telescope, and hardly a watch, in the whole party. The party then broke up into small groups and set out in different direc- tions so as to cover as much ground as possible.
The last four days of August were spent in this search, but with failure in every direction. This discouragement led to the abandonment of the expedition. Fifteen men set out for home by the way they had come, while DeLacy and twenty- seven men resolved to reach the Madison River and the settlements by going north. A day later this party entered the territory which is now the Yellowstone Park. The route lay up the Snake River to its junction with Lewis River, where the hot springs of that locality were discovered. Here another separation occurred.
About half the party went back down the river to re-examine a locality where they thought they had found some fair pros- pects. They soon returned, however, unsuccessful. The main party under DeLacy ascended the hills to the west of the river to seek a more practicable route.
They soon reached the summit of the plateau where they discovered what are now Hering and Beula Lakes, and noted their divergent drainage. Thence they passed north over Pitch- stone Plateau until they struck the valley of Moose Creek. They descended this stream for a few miles and came to a large lake, which they supposed to be tributary to either the Madison or the Yellowstone Rivers.
To their great surprise they found, upon rounding its southern point, that it drained south into the Snake. This is what is now called Shoshone Lake. From the outlet of the lake, DeLacy sent a man down stream to examine the river. This reconnaissance resulted in the discovery of Lewis Lake and the hot springs basin there. He crossed the Continental Divide at the head of the valley, and camped on the evening of September 8th some miles beyond the Divide toward the Firehole Eiver.
The next morning, September 9, , he came upon the consider- able stream of hot water which flows down a mountain ravine into the Lower Geyser Basin close by the Great Fountain Geyser. The reader will learn with some amaze- ment that the party thought little enough of this wonder- ful locality to pass directly through it without halt or per- ceptible delay. Before the camping hour of the afternoon had arrived, they were many miles away at the junction of the Gibbon and Firehole Eivers.
The other section of the party, which had gone down the Snake from its junction with Lewis Eiver, soon returned, followed up the river to Lewis and Shoshone Lakes, passed around the western end of the latter lake, discovering its extensive geyser basin, and thence crossed over to the Madison. This stream they descended through the geyser basins, and followed the main party to the settlements.
DeLacy might have passed into history as the real dis- coverer of the Yellowstone wonderland, but for the fact that he failed to appreciate the true importance of what he saw. In that, however, he was no exception to the gen- eral rule of immigrants. The search for gold with them so far overshadowed all other matters, that it would have required something more than geysers to divert them, even momentarily, from its prosecution. Although DeLacy kept a daily journal of his expedition, and noted therein the various items of interest along his route, he did not publish it until , long after public interest had been strongly attracted to the geyser regions.
He also noted the various hot springs localities through which the party passed. DeLacy's account, as finally published, is an interesting early view of this region, and is remarkable for its general correctness. That he failed to publish his discoveries must be regarded as fortunate, so far as the Park is concerned, for the time had not yet come when it was desirable that the real character of this country should be made known. From to there were many other prospecting parties in the region of the Upper Yellowstone.
In one of these parties, numbering thirty or forty men, as- cended the Yellowstone and the East Fork to the mouth of Soda Butte Creek, and thence across an intervening ridge to the next northern tributary of the East Fork. Here all their horses were stolen by Indians. There were left only one or two mules, on which was packed all the baggage they could carry, the rest being concealed in a cache.
The party then separated into two portions, and prospected the country for several days in the vicinity of Clark's Fork. They finally returned, emptied the cache, and descended to the Yellowstone, where they found fair prospects near the present north boundary of the Park. The expedition has no permanent interest for this narra- tive, except that it left the two geographical names, "Cache Creek" and "Bear Gulch. The object of this expedition was to punish the Indians for outrages of the previous year, and also to prospect the country for gold.
At the Shoshone Stuart was compelled to return home. The party then separated into groups that gradually worked their way back to the Montana settlements. One of these small parties went as far south as the Sweetwater River, then crossed to the Green and. They descended the Yellowstone, past the Lake and Grand Canon, and beyond the present limits of the Park.
Norris found remnants of their camp debris seventeen years afterward. Thence they crossed to the Yellowstone at Mud Geyser, ascended the river to the lake, passed com- pletely around the latter, discovering Heart Lake on their way, and then descended the Yellowstone by the Falls and Canon, to Emigrant Gulch.
Here they were interviewed by a newspaper reporter, and on account of their travels was published in the Omaha Herald. They had seen about all there was to be seen in the whole region. At least two parties traversed the Park country in One of these gave names to Crevice, Hell-roaring and Slough Creeks. An account of the wanderings of the other party appeared in the Montana Post of that year.
Many other parties and individuals passed through this region during the Montana mining craze. By , probably very few of the reading public had not heard rumors of a strange volcanic region in the Far West. In Montana, par- ticularly, repeated confirmation of the old trappers' tales was gradually arousing a deep interest, and the time was fast approaching when explorations for the specific purpose of verifying these rumors were to begin. The discovery of the Yellowstone Wonderland — by which is here meant its full and -final disclosure to the world — was the work of three parties who visited and explored it in the years , , and , respect- ively.
The first of these expeditions was purely a private enterprise. It consisted of three men, and was the first party to enter this country with the express purpose of verifying or refuting the floating rumors concerning it. The second expedition was of a mixed character, having semi-official sanction, but being organized and recruited by private individuals. This was the famous "Yellowstone Expedition of " — the great starting point in the post- traditional history of the Park.
The third expedition was strictly official, under the military and scientific depart- ments of the government. It was a direct result of the explorations of , and was intended to satisfy the pub- lic demand for accurate and official information concern- ing this new region of wonders. It was the final and necessary step in order that the government might act intelligently and promptly for the preservation of what was believed to be the most interesting collection of won- ders to be found in the world.
An expedition was planned for that year, but came to nothing. A like result attended a similar effort the fol- lowing year. In , the proposition came near material- izing, but fell through at the last moment, owing to the failure to obtain a military escort. There were three mem- bers of this proposed expedition, however, who refused to be frightened off by any dangers which the situation at that time promised.
They had already provided them- selves with an elaborate equipment, and were determined, with escort or without it, to undertake the trip.. The names of these men were David E. Folsom, C. Cook, and William Peterson, the last named being a native of Denmark. Armed with "repeating rifles, Colt's six-shoot- ers, and sheath-knives," with a "double-barreled shot gun for small game;" and equipped with a "good field- glass, pocket compass and thermometer," and utensils and provi- sions "for a six weeks' trip," they set out from Diamond City on the Missouri Eiver, forty miles from Helena, Sep- tember 6, From this point they crossed to the east bank and followed up the river, passing through the many groups of hot springs to be found east of the Grand Canon.
On September 21st, they arrived at the Falls of the Yellowstone, where they remained an entire day. Some distance above the rapids they re-crossed to the west shore and then ascended the river past Sulphur Mountain and Mud Volcano to Yellow- stone Lake. Thence they crossed the mountains to Shoshone Lake, which they took to be the head of the Madison, and from that point struck out to the northwest over a toilsome country until they reached the Lower Geyser Basin near Nez Perce Creek.
Here they saw the Fountain Geyser in action and the many other phenomena in that locality. They ascended the Firehole River to Excelsior Geyser and Prismatic Lake, and then turned down the river on their way home. They were absent on the expedition thirty-six days. It is said that these explorers were so astonished at the marvels they had seen that "they were, on their return, unwilling to risk their reputations for veracity by a full recital of them to a small company whom their friends had assembled to hear the account of their explorations.
Folsom later prepared a most entertaining narrative of his journey which was published in the Western Monthly, of Chicago, in July, It is free from exag- geration and contains some descriptions unsurpassed by any subsequent writer. Langford to every thing pertaining to the welfare of the Yel- lowstone National Park that this article has been saved from oblivion.
The office of the Western Monthly was destroyed by the great Chicago fire of , and all the files of the magazine were lost. Folsom had lost or given away all copies in his possession. So far as is known there is but one remaining copy of this issue, and that is owned by Mr. In , Mr. Langford caused the article to be reprinted in handsome pamphlet form, with an interesting preface by himself. The Yellowstone Expedition of , more commonly known as the Washburn-Doane Expedition, was the culmi- nation of the project of discovery to which frequent refer- ence has already been made.
At this time the subject was exciting a profound interest throughout Montana, and the leading citizens of the territory were active in organ- izing a grand expedition. General Sheridan, who passed through Helena just prior to his departure for the scene of the Franco-German War, spent some time in arranging for a military escort to accompany the party. The project did not assume definite shape until about the middle of August, and when the time for departure arrived, Indian alarms caused a majority of the party to repent their deci- sion to join it.
Finally, there were only nine persons who were willing to brave all dangers for the success of the undertaking. These nine were: General Henry D. Washburn, Surveyor-General of Montana, chief of the expedition, and author of a series of valuable "notes" describing it. Nathaniel P. Langford, who published a series of articles in Scribner , s Magazine, which gave general pub- licity to the news of discovery. He became first Superin- tendent of the Park. Cornelius Hedges, who first proposed setting apart this region as a National Park.
Truman C. Everts, ex-TJ. Assessor for Montana, whose experience upon the expedition forms the most pain- ful and thrilling chapter in the annals of the Yellowstone. Samuel T.
Walter Trumbull, son of the late Senator Trumbull. He published an account of the expedition in the Overland Monthly for June, Other civilian members of the expedition were Benjamin Stickney, Jr. Gillette and Jacob Smith. The personnel of this party is sufficient evidence of the widespread interest which was being taken at the time in the region of the Upper Yellowstone. The party proceeded from Helena to Fort Ellis, one hun- dred and twenty-five miles, where they were to receive a military escort promised by General Hancock, at that time commanding the department in which Fort Ellis was loca- ted.
His incredulity was, indeed, largely shared by the members of the party themselves. Hedges subse- quently said: "I think a more confirmed set of skeptics never went out into the wilderness than those who composed our party, and never was a party more completely surprised and cap- tivated with the wonders of nature. The party as finally organized, including two packers and two colored cooks, numbered nineteen individuals.
Thirty-five horses and mules, thoroughly equipped for a month's absence, completed the "outfit," and made alto- gether quite an imposing cavalcade. August 22, , the expedition left Fort Ellis, crossed to the Yellowstone, and ascended that stream through the First and Second Canons, past the "Devil's Slide" and Cinnabar Mountain, to the present north boundary line of the Park at the mouth of the Gardiner River.
At this point they were within five miles of the celebrated Mam- moth Hot Springs which are now the first attraction to meet the tourist's eye on entering the Park. But the party kept close to the Yellowstone, instead of taking the mod- ern route up the Gardiner, and missed this wonder alto- gether.
It was August 26th when the expedition entered the present territory of the Park. Lieutenant Doane and Mr. Everts, with one soldier and two hunters picked up on the way, rode in advance along the brink of the Third Canon and across the high plateau between the Gardiner and Tower Creek, camping at nightfall upon the latter stream. In the broad open valley near the junction of the Yellowstone and East Fork, a small tepid sulphur spring gave them the first evidence of their approach to the regions of volcanic activity.
Next day, the remainder of the party arrived. Two days were spent in examining the beautiful Tower Falls. Here they also had for the first time glimpses of the Grand Canon of the Yellowstone. As their progress lifted them rapidly above the surrounding country, a marvelously beautiful landscape unfolded itself to their view. Presently an interesting incident occurred, which shall stand here in Lieutenant Doane's own language: "Through the mountain gap formed by the canon, and on the interior slopes some twenty [evidently a misprint] miles distant, an object now appeared which drew a simul- taneous expression of wonder from every one of the party.
A column of steam, rising from the dense woods to the height of several hundred feet, became distinctly visible. We had all heard fabulous stories of this region, and were somewhat skeptical of appearances. At first it was pro- nounced a fire in the woods, but presently some one no- ticed that the vapor rose in regular puffs, as if expelled with great force. Then conviction was forced upon us. It was, in deed, a great column of steam, puffing away on the lofty mountain side, escaping with a roaring sound audible at a long distance, even through the heavy forest.
A hearty cheer rang out at this discovery, and we pressed onward with renewed enthusiasm. Had old James Bridger been present at that moment, he would have re- ceived ample vindication for long-standing injustice at the hands of his incredulous countrymen. There were the Canon and Falls and Lake of the Yellowstone with evi- dence enough of boiling springs and geysers! That evening Messrs. Washburn, Doane and Hedges went on ahead of the main party, discovering the extensive mud springs at the southern base of the moun- tain, and finally reached the verge of a cliff beyond which yawned the stupendous Canon of the Yellowstone.
It was the first real view from near by, but darkness prevented further examination. The next day saw the arrival of the party at the. Falls of the Yellowstone, close by the mouth of Cascade Creek, which, with its Crystal Falls, received that day their pres- ent names. The remainder of this day, August 30th, and the next, were spent in exploring the canon and measuring the height of the falls. Hauser and Stickney de- scended the sides of the canon to the brink of the river about two miles below the falls ; and Lieutenant Doane and Private McConnell accomplished the same difficult feat further down.
It needs not to be said that the members of the party were profoundly impressed with the incompara- ble scenery of the Grand Canon, although their descrip- tions of it are, perhaps, least satisfactory of any they have left us. From the Canon the party ascended the now placid river amid ever-changing wonders. They passed Sulphur Moun- tain and the uncanny region around the Mud Volcano and Mud Geyser, then crossed to the east shore of the river and finally went into camp, September 3d, on the shore of the Yellowstone Lake.
After a day spent in this camp, the expedition continued by slow stages up the east shore of the lake. Doane and Langford scaled the lofty Absaroka Range just east of the lake, being the first white men known to have accom- plished this feat, and their names now designate two of its noblest summits. September 7th, the party forded the Upper Yellowstone and traversed the almost impassable labyrinths of fallen timber between the several projecting arms on the south of the lake. It was on this portion of the route, September 9th, that Mr. Everts became separated from his party, lost his horse with all his accouterments, and commenced those "thirty-seven days of peril," which so nearly cost him his life.
For Everts' own account see Scribner's Monthly, vol. Being very near-sighted, and totally un- used to traveling in a wild country without guides, he became completely bewildered. He wandered down to the Snake River Lake [Heart Lake], where he remained twelve days, sleeping near the hot springs to keep from freezing at night, and climbing to the summits each day in the endeavor to trace out his proper course.
Here he subsisted on thistle- roots, boiled in the springs and was kept up a tree the greater part of one night by a California lion.