Guide Les migrations dans les rapports euro-méditerranéens et euro-arabes (French Edition)

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First, geographical factors contribute to a greater sense of urgency among countries in southern Europe that are more exposed to the risks of Mediterranean instability than their northern neighbours. This sense of urgency was one of the driving forces behind the Barcelona process. An additional positive factor is to be found in the historical ties between certain EU and Middle East countries. The most significant examples are the links between France and Lebanon and Syria, and between Germany and Israel.

Capitalising on these bonds enables European states to make an individual contribution — but on behalf of the European Union — to either contain or stifle a crisis, or untangle and revive the peace negotiations. As far as Israel is concerned, the issue of a division of labour between the United States and the European Union is a non-issue. The Israeli position on the subject has always been to give priority to direct negotiations between the parties and to try, as far as possible, to prevent third parties from becoming involved in the peace process.

Moreover, experience has shown that peace can only be achieved by the actors in the conflict themselves. The most significant steps forward — Sadat's visit to Israel, the Oslo accords, and the peace treaty with Jordan — were taken without outside intervention. At the top of the long list of grievances against Netanyahu is that he contributed to further US involvement in the negotiations, in particular with the Palestinians Hebron Protocol, Wye River Memorandum. On taking office, the Barak administration immediately stated its determination to re-establish a bilateral approach to negotiations, as was the case before There is no doubt that the unfailing US ally is still the only credible and acceptable mediator in the peace process, but ideally Israeli leaders would prefer to do without any form of outside interference, by the United States or the European Union.

Having said that, Europe's image as a mediator is still basically negative in Israel. Its policy in the region is perceived as consisting largely of gratuitous declarations. Criticism focuses, in particular, on its partiality — its supposed pro-Arab or anti-Israeli bias — its inability to provide Israel with essential security guarantees and direct economic and military aid, and the lack of an integrated foreign and security policy shared by all member states.

In contrast there are still insistent, though perhaps only rhetorical, calls from Arab countries for Europe to play a more active role. On the whole these expectations do not correspond to what Europe has already achieved in real terms to counterbalance US policy in the area, but more to sympathy accumulated over the last twenty years. Ever since the Venice Declaration, Europe has been seen as being much more receptive to Arab demands and claims than the United States. Following the Oslo accords this trust was boosted by European financial and economic aid, which is generally agreed to have been vital for at least the Palestinian track.

Without this support the Palestinian Authority would probably not have survived. Nevertheless, Europe's generally positive image in the Arab world still has no political content in operational terms. On the one hand EU foreign policy is not integrated, in particular with respect to the Middle East, and on the other there is an almost complete lack of coordination between Arab countries directly concerned by the conflict. As a result Arab demands reach Brussels, Berlin and Paris erratically. They become more pressing when the United States fails to act as a "facilitator" and direct mediator in bilateral negotiations, but they are rarely more than isolated outbursts.

Even if all the Arab countries involved in the peace process Lebanon, Palestine and Syria criticise the bias in US policy they also know that only the United States has sufficient clout to guarantee a peace agreement with Israel. This is particularly true of Syria, which, behind its repeated demands that the European Union play a direct and active part in the peace process, is actually attempting to reach out to its ultimate "object of desire", namely the United States.

The normalisation of its relations with Washington and the US financial aid that it hopes to obtain in exchange for an agreement with Israel are one of the main peace dividends for Damascus. Division of labour between the European Union and the United States has in fact been most successful in the case of Syria. The United States have taken care of all the "hard diplomacy" and security guarantees, whereas Europe is expected to look after multilateral investment over the longer term, in the period following a peace settlement.

As for the cultural factor that is often quoted as an example of the relative advantage of the European Union over the United States, it is subject to caution for two reasons. The first is that Syria — probably even more so than Lebanon — has still not got over its colonial heritage the French mandate.

The second reason is that the vast majority of Westernised Arab elites have adopted the US model. From the Lebanese standpoint, Transatlantic complementarity fits into the constant concern manifest in the foreign policy of this small state — because of its own military and strategic resources — to seek Western protection so as to guarantee its national sovereignty.

In the specific context of the peace process, the United States is undoubtedly the dominant power and the Europeans are secondary actors. Since the end of the civil war Taef Accord in control has been exclusively Syrian. Lebanon now positions itself on the international stage, and in its relations with both the United States and the European Union, behind a strategic screen based on the principle that negotiations on the Syrian and Lebanese tracks cannot be dissociated.

Its options, which are extremely limited, range from shifting the US position in a direction that favours Lebanese interests, to seeking a European — or in fact French — role to counterbalance US policy. Conclusions Despite continuing differences, consensus on the following points was achieved at formal meetings and informal encounters between the various members of the group: There is a de facto link between the Middle East peace process and EU interests as stated in the Barcelona Declaration, the aim of which is quite clearly to build a secure regional neighbourhood.

Although this was not intended by its promoters, the Barcelona process created an institutional and "conceptual" framework for debate on the inevitable interaction between the long-term view of the Partnership and the need to politically involve the twenty-seven partners in the immediate management of crises and not just the question of how to prevent them in the future. In this sense, it may be said that the Middle East peace process also became a Euro-Mediterranean issue on account of the approach inherent in the Barcelona process.

But this role has changed qualitatively since the end of the Cold War. In the meantime, the positions of the United States, the European Union and regional actors have converged on UN resolutions and — which provide an official legal basis for the principle of "land for peace" to achieve an overall, just and equitable settlement. This has changed the almost exclusive nature of the US role.

It became actively involved in — if we take the Geneva Conference as the starting point of the peace process — as a third party in negotiations. At Madrid it decided to adopt the role of "facilitator" and spared no effort to keep the process on the rails, while avoiding in so far as possible taking the place of the protagonists and interfering in fundamental issues. This does not in any sense mean that we are still in the same bipolar framework with a "zero sum game" in which the European Union picks up all the "misses" in US policy.

As stated above, there is no power rivalry, in terms of interests, opposing the two Western allies in the Middle East and the Mediterranean as a whole. The differences concern the choice of approach and the order of priorities. For all the regional actors, and despite insistent Arab demands for a more active European role, the United States remains the primary partner and the most credible guarantor — in strategic and financial terms — for an Arab-Israeli settlement.

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The complementarity between the European Union and the United States in the peace process exists de facto. The issue is also a dividing line in Washington separating those who are completely against Europe playing any part in the peace process — because they see it as jeopardising US interests and the process itself — from those who, without challenging the primacy of the US role, believe that burden sharing is both inevitable and necessary not only in economic but also political terms.

In the absence of institutionalised Transatlantic dialogue and coordination on the peace process, an empirical, functional and geographic division of tasks has come about, not by choice but by necessity, under the pressure of circumstance. The most striking examples so far are obviously the Oslo Accords, thanks to the discreet and effective services of Norway — which is not an EU member — the April agreement between Syria, Lebanon and Israel, achieved to a large extent through the diplomatic determination of France and much criticised at the time by its own European partners — and finally the many forms of continuing support, both financial and technical, that the European Union has contributed to the process of building a Palestinian national entity.

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The work carried out within the working group has reflected this gradual division of labour: A division of tasks and responsibilities between the United States and the European Union implies a form of constructive competition that highlights the relative merits of both parties. It pre-supposes rational sharing of both US strategic power, thanks to the maturity that has come with managing Arab-Israeli crises, and the political and economic resources of the European Union, without forgetting its long experience in setting up multilateral organisations. Complementarity becomes a more realistic, operational instrument with the unprecedented convergence of views between regional and international parties on how to settle the conflict.

The irreducible opposition between a "pro-Arab" Europe and a "pro-Israeli" America is a thing of the past, if it ever actually existed. No European state can be reasonably accused of promoting policies that are deliberately contrary to Israeli interests. The European Union must continue to play an active role in developing regional and sub-regional institutions, essential to consolidate and "multilateralise" peace, not only in the Middle East but all over the Euro-Mediterranean area.

There is no question of one rescuing the other or of the Europeans replacing the Americans as the sponsors of the peace process. Nevertheless the fact that the partnership project has survived under particularly difficult conditions requires a clearer distinction between the functions and responsibilities of the main actors, be they local or international, in a conflict that remains one of the main stumbling blocks in the political and security basket of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.

Recommendations The complementarity between the EU and US roles should be reinforced in operational terms. In order to achieve better coordination of the division and sharing of tasks, functions and responsibilities, it is necessary to set up — or consolidate existing — permanent mechanisms for Euro-American dialogue.

Improved coordination between EU member states is also essential, if only to avoid confusion between individual initiatives by certain states and those undertaken on behalf of the European Union as a whole. This confusion may damage the coherence, credibility and effectiveness of EU policy in the area.

Here again setting up an informal framework for discussions between Europeans, bringing together officials and experts would pave the way for permanent consultations between the various EU member states. As emphasised above, European involvement in the Middle East peace process must be based on the relative advantages at the disposal of the European Union and its member states: on the one hand building on the historic ties that certain countries have developed in the area; on the other on EU experience and expertise — both in theoretical and practical terms — of sub-regional cooperation as an essential instrument for promoting and consolidating peace in the Middle East.

In concrete terms, Europe must take the leading role in peace-building and thus complement the major role played by the United States in peace-making. The creation of a Europe-Middle East commission involving Europeans, Arabs and Israelis is proposed in order to improve the receptiveness of regional actors to a more active European role in the Middle East peace process. Its objective would be to try to define, analyse and overcome the causes of regional resistance to and obstruction of the idea of Transatlantic complementarity in the Middle East. This trilateral framework for discussion — of which the level of representation is yet to be defined — is now a necessary instrument to impose the credibility of the European Union as an impartial but equitable actor.

Until now attempts at Euro-Arab and Euro-Israeli dialogue, conducted in parallel, have not been convincing. They have tended to raise suspicions and have even irritated one or other of the two parties, further confusing and complicating the role of the European Union. To succeed, this commission must proceed empirically, with clear, but realistic objectives, initially designed to open the way forward by defining the exact position or positions of the three parties.

Background The European Union and its member states have begun to define only after the role they intended to play in the Middle East process as complementary to the American role. This concept, which is now regularly used, has a dual function: on the one hand, it underlines the claim for a political, as opposed to a purely financial or economic role, to stress that Europe can be "a player as well as a payer".

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On the other hand it is meant to defuse American suspicions that Europe might actually want to compete with the US or counterbalance US policies in the region. Of course, European policy-makers have not always been convinced of the wisdom of US policies or positions towards the region and towards its main actors.

The strong pro-Israel bias of US policies in particular has not been seen as helpful. Europeans have also been disturbed by the strong linkage of US Middle East policies to domestic issues, and there have been fears that the US would disregard the legitimate interests of core Arab players, such as the Palestinians or Syria, and would eventually try to sponsor a form of settlement that would be neither just nor comprehensive. In general, however, European criticism of US policies in the Middle East was not so much about what the Americans did, as rather about what they failed to do — about an apparent lack of resolve with regard to the peace process, particularly in the first years of the Netanyahu government in Israel.

The Clinton administration's more active intervention in the fall of that led to the signing of the Wye River Memorandum was therefore strongly welcomed; even though it was seen as belated and overdue. Europeans have also pointed out that US influence on regional actors is limited. This did not mean that Europe would do any better, but it meant, in the European perspective, that claims of US policymakers to the effect that the US was uniquely capable of solving the Middle East conflict were not vindicated.

The semi-official US response to the European quest for a larger and more political role in the peace process, as well as to the concept of complementarity, has not been positive. Americans do not deny that Europe has a stake in the region, but there exist serious doubts that Europe would actually be capable of exercising a political or diplomatic function.

In the eyes of many US policy makers and pundits, Europe has neither the instruments for such a role, nor does it have the right approach: The EU and most of its members, it is argued, were unbalanced pro-Arab or pro-Palestinian , they focused too much on specific outcomes of a settlement such as demanding Israel's withdrawal from the Golan ; and their involvement into the actual negotiation process would complicate matters rather than being helpful.

European governments and the EU should therefore stick to what they could usefully do: namely commit aid and participate in the multilateral talks. In a sense, Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, helped to narrow the gulf between American and European Middle East policies — in the last six months of his premiership at least. His active frustration of President Clinton's efforts to move the Oslo process forward particularly his failure to implement the Wye Memorandum paved the way for a new and positive relationship between the US and the Palestinian Authority. As the US administration became more responsive to Palestinian grievances, it also began to take positions that were closer to those of the Europeans.

Different priorities rather than different interests Europe and the US do have different approaches to the Middle East and to the peace process. This is not so much a result of contradictory interests as rather of different priorities. The key US interests have clearly and repeatedly been defined: they comprise the security and wellbeing of Israel, the free flow of oil, the security of friendly Arab regimes and, more recently, the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

Europeans do not deny the importance of any of those US interests. Their main concern, however, is regional stability — a central concept to European thinking in regard to the region which is conspicuously absent from the US list of priorities. There also is a European consensus of sorts that there is no military threat from the region, while risks that emanate from local and regional instabilities, from inter-state conflict Arab-Israeli or other , from social crises and political turbulences in individual countries of the region as well as from economic imbalances between Europe and its Mediterranean neighbours have to be taken seriously.

Uncontrolled migration, the spread of religious or nationalistic extremisms, and the export to Europe of regional conflicts, via migrant communities or terrorist groups, are of particular concern. As concerns the Arab-Israeli conflict and peace process per se , the US list of priorities starts with the security and well-being of Israel.

Europeans, in contrast, emphasise the need for comprehensive peace and security, including the legitimate rights of the Palestinians. In other words, the US views the Middle East from a global perspective and focuses on its prime ally in the region; Europe has a regionalist approach and consequently gives more equitable attention to the entire group of its Mediterranean and Middle Eastern neighbours.

It does entertain special relations with Israel, but it cannot and will not base its policies on "strategic relationships" with just one or two regional partner states. Any regional destabilisation is seen as a risk, even if it would not affect the security of Israel or the flow of oil. Different leanings are thus partly the result of geographic proximity and interdependence. Above that, economic interest and domestic policy equations play a role.

European commercial interests in the region are much stronger, and also more diversified than those of the United States. And while all EU countries consider Israel a friend, Israel or support for Israel, is nowhere as much an issue of domestic politics in Europe as in the US. As a result, Europe is generally more open to Arab demands and positions than the US — even though the EU and basically all its member states still have stronger and better relations with Israel than with any Arab state. Different structures and different approaches Different leanings do not necessarily form an obstacle to Transatlantic consultation or even co-operation on Middle Eastern issues.

They can be translated into comparative advantages, especially if seen in the context of different structures and capabilities. These differences of structure can be characterised as follows: The United States is a single state, and is uniquely capable of projecting military power into the region. The EU, in contrast, is still a union of sovereign states that all have their own respective interests and biases and do not always act coherently. The EU's common foreign and security policy still needs inter-governmental consensus for any joint action.

Also, some of Europe's regional partners have been frustrated by the institutional complexity of Europe and by the constant change of interlocutors. Europe is neither able nor willing to project military power into the region. US foreign policies are highly dependent on electoral cycles and the four-year presidential term. US policies towards the Middle East are generally paralysed in election years — or at least are perceived as being paralysed which eventually may have the same effect.

Moreover, inter-agency differences tend to have a negative effect on the ability of the administration to follow through on its agenda. Congress, in particular, likes to interfere with Middle East policy. In contrast, elections and changes of government in EU member states, the semi-annual change of the EU presidency or even the appointment of a new EU Commission are hardly noticeable in terms of Europe's policies towards the region.

European Middle East policies are very much the brainchild of the bureaucracies in Brussels as well as in the national capitals. The European parliament and national parliaments in EU countries tend to accentuate these policies rather than counterbalance or obstruct them. As a result, European policies towards the Middle East mostly have a long-term perspective. The Barcelona process, with a to years time frame, is a telling example. Compared to Europe, US foreign-policy making is highly personalised, with the US president being the prime mover and decision-maker.

This also reflects on the way the United States and Europe conduct their policies towards the region. It is noticeable that US Middle East policies tend to focus on regional leaders, and work on them, much more and much more effectively than the European Union or any single EU state.

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Presidential phone calls as well as invitations to White House summits are important instruments. European leaders would likely not achieve similar results with a call to their regional counterparts. At the same time, it appears that US officials and policymakers pay little attention to structural developments and socio-political dynamics in the region.

Europeans seem to have a better understanding of these regional dynamics and of the sensitivities of local actors. Reflecting the institutional architecture of Europe, the EU also has an inbuilt tendency towards multilateralism. Comparative advantages and complementarity Given these differences of polity structure and comparative capabilities, it is clear that complementarity does exist.

That is, Europe and the United States each enjoy particular comparative advantages and weaknesses in regard to their respective ability to influence the course of events in the Middle East. Europe, for instance, would never be able to force on the regional parties anything like the Madrid peace conference. At the same time it would be unthinkable for any US administration to establish, support and maintain such a complex multilateral, multidimensional and multi-level process as the Barcelona process.

Complementarity implies a certain division of responsibilities, but it does not mean that one party should follow the other blindly, or that Americans and Europeans have to see eye-to-eye on every question that concerns their policies in the region. For this division of responsibilities and labour , the following guidelines should apply: The United States will have to remain the main regional power broker. US efforts should concentrate on high-level diplomacy, especially in facilitating and mediating bilateral negotiations.

US security assistance and guarantees to individual countries may be helpful to reassure and compensate them for certain territorial or political concessions they will have to make in a peace agreement. Europeans should not be deceived by Arab calls for a greater European role: When it comes to forging a final deal, Syria, Lebanon or the Palestinian leadership will want to have the Americans at the table.

The Arab states may have limited trust in the impartiality of the United States, but they certainly want its weight and power to be behind an agreement they will conclude with Israel. Europe will generally have to concentrate on less visible, but no less politically important contributions to achieving and stabilising peace in the Middle East. The EU should be brought in charge of reviving the multilateral peace talks.

The EU should therefore be made the chair or co-chair of a renewed steering group of the Multilaterals. The EU should also continue to sponsor and support other regional or subregional multilateral activities, particularly in the fields of economic and security co-operation. Europe will thereby provide practical experience and get regional actors used to working in multilateral frameworks. As far as the Arab-Israeli bilateral relations are concerned, European contributions to their evolution will generally take place on somewhat lesser diplomatic levels, and often with lower profile.

This includes traditional diplomatic functions such as conveying messages between and developing ideas with regional leaders. It also includes more practical activities related to security-and-confidence-building and to the implementation of existing agreements. Europe's support and training for Palestinian anti-terrorism measures is one example; another has been the EU Special Envoy's efforts to work out a code-of-conduct for Israeli-Palestinian relations during negotiations.

In the context of peace negotiations or crisis containment, there will be a recurrent need to employ the special relations that Brussels, Paris, Berlin or others maintain with individual states in the Middle East, particularly with Syria and Lebanon or Iran. France's efforts to make Teheran a silent partner in the so-called "April understanding" — the cease-fire agreement that ended Israel's "Operation Grapes of Wrath" and led to the establishment of the Israel-Lebanon Monitoring Group ILMG - is a good example, even though at that time it was not appreciated by the US administration.

As this example demonstrates, Europe and European institutions should remain active organisers of second track initiatives. Europe also has an important role in institution-building. This applies to regional frameworks as well as to institution-building in the Palestinian Territories. There could be a limited European military peace-keeping role, if and where the regional parties so wish.

This will most likely apply to Israel and Syria after an agreement over Israeli withdrawal from the Golan. Generally, European policy-makers will have to accept that most of Europe's less highly visible contributions to the process are nevertheless highly political.

This includes, but is not restricted to, mid-to-long-term financial commitments. US policy makers will have to acknowledge that the European contribution is essential enough to necessitate regular consultations and co-ordination — rather than only information or briefing sessions by the Americans for their European colleagues. And both Europeans and Americans have to be aware that their influence on events in the Middle East is limited. Fuller 1.

Strengths of the United States The US brings the tradition and experience of leadership to global affairs since the beginning of the Cold War. Only Washington, for example, could have produced the Camp David agreement and maintained the ability to summon regional leaders to Washington for summit meetings. Washington possesses the financial and military resources to bear upon the peace process; it has a large body of experienced personnel available to work on the many details of the project.

US policies also have demonstrated a great deal of energy to persist in the project. American financial resources are also important for funding the eventual peace, as after Camp David. American policy-making combines governmental bodies with the resources of a large group of non-governmental organizations NGOs that support the policy process. There are more intimate links between policy-makers and the private world of think-tanks and policy analysis groups than in any other country, that helps to facilitate the process.

The world is familiar with the reality of US clout and weight in international affairs; it is difficult to exclude it. Furthermore, US policies can affect positively or negatively other countries in other arenas if they either co-operate with or stymie US diplomatic efforts. The US sees the peace process in the broader context of global foreign policy. No other power in the world has either the global reach or the intensity of interest to operate in a global context.

In the US view, it alone has the confidence of Israel which will bring it to an eventual settlement. Washington also believes that if there are too many cooks involved in the process, the necessary results cannot be produced, that there are too many competing agendas. Conversely, Europe is seen as "too pro-Arab" which weakens its ability to influence Israel and causes Europe to be taken for granted by the Arab side.

There is furthermore no unified European approach to the peace process and Europe has not been good at consistent follow-through over the years. The US also brings some broader ideals to Middle East policy as a whole: the vision of a broader global market that will involve the Middle East, and the need for emphasis on issues such as human rights and democratization. Europe, on the other hand, at the individual state level, has taken a more "Realpolitik" view and had less interest in democratization and human rights than in "national interests.

Europe has also failed to make any significant contribution to the settlement of issues such as Iraq or Iran. Weakness of the US role The US, despite its claims, is not able to demonstrate genuine objectivity between the Israeli and Arab parties. Its pro-Israeli tilt is well-known to all, and of long standing. This imbalance emerges from the power of the pro-Israeli lobby in Washington, both in government as well as media.

US objectivity has improved, however, since the period of the Netanyahu government which ironically greatly improved US-Palestinian ties. The peace process team, made up almost exclusively of Jewish Americans, despite its highly professional and dedicated nature, sends the wrong signals, suggesting that US interests in the Middle East are driven exclusively by ethnic politics in the US. US policy cannot be made with any consistency because of the democratized nature of foreign policy making, involving the Congress as a second major actor.

Congress has greatly complicated US foreign policy by conducting its own foreign policy that is particularly inclined to punish the Arab side and reward Israel. This democratization also results in fragmentation of the policy process, making it more subject to local politics. Accomplishments of the peace process have been modest considering the many decades of activity. Levels of frustration in the region have grown higher. The US, as long-time leader of the West, also brings a great deal of baggage to the peace process in the Middle East, making it the target of many other groups angry at Washington on issues other than the peace process, such as Iraq, Iran, Russia and China.

The US is also the premier target of terrorism in the Middle East, which complicates the American role and often causes it to become distracted by a "counter-terrorism" agenda that raises tensions and weakens the peace process. While some may see the US as "sole superpower," others may view it as "sole hegemon," which creates resentments. US ideals, furthermore, such as human rights and democratization, are often only selectively applied; US double-standards weaken its credibility. Conclusion The US continues to prefer unilateralism for its advantages of simplicity in policy-making.

However Washington will find the unilateral road harder to follow in the years ahead. It is increasingly difficult to form a consensus in the US on foreign policy. The US public will be increasingly less willing to expend either blood or treasure in pursuing distant foreign policy goals unless their linkage to US interests is overwhelmingly evident. American unilateralism, furthermore, has failed to gain the support of US allies in issues such as Iraq, Iran, or Libya. The peace process will need to become part of a broader approach to foreign policy in the Middle East as a whole, in which regime liberalization or change becomes increasingly urgent.

Bad governance across most of the Middle East is responsible for most of its crises, domestic and foreign. Will Europe and Washington face this reality, or will they prefer "business-as-usual" with failing regimes? Both Washington and Europe need to examine frankly the real nature of conflict of interest between them. Perhaps this should be the task of joint US-European think-tanks in particular. Some conflict of interest is natural, and it can be discussed. But such differences are covered up by both sides so far, which makes co-operation more difficult. Heller As a first order principle of peacemaking, the predominant view in Israel is that the debate about a division of labor between Europe and the United States is a false debate.

The basic Israeli approach is that peace must be made between the parties themselves, and Europeans and Americans who search for complementarity in their roles are therefore discussing a role that is not properly theirs at all. In general, the Israeli preference would be that neither Europe nor the United States have any role at all. In this, Israel conforms to what appears to be general rule of international relations: that in conflict situations, the stronger party prefers to restrict the arena to the belligerents themselves while the weaker one strives to implicate third parties in the hope of reducing the greater bargaining power of the adversary and introducing some balance into the equation.

Thus, India has always insisted on excluding outside actors from its conflict with Pakistan while Pakistan has consistently striven to "internationalize" the question of Kashmir. Nevertheless, it has also been the case that these breakthroughs normally needed some shepherding and follow-through to bring negotiations to fruition and sustain Arab-Israeli relations when post-agreement difficulties emerged.

And where the parties were not able even to produce a conceptual breakthrough by themselves, outside mediation was necessary to maintain or revive momentum and sustain the hope for future progress as an alternative to complete stagnation, frustration and deterioration into violence. In every such instance, the major outside actor involved has been the United States, and as the fallback in case bilateral peacemaking proves fruitless, the United States remains the preferred indeed, the only intermediary from the Israeli point of view.

If the Europeans have played a secondary if not marginal role in Middle Eastern mediation efforts, that is therefore only partly because of American reluctance to share the role with them; the major factor has been a strong Israeli disinclination to see Europe involved.

Several factors explain this preference. The first is simply that the United States is a fully coherent political-military entity, an "address" to which positions can be communicated and with which problems can be clarified and perhaps resolved; the European Union, for all its progress towards integration, remains an association of sovereign states that have yet to articulate a common foreign and security policy.

The problem of policy coherence and authoritativeness does not, of course, apply to individual European states. The United States, by contrast, has a much more pluralistic foreign policy system, providing more points of access for Israeli input. Not only is the executive itself more pluralistic Israel, for example, has been able over the years to cultivate close ties with the US defense establishment ; Congress, the media, and public opinion also play a more independent and influential role than do their European counterparts, providing additional and receptive avenues for Israeli influence.

Indeed, the multiplicity of contact points facilitated, but not confined to the American Jewish community underlies the "special relationship" between Israel and the United States. The United States has a proven track-record of direct economic and security assistance to Israel and of indirect assistance in the form of greater assertiveness on security issues of concern to Israel e.

Since the collapse of the Franco-Israeli alliance in the mids, Europe with the partial exception of Germany inspires little Israeli confidence on this score. Instead, European policy is perceived as consisting largely of gratuitous declarations. For all these reasons, Israel has generally shown little enthusiasm for any outside efforts to play an active mediating role in the peace process.

But when the dangers of stalemate made that impossible, it accepted or even sought American involvement, while consistently rejecting any similar role for Europe. This was particularly apparent during the three years of the Netanyahu government. It was precisely during this period that expressions of European dissatisfaction and assertive demands for a more prominent role "to be player and not just a payer" reached their peak and led to the appointment of a Special EU Envoy to the peace process.

Itinerant Exhibition that shows the Ette Ennaka's history of their travels and settlement in ancestral territory , Magdalena Beneficiaries: 2. Products: 6 photography panels 1x2 Mt. Construction of the Nara Kajmanta's school kitchen and dining room with a traditional design and economic support for the Ette Taara's languaje teacher , Santa Marta Beneficiaries: Directly: 60 Ette Ennaka Children. Indirectly: people.

Products: Kitchen, dining room, Ette Taara lessons guaranteed. Recuperation and construction of traditional home orchards Kaaria for food sustainability and cultural strengthening and , Magdalena and Cesar Beneficiaries: families. Products: Traditional Home Orchards. Workshops on traditional: weaving, handcrafts, music, dance, ethno medicine and self-government for the Ette Ennaka indigenous communities.

Result: recovery of material culture. Advisory to the women weavers of the following indigenous communities: Wayuu, Arhuaco, Kogi and Kankuamo, on issues such as traditional design, quality and marketing. Beneficiaries: 10 women weavers. Result: Recovery of traditional designs and improvement of their income. December Iguana Magazine, "Chimila women and children preserve their ancestral culture".

Teje Teje seeks to preserve indigenous cultures". In addition, Teje Teje promoted the creation of the Ette Ennakas Women Weavers Association in which today provides indigenous women with incomes to help support their families. In and - Teje Teje worked in alliance with the Ette Ennakas "Cabildo" Authorities in the strengthening of their traditional practices associated to food production, political organization, and cultural heritage around issues such as weaving and handcrafts, music, dance, ethno medicine and self-government, benefitting families.

Since early , Teje Teje has worked in association with the Ministry of Culture, with the accredited NGO to the Convention, Traditions for Tomorrow, and with the Ette Ennaka "cabildo" on a project that aims tore vitalize its cultural identity considering the conservation of sacred sites, knowledge of medicinal plants and the word of the elders. With the Zenu Indigenous population, Teje Teje is currently working with the indigenous authorities to encourage the creation of a group of people committee that will manage cultural heritage based on the Special Safeguards Plan of the cultural expression "Handcrafts as the heart of Zenu Identity".

This program prepares grants a scholarships especially for this programmed for M. Participants are young lecturers from various universities around Indonesia. After completing their studies are expected to return home to teach at various universities This program also to train and prepare a number of scholars for research and fieldwork on endangered languages and cultural activities in different areas all over Indonesia. Primarily it is necessary to conduct a general survey to understand the present situation of intangible cultural heritage in Indonesia, and to plan a strategy of protecting the most endangered species.

Nevertheless, we have to express our gratitude to the researchers and resource persons who helped ATL in designing and carrying out our revitalization and accompanying programs i. Hamidi, M. Hum Jakarta , Dr. Tabir Sitepu Medan , Prof. Suripan Sadi Hutomo Surabaya , Dr. Aminuddin Malang , Prof. Mursal Esten Padang Panjang. In addition, we would like to express our most sincere gratitude to cultural experts and artists, such as the late B. Evaluation Body mandates: ; ; ; It is linked to European Carnival festivities, has important components of popular satire, festive sociability, artistic expression, artisan practices and singular techniques.

It is also felt by the community involved as an importart signal of its identity. Likewise, are also an important objective for the association to publicize and promote the heritage aspects of the festivities related to the use and rituals of fire, promote the research related to them and create opportunities for reflecting on the importance of heritage management in popular festivals. Without being exhaustive, we highlight the following activities: Identification, documentation, research: Call and organization for Jaume I Congress on Popular Cultures and Fire Festivals Congreso Jaume I de Cultura Popular i Festes del Foc, The inventory and reasoned catalogue of Fallas Museum of Valencia, especially characterized by its unique collection and intangible cultural practices linked to it Issue of the Revista d'Estudis Fallers since annual scientific journal that publishes original research papers about Fallas Festivals and other celebrations of fire.

Journal meets the scientific standards at the reception and approval of articles. Design and implementation in of the Center for Documentation of Fallas festival with the City Council of Valencia for the collection of written, audiovisual and intangible documentation catalogue and archive for the free access and consult of researchers.

Ephimeral Heritage on the European Carnival Rituals carnval. Promotion and improvement: Organization of "Les falles a la Nau" discussion sessions, since in collaboration with University of Valencia, where different agents involved in the Festival come together to reflect on interesting issues, especially on heritage, promotion, protection and enhancement.

Since the association awards the best article of reflection and disclosure of Fallas festival: The Enric Soler i Godes Award. Organization ot the Mostra de Llibrets de la Comunitat Valenciana to promote the Llibrets de falla, native publications edited by fallas comittes, to implement synergies between the different agents implied and to work in the consolidation of this cultural field. Transmission and formal or non-formal education: Organization, in collaboration with the Secretary of Tourism of the Generalitat Valenciana regional government , of several editions of a training course on the Fallas festival and its intangible cultural heritage for official tour guides.

Realization of different divulgation talks and lectures on the history of the Fallas festival in collaboration with festive and cultural associations. Participation in seminars and scientific meetings offering unpublished works on social and heritage importance of the different elements of the festival. Revitalization: Retrieval and update, in collaboration with the Valencia City Council, of ancient festive events like "Cavalcada del foc" a parade of fireworks that connects with the festive tradition of mediterranean fire and had ceased to be held in The association is made up of sociologists, linguists, journalists, cultural managers, museum and tourism management professionals, art historians and artisans and artists, all of them with a personal and professional involvement with the cultural heritage.

Thus, it is established as a multidisciplinary group working together on different projects of research and enhancement of the cultural aspects of festival. In addition to the specific training of each of the members, a continuous exchange of information that allows to extend the knowledge of the other members, so that skills and competeces in the field of cultural heritage immaterial are exponentially increased.

Valencia City Council in the inventory and cataloguing of the Fallas Museum, in the design and implementation of the Documentation Centre of the Fallas festival and the recovery of missing festive events. Generalitat Valenciana regional government , in the design and realization of exhibitions on intangible cultural values linked to the festive literature. Junta Central Fallera local festive committee in works for developing new measures to promote cultural heritage linked to fire festivals.

Gremio Artesano de Artistas Falleros de Valencia, in the catalogue and enhancement of the Museum of the Fallas Artists and in the restoration of some of its pieces. Le tout est produit en trois langues minimum: fran9ais, anglais et espagnol. Leurs auteurs sont souvent des universitaires. Besides, according to the item 4 the Cireolo carries out its work and initiatives not only in Scapoli's area but also out of it with the aim to favour the exchange and the cooperation between communities and territories.

For that, many and various activities have been carried out, involving not only the zampogna makers and players but the whole community. Besides all the other good results in terms of preservation, promotion and revitalization, the project let the Circolo to take the first census of the cultural heritage connected with the zampogna, to collect materials and documents for the Italian centre of the Bagpipe, to realize a transnational cooperation project called "Common Sounds to the European Rural World" in cooperation with the Local Action Group "North Pennines" Northumber1ad, UK and above all to reinforce the link between the community and its heritage.

About the competence and the expertise in the domain of intangible cultural heritage, the personnel and the membership consist in: traditional zampogna makers and players, ethnomusicologists, anthropologists, musicians and musical groups, cultural associations, museums, libraries, researchers, scholars, university teachers, besides simple enthusiasts. Since its foundation joined the Association several zampogna makers and players that, both as group and individuals, are those who traditionally create, maintain and transmit this kind of heritage. Besides, most of the activities have been carried out wit the involvement and the participation of the whole community, from its younger to the older members.

At this regard, a very important and successful role has been played by the LEADER project "Living with the bagpipe" with which it has been possible to reinforce the relationship between people and their cultural heritage. Particularly significant is also the annuallntemational Bagpipe Festival in which. The festival is organized in collaboration with the Commune and with the local turistic association. There are also involved all the economic and trade activities of the area, people give their help in the organization of the event, place rooms for visitors and musicians, sell gastronomic specialities, etc.

In each edition of the Festival the musicians involved, traditional and not, come from all over Italy and each time from 2, 3 or more foreign countries. The event is very well attended around Every year, on the occasion of the Assembly of the members, the Circolo organizes also 2 "Bagpipers Meetings", in Spring an in Autumn, in which the participants analyse what has been done and propose what could better to do in terms of safeguard, research, transmission and promoting of the zampogna tradition.

It has in addition been active in the valorization of the traditional Iiutery for the construction of zampogne a chiave,and other local traditional musical instruments like surduline, ciaramelle, tamburelli, cupa-cupa, fischiett di canna etc. This activity is carried out in the respect of the ancient craftship but with an opening towards the young generations through old and new forms of artistical expressions and through initiatives and collaboration and exchanges with local bodies, cultural institutions, universities, associations, etc.

The association promotes, organizes and eventually manages courses on traditional instrument and vocal music, traditional dance, seminars, stages and what more to disseminate the knowledge and the practice of the local musical tradition among young and elder people. Moreover the association implements local historical research, safeguarding of the ethnic inheritage, re-discovery of instrument players and singers from the past through the publication of their original repertoires and documentation and a systematic data collection regarding the past and contemporary musical tradition.

The association together with its members promotes and carries out activities in order to promote and disseminate the knowledge of the traditional musical culture. As per art. Members are divided into ordinary, sustaining and honorary members. Planning and management of programmes and activities are implemented by the members as participation is considered a fundamental element in order to guarantee democracy and good functioning of the association.

All ordinary members have the right to express their vote. The General Assembly of members is the main decision organ. However, slowly the old bearers of tradition are disappearing and for such reason the members of the association together with community felt strongly the need to preserve this heritage and to transfer it to the new generations. In this direction, various initiatives have been implemented in time among which: - Systematic study and identification, collection and registration of traditional repertoires, techniques and documentation focused on the expression of the folk culture of the Pollino area.

Members of the association have competence and expertise with regard to the intangible cultural heritage as they are mainly traditional zampogna makers and players, other traditional instruments makers and players, dancers, ethnomusicologists, anthropologists, musicians and scholars, besides being all members of the various communities present in the Pollino area, including Arbresh representatives.

Additional information: The Association was created with the aim of reviving the still deeply-rooted tradition of making and playing the zampogna a chiave and the other local traditional instruments within the community all along the year and with particular regard to the religious feasts. The President of the Association Giuseppe Salamone is member of a family considered since more than years one of the principal families trasmitting the tradition of the zampogna including construction, playing and dissemination of the instrument and its music for further detailed information please refer to the ethnomusical studies done on the famiglia Salamone in the Pollino area.

Similarly the other members of the association come from families that for long time have been barriers of tradition with regard to zampogna and totarella, singing on the zampogna, dance and percussion, and other traditional musical instruments. All members of the association have competence and expertise with regard to the intangible cultural heritage as they are mainly traditional zampogna makers and players, other traditional instruments makers and players, dancers, ethnomusicologists, anthropologists, musicians and scholars, besides being all members of the various communities present in the Pollino area, including Arbresh representatives.

All members participate actively since ever to all religious and cultural events of the community, as they are part of it and also are important members of the communities of the Pollino area, as documented by the innumerable studies done by all anthropologists studying the Pollino area and the local cultural tradition. At all religious and non feasts, the members of the association are active participants of all cultural events implemented, as they are the main bearers of the local cultural intangible heritage, inherited by their ancestors and continued by them and handed over to the young generations.

It is practically impossible to present a specific timeframe, as the activities are implemented daily, since the last generations of these families, and have always included transmission and safeguarding of the tradition and cultural heritage from one generation to the other. In this area as in many other parts of Italy, playing the zampogna, dancing, singing, is part of every day, it is done when returning home after working in the fields, or else, as a means of being together and sharing among the members of the community its cultural tradition and also a way to reconfirm the community among its members.

Since the last ten years and more, all members of the association have contributed in trasmitting to innumerable young people their knowledge both regarding the construction of zampogne, totarelle and other traditional local musical instruments and music and ways of playing these instruments, besides dancing and singing, contributing hence in safeguarding and transmitting the cultural intangible heritage of the communities of the Pollino area.

The management board includes: Giuseppe Salamone bearer of tradition , Giuseppe Altieri bearer of tradition , Antonio Arvia zampogna player and teacher , Paolo Napoli various local traditional player and ethnomusicologist , Mauro Semeraro player , Domenico Miraglia bearer of tradition , Saverio Marino player and singer. The entire philosophy underlaying the work implemented by the association aims at pooling together the traditional knowledge and pratice of the communities of the area through their direct involvement and participation.

Particular attention is given to all the feasts of the local communities and to the participation of the members of the association with special regard to the religious feasts which are an important aggregation and identification moment for all the people living in the Pollino area.

Programmes and participation to all events of the area are established in sinergy with the local communities who strongly take part in all rituals marking the various parts of the year and try to maintain their local tradition and languages, sharing repertoires, dances, food, stories, use of herbs, etc. It aims to safeguard and revitalize puppet traditions and the related craftsmanship, as well as local practices and productions in their different territorial, artistic and traditional expressions so as to save and expand the rich immaterial heritage connected to Sicilian folk traditions and to encourage the research focusing on their relation with their original context.

This activity takes place by means of collecting; research; promotion; networking and cooperation; educational, didactic and theatrical activities, eg. Since the beginning they have undertaken important researches about local traditions and material culture collecting important testimony and recording, among others, religious festivals, puppet shows, interviews to puppeteers and traditional spectators.

Also, to safeguard the Opera dei pupi, the Association started to collect lots of items used to put on traditional shows creating the first core of the collection, which was to be exhibited at the Museo internazionale delle marionette International Puppet Museum , founded in its collections include ab. It encourages the intercultural dialogue by adopting an interdisciplinary approach and proposing programmes, which have always promoted an exchange between folk and cultivated theatre, art and music in relation to the field of performing arts, heritage and culture.

In its latest five editions, it involved more than artists www. This stable collaboration has allowed the organization of ab. Meetings with art and traditional music , held in various Sicilian towns and in collaboration with CIDIM Italian National Committee for Music , which included performances of local story-singers concerning some famous stories of the poetico-musical repertoire.

Performed according to the traditional executive techniques and staging codes; cunti, which are serialized stories publicly related by wandering storytellers and concerning chivalric epics stemmed from the ancient French Chansons de geste; concerts of folk songs; seminars about the Opera dei pupi and Unesco masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity held in Palermo.

This stable collaboration aims to increase their activity and expectations within a constant exchange and dialogue, which are at the basis of the important research activity carried on by the founding members of the Association. In addition, in order to revive, promote and popularize it, since the opening of the Museum, the Association organized an annual review of the Opera dei pupi and during the year it still schedules Sicilian puppet shows by inviting companies from all over Sicily and involving them in other didactic activities.

Not only does the Association mediates in the relationship between puppeteers and national and international spectators and institutions, but it also creates contacts and cooperation with craftsmen, puppeteers and artists from other countries promoting the cultural and professional exchange between Sicilian traditional artists and foreigners operating in the same field. In fact, during the annual Festival di Morgana, the Association often invites companies from abroad, which perform or hold workshops in Palermo, and it has also promoted the production of innovative performances mixing traditional practices ex.

Chinese Opera and Sicilian Opera dei pupi , or various forms of art contemporary dance, paintings and music : the result was the creation of artistic works which plays with the Opera dei pupi traditional codes which gave Sicilian artists the possibility to become more aware about their activity and to expand the range of their experience in the puppet field. Finally, this exchange has helped the development of a more general comparative study of traditional theatrical practices. The "Battuglia di Pastellessa" are ornamental wagons that are prepared to celebrate the religious feast of Saint Anthony, the Abbot, in January following a tradition that started years ago in Macerata Campania.

Membership to the Association is free, without any kind of discrimination with regard to race, citizenship, sex or religious belief. Other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, sharinq the same purposes of the Association, can apply for membership to the Association. During such event the Association coordinates about 1. During the previous days concerts, tastings and religious liturgies warm up the atmosphere. The feast consists in: firing the "Cippo di Sant'Antuono" Saint Anthony's piece of wood , parade of the ornamental wagons of the "Battuglia di Pastellessa", fireworks and a raffle.

The band exhibition of the "bottari" is in the morning when they are carried on 16 meter-long wagons, with their instruments consisting of vats, barrels and sickles, realized by local artisans, around the town. After the Mass fireworks are exploded as symbol of the purification and the struggle against the evil spirit. Figurative fireworks representing a woman, a pig, a donkey, enrich the symbolism and represent the protective force from the snares of the world. Traditional games as tug of war, the sack race and the raffle, when all donations collected during the procession are auctioned, mark the closure of the festivities.

The event is organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania, the Province of Caserta, with the Campania Region, and the participation of the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale". Dissemination Project Sant'Antuono Web 2. The Association's Web community puts together more than 1.

The event was organized by the Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania. The event was organized by Association with the sponsorship of the Municipality of Macerata Campania. The event was co-organized by the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" and the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet " with the sponsorship of the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture.

Establishment of the Study Centre "Historia Loci" in order to fulfil safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania through research, studies, and events. Young people are invited to join in the practice of playing the various typical musical instruments used while elder people participate in the transmission of techniques and patterns of playing and singing. The about 1. In order to fulfil the safeguarding activities for the intangible cultural heritage of Macerata Campania, the Association collaborates with other Associations, Committees, Institutions and Foundations, of the territory such as the "Associazione Radici" of Marcianise, the "Comitato Carnevale di Montemarano" of Montemarano, the Province of Caserta, the Municipality of Macerata Campania.

In order to strenghthen the knowledge of its local tradition and specific percussion techniques, it also collaborates with organizations from other parts of Italy including the "Comitato per la promozione del patrimonio immateriale ICHNet - Intangible Cultural Heritage Network " and the "Istituto Centrale per la Demoetnoantropologia" of the Italian Ministry of Culture. Since its foundation in , MusicaEuropa has been committed to developing ideas and projects in the arts in order to bring different cultures together in a social context and give young musicians the opportunity to work professionally with professionals and institutions in the public and private sectors.

The key focus of the activities of MusicaEuropa are music and arts for professionally targeted musicians, but also as a formative artistic activity of fundamental importance for a better development of modern society. Additional information: MusicaEuropa, in accordance with the "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage" is engaged in the research, preservation and dissemination of the intangible cultural heritage.

This objective has been achieved over the years through a commitment in researching and protecting the ancient traditional music of the Mediterranean area from Turkey to Portugal. At the end of this five-year project, MusicaEuropa organised the international conference, "European cultural Associations - Today's Problems and Future Development" in December This Festival focused its 7-years activity on creating a real exchange between north and south Europe, on developing the concept of cultural integration, offering young music students important opportunities of quality training with excellent teachers and musicians and concrete possibilities of professional growth playing with the World Youth Orchestra and in chamber music ensembles.

The Festival had many different concerts and music sections the involvement of important international institutions and non-governmental organizations in Rome. The International Fetival of Young Musicians has added value to a common cultural European space and it has fostered international networking connections amongst young people and cultural institutions created international partnerships. Innovative programming of the concerts received a widespread appreciation by broad international audiences.

The World Youth Orchestra gathers young students from 16 to 28 years old, coming from the best music academies, conservatories and universities of the five continents to play music together. The activities include high level trainings, music master classes held by well known music professors and musicians, participation to international musical events, tours and concerts all over the world.

All these activites foster intercultural dalogue, integration and mobility of youth, multi cultural coexistence through formal and informal education thanks to the universal language of music. Since its foundation in , it has involved more than students from 48 countries. The project had its focus on peace in the Mediterranean area, and its activites were implemented in many Mediterranean countries such as Algeria, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Malta, Palestine, Slovenia, Tunisia and Turkey.

Through formal and informal education, MusicaEuropa fosters young artists mobility and intercultural dialogue. Another project managed by MusicaEuropa in the past years is the "Arthmos Project", a social project for underprivileged children, promoting the artistic education in primary schools with high percentage of children with fewer opportunities social obstacles, educational difficulties, economic obstacles and cultural differences.

Artisitic education and creativity aim at developing cognitive, relational and emotional capacity, as well as self-esteem and social consciousness in order to keep children away from drop-outs, lack of dialogue and cultural standardization. Theses activities has been implemented from to in the suburbs of Rome and we are now trying to implement similar projects in Palestine, together with the Palestinian Minisitries of Education and Cutlure.

The key focus of the activities of MusicaEuropa are music and arts for professionally targeted musicians, but also as a formative artistic activity of fundamental importance for a better developement of modern society. Additional information: MusicaEuropa is a non-profit association operating in the fields of arts and education, safeguarding the ancient mediterranean musical heritage and implementing international projects to promote music as a tool for intercultural dialogue.

In , thanks to Damiano Giuranna, Alexander Sasha Karlic and other important personalities of the musical world, MusicaEuropa started a research study and to disseminate the music repertoire of folk and traditional music of the Mediterranean basin. This Festival focused its 7-years activity on creating a real exchange between northern and southern Europe, on developing the concept of cultural integration, offering young music students important opportunities of quality training and concrete possibilities of professional growth.

The World Youth Orchestra gathers young students from 16 to 28 years, coming from the best music academies, conservatories and universities of the five continents. The activities include high-level trainings, music master classes held my well known music professors and musicians, participation to international musical events, tours and concerts all over the world.

All these activities foster intercultural dialogue, integration and mobility of youth, multi cultural coexistence through formal and informal education thanks to the universal language of music. More than students from 48 countries have played in the orchestra. In MusicaEuropa created a long term project for the peace and dialogue in the Mediterranean: "World Youth OrchestraMediterranean Tour - The Mediterranean Brotherhood, focussed on the peace in the Mediterranean area.

Another project managed by MusicaEuropa and implemented between and in the suburbs or Rome is the "Arthmos Project", a social project for underprivileged children, promoting the artistic education in primary schools with a high percentage of children with fewer opportunities social obstacles, educational difficulties, economic obstacles and cultural differences. Safeguarding the intangible heritage through the research on ancient traditional Mediterranean music in the Middle East, in northern Africa and in Europe, has been possible thanks to a series of contributions and influences from the professionals working with MusicaEuropa and various collaborations with leading personalities of the world of music such as Alexander Sasha Karlic, Robert R.

Holzer, Nader Jalal, Issa Boulos. Damiano Giuranna committed himself to the research of the ancient musical Mediterranean heritage following the teachings of Alexandar Sasha Karlic and Moni Ovadia. During 15 years of activities he has gathed hundreds of songs and instrumental music in Turkey, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

He has studied also the ancient Sephardic music in Spain and Greece. The execution of these compositions has been performed in many countries, giving a concrete contribution to the safeguarding and widespreading of a precious musical heritage. Additional information: MusicaEuropa in the past years has managed different projcet which had the aim to create a spirit of mutual respect and collaboration.

The "Arthmos Project", a social project for underprivileged children, promoting the artistic education and the ancient Mediterranean. Social activities like art and music stress the importance of the interpersonal relation leading to a better listening of the other and thus the developing a feeling of brotherhood. In accordance with the Art. MusicaEuropa organizes annual workshops, advanced training and high-formation courses for young musicians from all over the world. The Association has promoted and organized courses dedicated to schools of every grade in Italy and in several countries in Europe and the Middle East, focusing in particular on the ancient traditional music of the Mediterranean area with a particular attention on the influences, on the different styles, on the structure, on the performing techniquest with a deep work of research.

A particular significance has been given for these events by the participation of the community, helping to raise the awareness amongst individuals and groups of people on the wonderful musical intangible heritageof the Mediterranean basin and particularly on the ancient folk Mediterranean music. This shared by the community participation has passed knowledges and a great strenght capable of transmitting the artistic cultural heritage.

The exchange of information and experiences among young people has been an important element for these project and a fundamental value for Musica Europa, in accordance with the Paragraph N. Learning from the knowledge of the other is a way to enrich one own's cultural background and therefore a way to preserve and transmit the cultural heritage. The Union helps to learn and form the public opinion about carpet-making art, legal rug products, and it also helps the stimulating of the raising of the creative work mastery of the physical persons, popularization of quality and special signs of our national culture and handicrafts to determine various examples of carpets and also helps theirs popularization and demonstation in Azerbaijan and the world.

The NGO collaborates with local and international organizations of carpet-making art, including museums and also with legal and physical persons, as well as the state agencies. The Unity organizes different trainings and workshops, round tables and meetings, exhibitions, charitable fundraising, conferences, other cultural and other mass measures; dissiminates information about purposes and activities, publishes print materials.

The Carpetmakers' Union organises regular trainings in technique of pileless carpets at the the Museum of the Azerbaijan carpet. Communities of carpet weavers demonstrate the works at various exhibitions. So, in the national competition-festival of carpets in various zones of the country was organised. In , works of national weavers were shown in one of the Days of the Azerbaijan culture in Basel. Besides, the following national laws were adopted: in the Law on import-export of cultural objects, in - the Law about folklore, in - ratification of the Convention of UNESCO on Protection of intangible Cultural heritage.

In , , and , three international symposiums of the Azerbaijan carpet were organised in Azerbaijan. In 4th symposium devoted to the anniversary of Ljatif Kerimov took place in UNESCO headquarters in Paris where the exhibition of artists works also was organised.

  • Cainizm?
  • The Thirty-Nine Steps.
  • Out of Time.

Kerimov and Materials of 4th symposium about the Azerbaijan carpet. Many last projects have been connected with efforts on revival of carpet art. In 14th of September, has been spent the round table and a master class "Not varying values of varying time" with the assistance of carpet — wavers, artists on carpets, collectors and businessmen, and also fans of carpet art. It has been shown a collection of clothes with use of carpet patterns of young designer Minary Kulieva, works of the master on embroidery art with use of a carpet thread of Shahla Askerova, etc. On 17th of November, , on the day of birth of the great artist on carpets, masters, scientific Ljatif Kerimov has been opened the exhibition of professionals and masters is national-applied art "The art Bridge, the leader from the past in the future".

On 18th of May, has opened the exhibition of tapestries "Tapestries: yesterday and today", where have exposed the works of masters of Non-governmental organisation. On 10th of May, has been opened the exhibition of the Union's member Mr. In March, has been opened the exhibition of masters on national-applied art was devoted to a holiday of Novruz. Since the Carpetmakers' Union has started to carry on negotiations with similar international communities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, in Russian Federations and in Islamic Republic of Iran.

Result of negotiations was the opening of an exhibition of masters of people-applied art of Uzbekistan which has been opened together with "Fund-Forum of culture and art of Uzbekistan", Associations of Antiquaries of Uzbekistan "Meros" which will proceed in the autumn opening of an exhibition of the Azerbaijan masters in Tashkent, also opening of an exhibition of carpets on the basis of pictures of the National artist of Azerbaijan and Russia Tahir Salahov.

In this way the Union supports to enrich cultural variety, protect non-material cultural heritage especially among young generation. It carries out monitorings for the learning cause and effect in the material and technical direction, prepare the activity program in the direction of restoration of the technologies defining on the basis of getting results of the sensible and forgotten kinds of the carpet-making art. In in Guba, Khachmaz, Gusar, Shabran, Siyazan the Union carried out the survey about modern situation of the carpet-making art, in in the result of analysis of the surveys compile the plan of monitoring and in Guba unity have been organized the exhibition from the works of the carpet-makers and masters of applied art.

In there were surveys about carpet-making art in the west zone of Azerbaijan. The same problem is connect with various kinds of art embroideries. It is about the propaganda the ancient kinds and names of embroideries art among the young generation. Once in a month the Union organize the meetings with craftsmans in the various handicrafts of people-applied art and investigate their problems.

Carrying out the work among different adults , the Union learns their interests to various kinds of applied art and organize different groups. Educational activities: At the museum but also in schools.

We are holding courses for youths and adults who want to learn, and also have two university courses at the museum together with the Gotland University. Festival: Since , every year we have had a storytelling festival, which is local, national and international. At the festival we host a Nordic youth camp for the next generation of storytellers.

We are trying to highlight different kind of storytelling traditions, we highlight the romany tradition. This has been done by; road signs, maps, story cabinets at the actual place the cabinets consist of a story that the visitor can read in Swedish, English or German, a painting which is connected to the story , an app you can listen to the story in your phone instead of reading if you like geocaching, performances, activities and excursions. Every summer we do a summer program in The Land of Legends, with performances open for the public.

Performing arts: Storytelling is a performing art, we do plenty storytelling from stages, at theathers and festivals. Book publishing: Several books have been published with the old tales but also with the new stories that we have collected today. Minority groups — we have highlighted storytelling traditions belonging to groups that unfortunately have been overlooked in history, for example Romany and Sami.

Together we have done many projects, and helped them at several places to highlight their legends and stories connected to places where they operate. NGO for traditional handicraft — connected to the making of handicraft are several stories and tales. We work together with the traditional handicraft association to bring forward these stories.

Bichara Khader — Wikipédia

We co-operate around storytelling, doing performances at the museums. Main objectives of the Organization: 1. Rediscovery and promotion of the intellectual and traditional knowledge of the Igbos relating to its traditional medical knowledge and practices; 2. Protection of the masquerade and oracular prophetic practices of the Igbos, Wawa people as they extend in Nigeria, Ghana, Cote d'lvoire and Senegal; 3.

Defense and sustenance of the natural and customary practices of the indigenous African people under the context of foreign religion and globalization which exterminate the population's social and economic existence; 4. Sensitization of the intellectual class in Africa on the issues that border on African intellectual property and folklore; 5. Research and publications on African intellectual and folklore history and issues by collating end reports of conferences and workshops.

Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in 19boland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in 19boland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria. Poverty reduction programs to ensure environmental and economic sustainability for the Wawas in Igboland spread through the four West African states; 7. Designing relevant programs that will impact positively and contextualize the millennium development goals in the lives and customs of the Wawas in Igboland, especially those in tension soaked Niger delta of Nigeria.

We have embarked upon documentation and profiling of the intellectual properties and folklore of the Wawa people of West Africa with a view to seeking legislative and copyright protection of these activities, previously undocumented; 2. Publication of well researched articles and books on Wawa indigenous people that will itemize the various cultural properties and rights of the people to sensitize the world and national governments on the areas which are threatened with distinction. Organizing workshops and attending global fora of world indigenous peoples to present the perceived areas of injustice and marginalization which have threatened them with extinction and permanent dislocation in the geography of their present locations in West Africa.

Collaboration with all other individuals and organizations which promote and defend the intellectual property and folklore of indigenous people worldwide with a view to exchanging information and visits from other parts of the world; 5. Making representation to governments in the four West African countries to recognize and adopt best practices and conventions on world indigenous intellectual rights and properties.

Policy advocacy on curriculum change, legal reform and cultural promotion of the intellectual property of the Wawas and Igbos in West Africa. Materials gathered by CTMD staff, folklorists, ethnomusicologists and community cultural sepcialists are the basis for subsequent articistic presentations and educational programming.

The collection includes audio and video recordings, photographic documentation and related ephemera on CTMD's presentations and programs. A monthly eNewsletter provides news, events and informatin about NY's traditional music and dance scene. While CCIs are deeply grassroots and NY-based, they produce ripples that can extend nationally and even internationally. In the s, CTMD's project to document and present Jewish klezmer music helped spark a workd-wide revival. In the s, CTMD helped form the renowned all-women's ensemble Cherish the Ladies which ispired huge interest amongs women across North America ane even Ireland in performing Irish music previsously a male-dominated activity.

Il met sur pied des expositions en lien avec ses collections. La mission du Centre touche les volets de la recherche, de la conservation et de la formation, de la diffusion et de la mise en valeur du patrimoine vivant.

  1. Bichara Khader!
  2. Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry (Green Energy and Technology).
  3. Derniers numéros.
  4. However, from it increased her activities to encompass the conservation of both movable, immovable and intangible heritage assets. CHDA is mandated to Organize, co-ordinate and develop viable projects and activities for heritage and museum development in Africa, such as the post-graduate diploma course in the care and management of heritage and museum collections in sub-Saharan Africa, in collaboration with the University of Nairobi and University College London, and the Africa program.

    In many programs, CHDA invites expert resource persons and also teaching assistants, who use the opportunity to understudy the expert trainer on their way to becoming expert trainers in their own right. These professionals, many of who went on and acquired further qualifications, became part of the CHDA network of heritage professionals, a pool of experts that CHDA draws on for its professional training needs, as resource persons, facilitators and program coordinators in case of need.

    It is important to note that the network has experts in most of the different aspects of heritage management, including tangible, intangible, movable and immovable heritage. They also have loyalty and commitment to CHDA, having come through it in the development of their professional careers. A few of the programs CHDA has undertaken in the past and which had a direct bearing on intangible heritage management included: 1. Endangered Heritage Assets Program EHAP This program was undertaken by CHDA in successfully sought to identify, document and disseminate the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the Mijikenda people of the Kenyan coast, especially those that are threatened with extinction.

    The three-year en-compass project The project began in October and is on-going. It brought together participants from China, England, Guyana, and Kenya with the remit for Anglophone Africa The program looked at issues related to the dangers and challenges faced in the protection of intangible and tangible cultural heritage in all participating countries. The program activities also included a workshop to scope and audit key tangible and intangible heritage resources, including cultural expressions, products and services in each partner country.

    These in-country workshops provided a focus and momentum for long-term on-going scoping and auditing activities post training. However, the information and material gathered through the scoping exercise was also fed onto a database, used to create the online and published catalogues- this process is still on-going. The project also intends to create an inventory of cultural heritage resources Tangible and Intangible , including those at risk in the short-term from the scoping exercise undertaken in each of the three partner countries. The catalogue of cultural heritage assets both tangible and intangible collected will be researched and used to design and develop a travelling exhibition that will go around all the participating countries.

    This course had a whole unit dedicated to "Indigenous knowledge systems and community involvement", which is basically training in intangible heritage of communities. Africa Courses CHDA hosted the 3-month Africa courses for , , , , and One of the issues Africa program addressed was the issue of insufficient human resources and capacity for management, conservation, and maintenance of immovable heritage properties on the continent, using traditional methods and materials. This means that traditional methods, knowledge and skills, which are basically intangible heritage assets, were being mainstreamed in the program, in a participatory approach involving local communities in the conservation planning and management processes.

    For example, the field projects aimed to establish self-confidence within the local custodians and to enhance their recognition as efficient professionals. The project also worked to integrate traditional techniques in conservation of monuments resulting not only in monuments that are responsive to local environments, but also to the sustenance and promotion of traditional skills - the intangible heritage within the local communities. The aims of the course was to produce professionals who can record Intangible Heritage appropriately and to enable trainees effectively apply methodologies, standards, and equipment for recording Intangible Heritage.

    Bichara Khader

    The main course objective was to enable participants to record Intangible Heritage using digital and video cameras in line with laid down standards and procedures as provided in the course. For this matter, community participation has always been incorporated into the programs CHDA offers its participants - either by making it part of the teaching learning content or by inviting community members as participants in training programs to exchange issues with professionals, learn from and teach them and to create networks for future exchange.

    In the last training that CHDA held in Zimbabwe on Risk Preparedness for Heritage properties between 6th and 18th May for example, two community members were invited as participants to help build an understanding among professionals on the traditional approaches to risk management of the Great Zimbabwe, as well as to help us understand the community needs and expectations from the professionals in their professional work of management and conservation.

    Evaluation Body mandates: ; ; The roots of the CSC lie in an extensive research programme Katholieke Universtiteit Leuven on the history and the current situation of traditional games in Flanders the Dutch speaking part of Belgium , started by prof. R Renson in The unexpected richness and variety of traditional games lead to the foundation of the CSC in order to promote this endangered sporting heritage and to get people acquainted again with the traditional games.

    The mission of the CSC states that the CSC must be a centre of expertise in safeguarding the intangible heritage of the traditional and modern movement culture in vivo and in situ via identification, documentation, research, protection, handing down, revitalizing … on a national and international level.

    Gradually the CSC broadened its scope to a European and even a worldwide scale. On a European level the CSC carried out a lot of demonstrations of traditional games abroad and invited traditional games practitioners from many countries to Belgium for demonstrations and exchanges. The activities worldwide concern mainly research, publications, the gathering of documentation and exchange of information. From onwards, the CSC committed itself, together with Sportmuseum Vlaanderen Sports Museum Flanders to realise the Sportimonium-project, a museum about the sports history of Flanders in its national and international context.

    Especially as traditional games are concerned, both the tangible artefacts and intangible loan service, games park —see further aspect of the sporting heritage is taken into account. For enquiries the centre calls upon the traditional sports federations for collaboration. Documentation centre and library open to the general public - ca. This collection has been handed over to the Sportimonium in In this museum one of the sections is entirely dedicated to traditional games worldwide. Therefore the visitors can get acquainted with the skills of a variety of traditional games which are still practised locally in Flanders.

    As the future teachers and sport administrators they are invited to the Sportimonium in order to sensitize them and to get them acquainted with traditional games. Counselling and support - supporting festivals organized by the traditional games players - helping clubs, federation and their individual members in research matters - counselling associations or federations for candidatures for the Belgian list of elements of intangible heritage - participation in governmental assessment committees cultural matters - collaboration with Unesco project on traditional games , platform for traditional games worldwide The staff of the CSC has almost 30 years experience in safeguarding traditional games.

    The staff members 3 have university degrees and have followed in the course of years many courses related to the safeguarding of intangible heritage. The CSC is in close contact with other organisations in the country taking care of popular culture in order to exchange experience. The same goes for engagement in the international network of the European Association for Traditional Sports and Games, of which the CSC has been among the pioneers. Due to these constant contacts, on the one hand with the practitioners of traditional games and at the other hand with professionals working in the fields of culture, sport and tourism the personnel of the CSC has acquainted its competences.

    The CSC has been instrumental in helping the clubs to get in contact with each other and to found if appropriate federations of their own. This resulted in in the foundation of a confederation for traditional games Vlaamse Traditionele Sporten vzw, VlaS with the CSC as one of the founding members. This confederation grew steadily from to The CSC is member of the board of directors of VlaS and vice versa, firstly in order to be well informed about each other activities and initiatives, secondly to collaborate where appropriate. While constructing the traditional games park, there has been close cooperation with practitioners in testing and adapting the facilities in full respect with the games while using — if possible - modern materials.

    One of the CSC objectives is to make the bearers of the intangible heritage, i. This must lead to an enhanced self-consciousness towards heritage in order to hand it down and to defend it. Important for the CSC remains, furthermore, exchange and collaboration with other organisations experienced in the domain of popular culture and in safeguarding intangible heritage. Son but est de promouvoir, d'elargir et de maintenir la forme traditionnelle de la culture populaire immaterielle, notamment des activites artistiques, des coutumes et traditions.

    Grace a un perfectionnement systematique des methodes, elle oeuvre pour I'amelioration de la qualite artistique et logistique des festivals de folklore internationaux et d'autres manifestations consacrees a la presentation du patrimoine immateriel en Republique tcheque et a I'etranger. Elle cherche egalement a soutenir I'echange de connaissances et d'experiences entre les organisations, associations et individus au niveau national et international en contribuant ainsi au maintien d'une partie du patrimoine immateriel.

    L'adhesion a la section est ouverte a tous les organismes, organisations, institutions, associations, festivals de folklore, personnes et professionnels actifs dans Ie domaine de la culture traditionnelle et populaire en RT et embrassant ies objectifs fondamentaux du CIOFF, ou a ceux qui manifestent I'interet pour la culture traditionnelle et populaire de fayon constante et efficace.

    La qualite de membre est obtenue par selection i'entree d'un nouveau membre est conditionne par I'accord de tous les organes de la section nationale et peut etre ordinaire, associee et honorifique. Sont membres de la section: a festivals de folklore nationaux en RT, dotes du statut CIOFF, b organismes, organisations, institutions, formations folkloriques et associations dont Ie but est la preservation et Ie developpement de la culture traditionnelle et populaire, qui ont demande leur qualite de membre et qui demandent a adherer selon les conditions prevues par la section nationale.

    Les membres associes peuvent etre des organismes, organisations, institutions, associations generales ou folkloriques, festivals folkloriques ne beneficiant pas du statu! CIOFF, formations folkloriques, professionnels individuels et experts dans Ie domaine de la culture traditionnelle et populaire qui demandent aadherer selon les conditions orevues dans les statuts.

    La qualite de membre honorifique peut etre accordee aux personnes identifiees et aux professionnels ayant des merites specifiques quant au maintien et la sauvegarde et du developpement de la culture populaire traditionnelle, sur proposition d'un membre ordinaire ou associe de la section. C'est l'Assemblee generale qui prend la decision. La Iiste de tous les membres tcheques du CIOFF festivals, institutions, ensembles, associations et individus figure a I'annexe au point 8.