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Writing narratives of displacement and travel is in itself a translational act, where the author is always seeking to translate into his mother tongue the manifestations of the culture of the other. In the process, the translator is forced to question his identity, values and the representations of his own nation and people, especially if the original text is non-fictional and therefore stakes a claim to the immediacy and truthfulness of the experience.
The translator thus has to achieve a tour-de-force in bridging all three gaps and rendering the text accessible to the contemporary reader. However, the meanings in the target text will always have but a spectral relation with the ones in the source text: they are constructed at the same time as a re-apparition of a former presence that does not present itself as full presence and as the apparition of a new presence —a new text in its own right.
Brewster, London, New Left Books. London, R. Covering dates: Paris, ; Joaquim Ferreira de Freitas. London, Richard and Arthur Taylor, He is also the director of studies of postgraduate programmes in ELT and translation. He has also participated in several European-funded projects related to teacher training and computer-assisted language learning. English: This article aims to investigate how humour is translated in two theatrical plays by Eugene Ionesco La Cantatrice chauv e and Les Chaise s into Greek. The study explores three different Greek versions of the two theatrical plays.
On the one hand, it seeks to consider humorous effects within the original plays, and on the other hand, it investigates the challenges involved in transposing verbal humour and the strategies used to translate or even reinforce humour in the translated texts. If incongruity is an indispensable humour - provoking parameter, translators should also seek to mobilize the same cognitive mechanism in the translated texts. It is argued that even if a more literal translation is not always privileged or even possible, what is of importance is the humorous effect, otherwise the perlocutionary force of the translated humour on the target audience.
Nous sommes comiques. Toutes les personnes importantes? Les psychiatres et leurs psychopathes? Le Pap e, les pap illons et les pap iers. Ionesco , Les Chaises , traduit par Belies, p. La sou pape a un pape. Le pape a besoin d'un bouchon. Bien que ce ne soit pas grand-chose. Ionesco , La Cantatrice chauve , traduit par Protopapas, p. Ionesco , La Cantatrice chauve , traduit par Belies , pp. Et il riait comme un veau.
Ionesco, Les Chaises traduit par Stamatiou. Pourquoi tu prenais mal tout trop facilement? Il a juste fait une blague. Je n'aime pas les blagues! Giorgos Protopapas. Traduit en grec. Erikkos Belies Traduit en grec. Belgium, University Press Antwerp: House, Juliane Translation quality assessment.
A model revisited, Tubingen, Gunther Narr. Gruner, Charles, R. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Trabelsi dir. Margot, Jean-Claude Traduire et trahir. Meyer, John, C. Nida, Eugene, A. Reiss, Katharina, et Vermeer, Hans, J. Nord, , Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. Vandaele, Jeroen guest ed. Jerome Publishing, Vol. London, Continuum: Maria Constantinou received her Ph. She taught foreign languages and communication-related courses in private academic institutions of Cyprus , and since January , she has been teaching linguistics, critical discourse analysis, semiotics and translation both theory and practice at the University of Cyprus.
She is particularly interested in issues related to metaphors, ideology, emotions, humour, discourse, society and identity construction. She has published on Kazantzakis and Ionesco, focussing mainly on the phenomena of intertextuality, metaphor, humour and ideology. Her recent research includes journalistic and political discourse, CMC forums, blogs and media and institutional translation and pays particular attention to the interplay between image and text.
She has participated in various conferences and published articles and chapters on and in English, French and Greek mainly from a contrastive, cross-cultural and translational perspective in refereed and peer-reviewed journals and edited volumes. The manifold interface between music, migration and translation can foster challenging research, especially when translation is metaphorically approached as a continuous journey and migrating condition of people and forms.
Moreover, this song has been crossing an unbelievable number of geographical, temporal and artistic boundaries, often intertwined with actual stories of Italian-American migration. The case study focuses on some relevant moments in this amazing journey, observing the successive layers of meaning created by its many incarnations. The case study fully confirms that broader perspectives are crucial when studying the migration of popular songs. Monolithic notions, such as authenticity, cultural specificity or musical genre, as well as narrow distinctions between song translation proper , intralingua translation, non-translation and adaptation do not easily engage with this context.
Thus, flexibility is the only viable answer. It is a stimulating field for both Music and Translation Studies, calling for more challenging approaches and greater contamination from both research areas. Music is a migrating form of art. Being a universal language Minors 1 , it can spread and migrate much more easily than people, thus establishing contacts and interacting with a variety of cultural influences.
It comes as no surprise that stimulating contributions have recently appeared, showing that studies on music and migration can be promising allies in particular, see Kapelj in and Kiwan and Meinhof Similarly, the articulate interface between music and translation has started to attract increasing academic attention, becoming the focus of a growing number of thought-provoking studies . The intersection of translation and music can be a fascinating field to explore.
It can enrich our understanding of what translation might entail, how far its boundaries can be extended and how it relates to other forms of expression.
Research into this area can thus help us locate translation-related activities in a broader context, undermining more conservative notions of translation and mediation. Susam-Saraeva The focus on translation has been shifted towards cultural processes, with increasing emphasis on new modes of mobility and transcultural sociability born across multiple borders and boundaries.
Translation is seen as a continuous journey, a metaphor for the migrating condition of people and forms. Bassnett and Trivedi Each time some meaningful layers have been added, both problematizing and enriching the migration of this song. However, these steps can be better understood only if read as parts of a complex process still in progress, rather than a series of detached translational episodes.
Therefore, the aim of the article is to offer a downside-up contribution to the debate on song translation through a paradigmatic case study. The analysis of a concrete example of a multifaceted translational process is a way to confirm and stress the relevance of more comprehensive and extended theoretical foundations within cultural translation studies. Translation Studies have often overlooked popular songs, especially their semiotic complexity. Yet, paradoxically, it is their very multidimensional nature that makes studying them so challenging and promising at the same time.
Undoubtedly, an element of its complexity is the fact that the genre called song is a verbal-musical hybrid Low b: Chanan However, this paradox is only one of the elements of complexity in songs. The physique of the performers, their facial expression and gestures, their costumes, hair, and make-up, as well as dancers, lighting and possible props, merge into the song. The methodological complexities and challenges involved in the study of popular song translation are thus evident.
The study of song recordings and videos should rely on a vast area of expertise. A combined competence, in Translation Studies, Music as well as Semiotics, is unfortunately not easy to find. However, even when moving on from mere criticism of single texts, researchers need to adopt new frameworks when studying music and translation Susam-Saraeva To start with, greater flexibility is crucial, since rigid distinctions could be misleading.
The present author rather shares the view that distinctions are better seen as blurred in post-structuralist thought Van Wyke This opinion is even more appropriate in the case of translation of non-canonized music, such as popular song translation. Susam-Saraeva stresses that. Susam-Saraeva , highlighting added. This case study will show how a long series of different transformations can receive greater significance if approached as a continual translational story.
However, this approach inherently requires the overcoming of narrow definitions and boundaries between translation proper , adaptation and re-writing. Understandably, the impact of music and in particular of songs is even more intense on migrant communities Susam-Sarajeva Since its composition in lyrics by Giovanni Capurro, music by Edoardo Di Capua, published by Edizioni Bideri, Naples , the song has spread rapidly and is still crossing an impressive, unbelievable number of geographical, temporal and artistic borders and boundaries.
At any rate, it cannot be denied that its popularity has been exceptional, and this is fully confirmed by the Neapolitan Song Sound Archives in Naples, a recent foundation by RadioRai the Italian state radio together with Naples Municipality and Campania Regional Council. Eloquent proof of this is that on August 14 th in Antwerp, at the opening of the first Olympic Games after World War I, when the band conductor realized that no score of the Italian Royal March was available, he chose to play 'O sole mio , a tune that all his musicians could play by ear, and the song was greeted with great enthusiasm by all those present Del Bosco 6.
Pesc and Stazio 11 [As a music form, Neapolitan song is a metonymy for a city, and sometimes even for the whole country. It is an eloquent example of narrativization of place. However, any claims to regard City and Country as monolithic entities remain suspect. We must acknowledge that urban cultures are by their very nature the result of multiple intersections and layers, and similarly local and national cultures are seldom so homogenous as to be conveyed by a single song, or music form, although they may serve as identity emblems.
Naples is no exception, of course, though it has a few very distinctive traits. One of them is the persisting presence of a type of musical production with strong identifying factors since the 19th, which complicates and problematizes what has just been observed. On the other hand, an important issue to weigh in is that, paradoxically, this musical form is a sort of hybrid, and has been so since its very beginning.
Part 2 Raffaele Pettazzoni and Herbert Jennings Rose, Correspondence 1927–1958
What is usually labelled as Neapolitan song is very far from being a uniform musical genre. In fact, it is a much more complex and multifaceted cultural phenomenon than one might expect. The beginning of the classical season of Neapolitan art songs is identified with the closing decades of the 19 th century, but the actual origins of this musical form are vague and should be traced back to the 14 th century, and probably even earlier.
Neapolitan polyphonic roundelays with lute or calascione accompaniment  had already become quite popular between the 14th and the 15th centuries; their matrix had been the villanelle alla napolitana , a very popular song genre in Neapolitan dialect especially between and , which also attracted important composers, like Claudio Monteverdi. It also reflects complex phenomena, from the steady migration into Naples from other areas in the Realm, to the continual daily commuting of so-called cafoni , common louts, from the surrounding countryside.
Although fiction is not to be taken as an accurate reflection of real life, this episode evokes a plausible dislocation of the song from Southern Italy to Venice, popular enough to be sung even by a gondolier. Venice and Naples had belonged to different states only a few decades before, in pre-Unification Italy. This means that important cultural and linguistic borders had still to be crossed within the Italian peninsula.
In point of fact, its lyrics, even nowadays, can be only partially understood by native Italian speakers not fully acquainted with the Neapolitan dialect. Structurally and rhythmically, the text is characterized by regularity and constant alternation of rhymed stanzas and chorus.
Repetition words, phrases and whole lines is the key figure throughout the poem. Moreover, each four-line stanza is framed by the recurrence of the same line. What a wonderful thing a sunny day The cool air after a thunderstorm! The fresh breezes banish the heavy air… What a wonderful thing a sunny day. Il sole, il sole mio, Sta in fronte a te Sta in fronte a te.
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Luccicano I vetri della tua finestra, una lavandaia canta e si vanta Mentre strizza, stende e canta. Luccicano I vetri della tua finestra! Shining is the glass from your window; A washwoman is singing and bragging Wringing and hanging laundry and singing Shining is the glass from your window. Quando fa sera e il sole se ne scende, Mi viene quasi una malinconia… Resterei sotto la tua finestra, Quando fa sera ed il sole se ne scende. But another sun, […] . In the whole poem, a text of only thirty-three lines, the word sole sun occurs sixteen times.
Presumably this core image is what has helped it overcome linguistic barriers and reach native Italian speakers outside Naples. Nonetheless, although it is not a minor mistake, this common mistranslation has paved the way of the migration of the song, at least at the beginning. It has become a quintessential synthesis, or rather an epitome of Latin vitality and passionate feeling.
The mistaken meaning has even become an important factor in collective identity construction. The implicit commonplace is the equation sunshine is Naples and Italy, with two direct corollaries:. They were singular figures, street musicians who, accompanied occasionally by a pianino a portable musical box on a hand-cart , but mostly by a guitar, interpreted all types of popular song, travelling almost all over Europe . Italians were migrating from different parts of Italy, carrying with them very different cultural backgrounds.
Caruso was the most admired Italian opera tenor of the early Twentieth Century, and certainly the most celebrated and highest paid of his contemporaries worldwide. From November 23 rd his name was associated with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, where he opened each season for eighteen consecutive years. Undoubtedly, this recording itself could be seen as a meaningful form of transformation, through musical reconceptualization, arrangement, performance and singing style.
Certainly, Italian communities abroad looked up to him. He was a migrant like them, and thus they could idolize him as an emblem of collective Italian redemption. Opera and great theatres meant higher prestige and greater circulation abroad, well beyond Italian-speaking migrant communities.
This way, greater emphasis is placed on the stanzas that are more focussed on the sunshine and easier to understand, being linguistically least dialectical. Instead it proves how incongruous ideas of authentic interpretations can be. The first recorded version in English sung by American born Charles W. However, although interesting, all these cases only affect the textual-linguistic level of the song.
It was sung by the American singer Tony Martin as well as by the Italian American singer Dean Martin, who recorded it some years later. Easily perceivable effects of cultural displacement can be spotted in the disconnecting of lyrics and partly of music, too, from the Neapolitan song that had reached the USA.
It is a radical rewriting, to start with the lyrics. Love is a flower that blooms so tender Each kiss a dew drop of sweet surrender, Love is a moment of life enchanting, Let's take that moment, that tonight is granting, There's no tomorrow when love is new, Now is forever when love is true, So kiss me and hold me tight, There's no tomorrow, there's just tonight . It gives way to a more universal theme, Love, which Love becomes the absolute protagonist of the song.
Its warmth and unmistakably Mediterranean flavour are easily seen as the perfect match for a successful message of fervent and sensuous seduction. The shift from opera orchestras to variety show bands needs important musical reconceptualization, but voice still plays the main role. In both cases, however, what remains pivotal is the successful match of passionate melody and warm voice.
On the one hand, he is adding a strong exotic Mediterranean flavour to his performance, thoroughly befitting a passionate seduction song, while, on the other hand, he is sending a strong signal to Italian communities in America. Both musically and textually the Neapolitan song is drastically changed through a translational approach, which minimizes its foreignness to the point of overshadowing it. A 20 th -century concept, which rarely appeared in earlier song but did appear with some frequency from the thirties on, was the possibility of impermanent love.
Tawa It favours love as a theme, although romantic sentimentality gives way to seduction and passion, with a subtle trace of urban cynicism. It's now or never, come hold me tight Kiss me my darling, be mine tonight Tomorrow will be too late, it's now or never, my love won't wait. It's now or never, come hold me tight Kiss me my darling, be mine tonight Tomorrow will be too late, it's now or never, my love won't wait . It is immediately a roaring success. According to the Wikipedia list of best-selling singles, it is the eighth best-selling single of all time, while other sources exalt it as the best-selling single ever.
Arguably the best selling single of all time, it shifted 30 million copies worldwide Julie Burns It consists basically of a bar chorus and verse, both based on a familiar tune, and there is nothing unusual or striking about the melodic or harmonic structure of this song. As Saffle states, what is really unusual is the way Elvis sings this song, his strikingly handsome and heart-felt performance Saffle Elvis Presley was a stunning performer, and although he did not compose any of his music, the ways in which he performed the songs made them always sound new and unique.
However, since his powerful stage presence had started to defy the values of more conservative audiences, who began to be suspicious of his glamorous bad-boy appeal and his culturally challenging music, in this song he deliberately adopted a more passionate and less defiant performing style Saffle 2. However, market conventions also include the need to stress the Italian flavour as an essential element in a love song of seduction.
The use of a mandolin in the orchestra accompaniment, an instrument traditionally associated with Italian folk music, is clearly meant to provide local colour, too. They are perfectly in line with the conventional image of Italy as the country of melody and sensual romance needed for the American market. What is theoretically innovative, and politically crucial, is the need to think beyond narratives of originary and initial subjectivities and to focus on those moments or processes that are produced in the articulation of cultural differences.
Bhabha 2. What is important is that the song lives on, modified and modifying at the same time. It travels well beyond Italian migrant communities and reaches once unimaginable audiences, who unavoidably receive it according to their specific historical and cultural backgrounds. The lyrics are in English, but with important Italo-American invasions.
First of all, paisans in the second line. As the Urban Dictionary online explains, paisan is a word used with Italians or Italian Americans when they are informally, but in a friendly manner, addressing one another. It is the imperative first person plural form from the Neapolitan language, but it is misspelled. It should be written, and pronounced, with double mm , facimmela, but the phonemic distinction between m and mm is often missed by English speakers.
Moreover, as in the preceding example, a rule of English grammar is easily applied to a foreign word. At any rate, the reference could hardly be more evident in a music video of the song accessible in SonicHits webpage . At the same time, its distance from the source song is equally stressed. New layers have been added. Such an articulate story of domestication, negotiation and difference is at this point intrinsically part of the substratum of the song and necessarily takes part in its ongoing migration.
Many years later, the process of creative hybridization remains as strong as ever, opening unexpected and innovative sites of negotiation and collaboration. Strictly speaking, Pino Daniele is no emigrant and is always aware of his deep personal links with his hometown, Naples.
Yet his whole artistic quest is in a certain sense a never-ending migration, until his premature death in January Since his first album in , Pino Daniele has been a transnational artist, endlessly experimenting and exploring differences in music genres and rhythms, while always preserving its Neapolitan roots, or rather its South Mediterranean nature.
His privileged attention is to American music, music of Afro-American origins, rock, jazz, funky and above all blues. Even its lyrics are not translated. The admixture is easily perceivable in a music video . Pino Daniele is sitting and playing a guitar, accompanied by an assorted group of classic and ethnic instruments and musicians. The economic use of instruments and a sober stage design create a deliberately less glamorous atmosphere. He thus offers a unique song, which is both homage to Elvis Presley and American blues as well as a powerful response and expression of resistance to Anglo-American mainstream music from this side of the Ocean.
If code switching in a song is already a meaningful organizational and aesthetic device meant to achieve both localization and globalization Davies , in this song there is much more, from text and linguistic switching to cultural hybridization and artful music contamination. The concept of transcultural intimacy , a collective intimacy beyond and across nations a main notion in Susam-Saraeva , opens new perspectives in this research. Among them, Mario Bellavista, a jazz pianist from Palermo, should be noted.
Bellavista, who is a lawyer by profession, has recently recorded an album entitled O sole mio , which is also one of its eight tracks. In a video interview accessible online, Bellavista points out that the three American artists warmly welcomed his proposal and even actively contributed to the arrangements . Bellavista moves around New York by car but he does not do the driving. So he can better observe and enjoy. Although he is often in the video, it is mostly his privileged perspective that guides the camera, which contributes to making these images so personal and incisive.
New York was the port of arrival in the USA for so many Italian migrants and as such it certainly has an important symbolic value in the video. However, this jazz version looks back and forwards at the same time. Along the journey the song has taken on many more layers, opening to Afro-American rhythms and developing transcultural dimensions.
What we think to be very far, is very close to us, or even inside us at times. Thanks to Harvie, Jerry and Eric, who have helped me feel more Italian. It is an important admission of transcultural intimacy and an implicit acknowlegment of the creative value of translational hybridization. After all, it is its captivating passionate melody that has mostly driven the translational journey of the song, favouring the multifaceted encounters that mark out its exceptional progress. This opens broader contexts for research in popular song translation, while calling for more challenge-based approaches.
To start with, flexibility is paramount. This leads to a view of the journey as an ongoing process of translational development. Studying this progress as a translational continuum, rather than as a series of detached episodes of transformation, the article highlights the transcultural value gradually acquired by this popular song. The adage that music is a migrant art par excellence is fully confirmed, in all its implications, starting from its hybridizing potentialities and openness to the provocative and inspirational acts of cultural translation we have studied here.
As we have seen, the so-called Neapolitan songs have vague origins and Naples itself has always given signs of being an open-air workshop on resistance and cultural hybridization Pesc and Stazio Researchers in popular song translation should be aware that monolithic notions such as authenticity and cultural specificity as well as musical genre do not easily engage with their research, as this exemplary story of popular song migration amply confirms. Music and Cultural Translation Studies can be precious allies.
Stronger contributions and greater contaminations from both study areas can be a way to go beyond traditional research-field boundaries, providing terrain for perspectives and innovative studies. However, we should be aware that high-level expertise and integrated competences in both Music and Cultural Translation Studies are highly desirable, but hard to find.
Pioneering collaboration among scholars from the two different fields is therefore to be hoped for as one possible solution.
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Therefore, the concluding remark of the present article would like to be a deliberate open call for joint efforts in that direction. Bigenho, Michelle Intimate Distance. Booth-Clibborn, William E. Minors ed , London, Bloomsbury. Davies, Earlys E. Brodbeck and J. Minors ed. Kapelj, Sara Testi in movimento. Teorie della migrazione nel panorama musicale alternativo italiano contemporaneo , Roma, Il Filo. Miller, J. Minors, Helen Julia ed.
Pesce, Anita and Marialuisa Stazio La canzone napoletana. Volume IV. Music and Identity , Simon Frith ed. First published in , London and New York, Routledge. Harrison, Charles W. Main field of interest: translation criticism with special focus on intersemiotic translation cinema and literature, painting and literature and poetry translation. Other fields of interest: English and Italian literatures. Traduzioni, "refundiciones", parodie e plagi Roma , o del XXIV convegno, svoltosi a Padova nel maggio del , Metalinguaggi e metatesti. Samanta Trivellini earned a PhD in at the University of Parma, with a dissertation on the reception of a story told by Ovid in his Metamorphoses from Chaucer to the early twenty-first century.
Her research interests currently focus on W. The case-study proves the importance of the spread of knowledge and construction of a unified translation history in order to ensure objectivity of research and fair judgement. The development of a unified translation reflection history can become an important contribution to the field of translation studies and create a common ground for the joint effort of researchers in the development of the discipline.
Recent scholarship in Translation Studies has challenged the traditional Eurocentric focus of the field with wider research into alternative translation traditions in Asia and Africa, whereas the countries of Eastern Europe, which have much to offer in this respect, have remained largely ignored in the scholarly literature see Baer ; Baer and Olshanskaya a: iii , with numerous key texts in translation studies from that region remaining untranslated into Western European languages.
This is the more surprising given the repeated calls by James Holmes, one of the founders of Translation Studies in the West, that scholarship on translation from Eastern Europe should be made more widely available to an international readership. Italian scholar Lorenzo Costantino made a similar point:. We are finally seeing some recognition of the extensive research in the field of translation theories in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe from the first half of the 20th century,which were more than those in the West well into the s. Nitra , some collective monographs Ceccherelli, Costantino and Diddi ; Schippel and Zwischenberger , thematic issues in journals of TIS e.
Eastern European traditions in translation scholarship and research are not well-known because they have not been translated into the dominant language s of international scholarship. Meanwhile the scholars of Eastern and Central Europe have produced extensive archival work. The list is far from being complete. One of the first bibliographies of translation studies compiled by E. Khaitina and B. Khaves was printed in the first volume of an influential Soviet series dedicated to the theory and practice of translation Masterstvo perevoda [ The Craft of Translation ] as early as The bibliography contained both writings on translation from the Soviet republics and those from abroad.
Kyiv-based bibliographer Mykola Nazarevskyi Nazarevskiy supplemented that list and added references to current publications to the second volume. Since then, he has updated the bibliography annually, which is now up to its eighth edition.
In other words, the main facts about the nature of translation have long been recognized by many of our predecessors; our task is to rediscover them in the light of our own understanding of things and our present-day challenges and commitments. In this way, translation studies history is able to cast a new light onto the field and safeguard it from exaggerated claims of novelty, originality, breakthrough, and revolution in our re discoveries and, thus, lead to a less polemic discourse, a moderation in translation theory.
Santoyo argues vigorously that self-translation is a much more widespread phenomenon than one might think; it has a very long history and is today one of the most frequent and significant cultural, linguistic and literary phenomena in our global village and as such deserves much greater attention.
Lotman, E. Balcerzan, E. Etkind, F. Miko, A. Ljudskanov, S. Sabouk, J. Holmes, J. The theory and practice of translation are conditioned by the tasks to be resolved, i. When we come across the theories from the past we are bound to ask ourselves which particular problems these theories were intended to solve. As a consequence, the theoretical principles of translation methods and criticism were the topic of the day. Moreover, the new era brought about a revision of the Ukrainian literary heritage and the rewriting of the history of literature. Of vital significance for the emergence of the theory of translation were the works on literature history that viewed translation as an important and formative part of the literary system.
By the end of the eighteenth century the Ukrainian lands had been transformed into Russian provinces. Under these circumstances, Ukrainian national identity came to mean devotedness to the land and its people, which led Ukrainian letterati to place a special emphasis on linguistic, cultural, and ethnographic characteristics. The local written standard, the so-called knyzhna mova book language consistently grew farther away from the spoken vernacular.
It also suffered a decline due to the Russification of the Ukrainian nobility and higher clergy; this decline was enhanced by the Russufication of education and tsarist bans on printing books in the Ukrainian literary language. According to Mykola Zerov , this situation, on the one hand, left ample room for the Russian language to establish itself, and, on the other, prompted the desire to use a phonetically purified and stylistically improved vernacular.
Therefore, the history of the modern standard Ukrainian language and modern vernacular Ukrainian literature began with a travesty: a high styled heroic epic written in the rural language of the peasant. Like most of his contemporaries in the Ukrainian literary scene, he also wrote in Russian. His Ukrainian language works were mostly burlesque-realistic and satirical in nature, however, he also wrote serious prose, such as the sentimental novella Marusia , which he did, in his own words, to prove to a disbeliever that something sentimental and moving could be written in Ukrainian. This was a well-considered, responsible and, in a way, daring decision, as Kvitka-Osnovyanenko became a Ukrainian writer precisely at a time when anything Ukrainian was either the object of mockery or, at best, a condescending ethnographic vogue.
Kvitka-Osnovyanenko himself translated eight of his Ukrainian novellas into Russian. He explains that. However, the second set of considerations does still apply, so reconceptualization does occur, but in a slightly different way: becoming reconsideration, so to speak, not for oneself, but for the others. In self-translation, this requirement is fully met:. In a regular translation, this can be considered a drawback, because it risks turning the translation into more of an adaptation or imitation. Fedorov 9. Finkel b: He finds that the motivation of a regular translator is different from that of a self-translator.
In another letter to Pletnyov, Kvitka writes:. However, it was not personal motivation that made Kvitka turn to self-translating. For, there was a wide-spread opinion among the Russian literati of the early XIX century that Ukrainian literature was something unheard of and that the Ukrainian language was simply not suitable for refined belles-lettres.
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Similarly, Nikolai Polevoy, a controversial Russian editor, writer, translator, and historian, wrote:. Not many disagreed with this position, and only a few writers recognized the right of Ukrainian literature to independent existence Dahl, Shevyrev. It was against the background of these prejudices that Kvitka-Osnovyanenko began translating his own works, particularly, Marusia , for reasons outlined very clearly in his letter to Pyotr Pletnyov 15 March :. Firstly, he wanted to prove the authority and viability of the Ukrainian language, and show that is was fully suitable for belles-lettres.
Secondly, Kvitka wanted to create the best possible translations of his works to prove that even the most exact and meticulous translation could not replace the original. He also meant to present his works in the most favourable light not only as his personal writings but also as achievements of Ukrainian literature. Far from being aware of all the controversial problems of translation, Kvitka groped for the solutions relying on his experience as a writer.
Besides, his chosen translation method pushed him towards inaccuracies in his self-translations. The self-translations by Kvitka are notable for their ethnographic colouring. Being aware of the similarity of the Ukrainian and Russian languages, Kvitka, at times, preferred transcription to Russian equivalents.
However common these words might have seemed in the originals, they looked strikingly foreign in the Russian translations and required a lot of effort to understand. Transcriptions were widely employed in a range of contexts. Firstly, they were used in rendering words and expressions denoting realia of Ukrainian culture which did not have equivalents in the Russian language, and, therefore, had to be introduced in the translations in their original forms.
This preservation of local Ukrainian colour was a natural strategy for Kvitka who repeatedly criticized his Russian translators for their ignorance of Ukrainian culture. His self-translations emphasize the originality of Ukrainian culture by preserving the names of Ukrainian holidays, types of activities, and garments.
Secondly — and most unexpectedly — Kvitka transcribe many words and expressions other than cultural realia, which had equivalents in the Russian language. Whatever the case, Kvitka seeks to introduce ethnographic elements to render the particular national style of his works that he found unjustly ignored by the Russian translators. Kvitka is adamant in observing this principle, even though the use of transcriptions does not always achieve the intended effect and is, at times, misleading for the reader.
Firstly, he notes, idioms reveal a particular semantics of their own, as the meaning of an idiomatic expression is not equal to the sum of the meanings of its constituents. Secondly, idioms present a lexical problem, as their wording can differ from a non-idiomatic use. Thirdly, the composition of an idiom has to be paid a particular attention to as idioms can have a distinct syntactic structure or phonetic features difficult to render in translation.
Kvitka applies several techniques in rendering idioms in his self-translations, and, as in the case of rendering local colour he is able to relate the reader to the Ukrainian language and culture, but fails to achieve consistency in his translation methodology. He uses literal translations and idiomatic loan translations to render the same idiom in different contexts, at times introducing Ukrainian words. In a way, experimenting with idioms was a method to demonstrate the originality of Ukrainian phraseology Finkel b: The Ukrainian grammatical elements brought into the Russian translations repeatedly produce a different and unpredictable effect which is quite different to the original, since, in the two languages, these elements can belong to different functional styles, social dialects, or historical periods.
Despite his claims of having made a word-for-word translation of his works, Kvitka, in fact, rewrites long passages of the texts introducing substantial changes and additions. And this is quite natural, since Kvitka-Osnovyanenko could afford any deviation from the original without any fear of criticism, while even the smallest variation by Dahl provoked criticism mainly by Kvitka-Osnovyanenko himself. Aware of the social situation in Russia and the specifics of the Russian readership, Kvitka resorts to omissions and reductions, insertions and additions, alterations and rehashes.
Kvitka was well aware that preservation of some features of the original could distort the perception of the translation by the Russian readers, which might result in their misjudging Ukrainian literature and culture, in general Finkel b: However undesirable the discrepancies with the original might be, argues Finkel, reconceptualisation in translation is unavoidable, as the translator of the literary piece is also the author who addresses his work to a new readership.
Specifically, by means of his Dictionary for the Analysis of Literary Translation , containing the entry on auto-translation, he introduced the concept in English-speaking countries. Unfortunately, these pioneer works on the study of self-translation as well as a wealth of other works published in Eastern Europe are largely unknown in the West.
Moreover, they are not included in the Bibliography on self-translation edited recently by Eva Gentes Gentes As self-translation has become an increasingly common practice in our globalized world, more research is carried out in this area. Nevertheless, there are two areas adjacent to the issue of self-translation, which are still not clearly understood. Another area is represented by translations made by the author in collaboration with the translator. The History of Science, as Volodymyr Vernadsky maintained, is bound to be critically rewritten according to the imperatives of the present by each generation of investigators, and not only because our store of knowledge of the past has changed, or some new documents have been found, or some new methods of reinterpreting the past have been worked out.
In this light, the internationalization of the discipline seeks to rediscover new types of primary sources, new regions as well as additional languages and cultural traditions, which require the writing of new histories Fernandez Sanchez, Mainstream Translation Studies which often means English language Translation Studies are currently facing a situation which calls for a new balance and moderation in the claims of novelty and originality.
The knowledge of other translation traditions, practices, and contexts is able to shed a new light onto the discipline and make researchers in the field aware of the achievements of their predecessors in different countries across the world. The development of unified translation studies history can become an important contribution to the field of Translation Studies and create a common ground for a joint effort development of the discipline.
Antologia, Warsaw, Jagiellonian University Press. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Finkel — zabutyi teoretyk ukrayinskoho perekladoznavstva: zbirka vybranych prats, L. Chernovatyi, V. Karaban, V. Podminohin, O. Kalnychenko, V. Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: — Radchuk eds , Vinnytsya, Nova knyha: 49 — Finkel, Oleksandr H. Finkel, Oleksandr. Kvitka-Osnovyanenko yak perekladach vlasnykh tvoriv : CSc thesis, Kharkiv, Gentes, Eva ed.
Holmes, James S. Pro mystetstvo perekladu : Statti ta retsenzii — rokiv [ Volodymyr Mykolayovych Derzhavyn. On the art of translation: Essays and reviews of — years ], Vinnytsia, Nova Knyha. Khaitina E. Kochur, Hryhoriy Literatura i Pereklad: Doslidzhennia, retsenzii, literaturni portrety, intervyu [Literature and Translation: Researches, Reviews, Literary portraits, and Interviews]: in 2 volumes, Kyiv, Smoloskyp. Kolomiiets, Lada Ukraiinskyi khudozhniy pereklad ta perekladachi rokiv [Ukrainian Literary Translations and Translators in the ss].
Kyiv: Kyiv University Publishers. Patrick Corness; ed. Ivana Franka, NTSh. Entre les cultures et les textes. Poliakova, Yuliana ed Ukraiinske perekladoznavstvo. Problemy Khudozhnioho perekladu: Bibliohrafichnyi pokaznyk, Kharkiv, V. Karazin National University of Kharkiv.
About the author(s)
Berstein and I. Chernyavskaya, Moscow, Vyssshaya shkola. Aspetti metodologici. La comunicazione traduttiva , trans B. Osimo and D. Laudana, Milano, Hoepli. Bastin and Paul F. Bandia eds , Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press: Petersburg, Russia. She lectures in Translation Studies and Linguistics and teaches practical courses of interpreting, English, and German.
She is also a practicing conference interpreter. He was the second key figure after the Shah, whose decisions influenced the publishing of translations in Iran. Known for being a despotic ruler, Naser al-Din Shah would not allow the translation and publication of any material at the Dar al-Tarjome Naseri without his approval. This situation led to a translation movement outside the court and even outside Iran which pursued objectives that were different from and even opposed to those of the state translation institution.
To this end, the authors have examined the related sources including the books translated in and outside this institution and the translators' prefaces as well as Etemad al-Saltane's personal diary. My subjects and the people of this country should know nothing but that which concerns Iran and their own preoccupations and that, for example, if they hear the word Paris or Brussels, they should not know whether these are something to eat or to wear. Naser al-Din Shah, quoted in Amin al-Dowleh The reign of Naser al-Din Shah, the forth King of Qajar is seen as a transition from the traditional reign to the modern state Amanat, 7.
Through the 16 th to the 19 th centuries, philosophers such as Machiavelli, Hume, Montesquieu and Hegel distinguished two principal kinds of government: the Eastern and the Western, the main difference being that the former enjoyed no limitation in exerting authority Abrahamian, The concept was also discussed in France stressing the similarities between Louis XIV —  and the oriental despots such as the Ottoman Sultans Minutir, Abrahamian maintains that Iranian monarchs at the time of Achaemenians, Sassanids and Safavids had a large bureaucracy.
Linguistic and religious diversity would also add to the distance between people. As a result, people of the same habit or rank would not find the opportunity to get together and shape a social class which could at last challenge the central state Abrahamian, 31; See also Amanat, It was in his era that, for the first time, Iranians visited Europe and Western books were translated. Also, Naser al-Din Shah is generally considered the most literate Iranian king.
His legacy, therefore, is a mixed one; while he established Dar al-Tarjome Naseri [Naseri House of Translation] henceforth DTN , the first large state translation institution for translating Western books and magazines, he stunted its development as a fully-fledged translation institution which could cater to the intellectual needs of a rising nation. We hope to show that the DTN played a role both as a manifestation of a despotic government and at the same time one of the main factors fostering translation outside itself, which later contributed to the Constitutional Revolution of