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A systematic and holistic consideration is necessary for an unbiased evaluation of the hidden adverse impact of aid on collective action at the grass-roots. Credit: "What a partnership! Horse trading? In February West African leaders agreed in principle to conclude an agreement. However, last-minute objections of the However, last-minute objections of the heavy-weight Nigeria which wants to protect its infant industries as well as promising trade relations with new global players are likely to prevent the deal. The growing preparedness of African states to challenge EU mercantile interest has been effectively backed by agitation of civil society organisations.

Das politische und wirtschaftliche Schwergewicht Nigeria meldete allerdings im letzten Augenblick schwerwiegende Bedenken an. Official approaches, designed to cope with the problems of witchcraft violence in Africa, have since the advent of colonial rule been based on eurocentric views and colonial jurisdiction, legitimised by Western social science. These answers are inadequate; in fact, they constitute part of the problem itself. African religions could provide a framework for valuable indigenous solutions to actual problems of contemporary life, including the problem of witchcraft violence.

Besides, they might, under certain conditions, provide the outside world with an inspiring new dimension of philosophic thought and emancipative action, for example, within the realm of conflict resolution and reconciliation. This has been demonstrated in taking the development of This has been demonstrated in taking the development of witchcraft accusations over time as indicator, and the Nupe of Northern Nigeria as an example. A tentative long-term study on the growth of the Nupe state since pre-colonial times points towards a close relationship between the content and form of witchcraft accusations and the mode of production under which the stakeholders used to life and work.

Over time, witchcraft accusations among the Nupe apparently served different, even antagonistic ends, depending on the mode of production in which they were embedded. Responsible for this failure is, according to the author, the disregard of the strong emotional and seductive force of witchcraft belief which it derives from two major sources. Firstly, from the thrill of supernatural power and potency, or the unlimited pursuit of selfish passion and greed, ascribed to the witch by the envious believer. Secondly, by explaining in a casual manner the singularity of misfortune which cannot be explained by scientific proof.

The striking ambigiuity of occult belief systems could be explained in analyzing its articulation with the modes of production and trans-local social spaces in which they are embedded. Finally, implications for future socio-economic development and research are outlined. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because it fostered over decades The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because it fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of 'good governance'.

The aftermath of these regimes is still felt today and constitutes one of the underlying factors for politically motivated migration. Second, the EU contributed to Africa's economic misery due to its selfish external trade policy. Nevertheless, the prevailing perspective of the EU and of its member countries concerning African immigration remains to be focused on security, the foreclosure of its external borders and prevention. Current EU programs and concepts to fight African migration are questionable. Even development-oriented approaches are bound to fail, if not backed by sustainable immigration policies.

Les programmes en cours et les concepts de l'EU pour combattre la migration africaine sont douteux. June More Info: Cartoon - European reaction to African refugees. The long-term effects of development aid - Empirical studies in rural West Africa more. Publication Date: View on giga-hamburg. Wende in der EU-Einwanderungspolitik? The European Union shares responsibility for this growing economic misery, in view of its egoistic external trade policy.

Nevertheless, it intensifies the foreclosure of its external borders. Thereby, the escape routes become even more dangerous, thousands die every year. The European-African migration summits in Rabat and Tripoli in June and November even strengthened this policy of exclusion. Yet, a well-adapted immigration law would serve the interest of all parties involved. Last, but not least, it could contribute to protect the over-aged population of European member states in the long run against threatening economic decline.

Even Germany and France meanwhile hesitantly accept the fact that they are an immigration country. The EU commission endorses a limited and temporarily restricted immigration of Africans. However, two fundamental problems remain unsolved. Cost and benefit of immigration are distributed asymmetrically between the social classes. In addition, the EU favours the admission of high skilled labour, which tends to strengthen the 'brain drain' from Africa even more, while millions of unskilled irregular migrants compete with the growing army of unemployed in the host countries.

Both will aggravate the imminent danger of violent conflicts and of right-wing extremism in the European immigration regions. Un revirement de la politique d'immigration de l'UE? Kosten und Nutzen der Einwanderung sind asymmetrisch zwischen den sozialen Klassen verteilt. According to many Africans its incidence is According to many Africans its incidence is even increasing due to social stress and strain caused among others by the process of modernization. Most often magic and witchcraft accusations work to the disadvantage of the poor and deprived, but under particular circumstances they become a means of the poor in the struggle against oppression by establishing "cults of counterviolence.

Apparently they can be used to support any kind of political system, whether despotic or democratic. The belief in occult forces has serious implications for development cooperation. Development projects, which constitute arenas of strategic groups in their struggle for power and control over project resources, are likely to add further social stress to an already endangered precarious balance of power, causing witchcraft accusations to flourish. In addition, witchcraft accusations may serve as indicators of hidden social conflicts which are difficult to detect by other methods.

Credit: Le Monde, Paris, 11 Dec. New Nationalism and Development in Africa more.


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A selection of three recent publications demonstrates the advances made in scholarly analysis in the meantime as well as the wide range of related subjects. The new nationalism in Africa and elsewhere shows remarkable differences both in its roots and its impact, compared with that of the national independence movements of the early s. States and Citizenship in Africa. Democratization via Elections in an African 'Narco State'?

The Case of Guinea-Bissau more. Certainly, the impact of drug trafficking could endanger democratization and state-building if continued unchecked. However, the most pressing need is not state-building facilitated by external aid that is poorly rooted in the social and political fabric of the country. Rather, it is grassroots nation-building that is a pre-condition for the creation of viable state institutions. Die Darstellung von Guinea-Bissau als gescheiterter "Narkostaat" sowie die westliche Hilfe zur Stabilisierung dieses Staates basieren beide auf zweifelhaften Konzepten.

West African Guinea-Bissau figures as major hub of trafficking by air and by sea. Politics of xenophobia Editorial; in German more. Insofar as Insofar as strangers are admitted and accepted, such as the Italian, Greek or Turkish guest workers in Germany in the s, they are as a rule not completely included. Mostly they have to 'pay' for it. Often by acceptance of a subordinate position in the context of patronage or exploitation relationships.

Good behavior is required, because depending on the degree of integration, they can also be expelled and pursued. Even members of one's own group can mutate into strangers under certain conditions e. The exclusion of dissimilarity still serves today, similar to the social hierarchy of the feudal three estates, typically as a social-political exclusion strategy, e.

African examples of such strategies abound. The new formal-democratic rules of the game introduced with the 'second wind of democratization' in sub-Saharan Africa starting in the s aroused increasing fears of being overruled and overpowered by strangers. African culture has so far been characterized by the integration of 'the other' as well as hospitality in the broadest sense.

This had a long tradition and was protected by cultural institutions social adoption, patronage, etc. Today, social integration in Africa is in acute danger, not least as a result of an Eurocentric political liberalism, as propagated maladapted by Western development aid that, with its manifest effects, that are causing increasing social isolation and exclusion. Sie hatte eine lange Tradition und war abgesichert durch kulturelle Institutionen soziale Adoption, Patronage eine etc.

May Contrary to the first nationalism, the Contrary to the first nationalism, the second is less prone to include than to exclude populations; alienation, xenophobia and its political instrumentalization are its curse. The new nationalism has been shaped decisively by the consequences of globalization and by the increasing cleavages between the poor and the rich. Nowadays, structures of nationalism and nation-states differ more than in the past.

Frequently, the new nationalism is rooted in populist grass-root movements which do not necessarily share the same interest as the ruling class or the state. This makes for its extraordinary political and social ambiguity and brisance. Ethnicity in Ghana's elections revisited more. The perception of success has prevailed despite persistent concerns about an inflated voters' register and electoral The perception of success has prevailed despite persistent concerns about an inflated voters' register and electoral fraud perpetrated by the two major parties, the NPP and NDC, in their strongholds in the Ashanti and Volta Regions respectively.

Unfortunate diplomatic and technocratic biases in election monitoring, combined with a reluctance on the part of the responsible authorities to investigate what appears to be a long history of fraudulent voting, amounts to a dangerous time bomb of unresolved conflict which could detonate in future elections. Accra, Jamestown. Credit: D. July The successful Ghana election of a convenient myth?

Western donors considered it as a They took Togo as model to test their approach of political conditionality of aid, which had been emphasised also as corner stone of the joint EU-Africa strategy. More Info: cartoon - credit:: Horst Haitzinger, Socialism without liberation - Land reclamation projects in Guinea-Bissau more. How far has the new How far has the new Nation State succeeded in fulfilling this aim? A comparative analysis of the implementation of land reclamation projects during colonial and post-colonial times reveals astonishing similarities: especially the centralization of development efforts in the hands of administrators disconnected from the grassroots, lack of target group analysis and misconceptions about the aims and needs, as well as the resources, of the population involved in the development efforts, on the part of the administration.

The effects of this negative conditioning process of 'development' over many years on the chances of cooperation between peasants and the administration are still largely unknown. Any development planner who wants to encourage the local population to take their future into their own hands, would have to take account of this negative conditioning process. Wie weit ist es dem neuen Nationalstaat gelungen, dieses Ziel zu erreichen? Notably, EU observer missions adopting a professional approach are meant to shield against political pressures Notably, EU observer missions adopting a professional approach are meant to shield against political pressures from partisan stakeholder interests.

However, this growing professionalism did not necessarily lead to less biased observation results. Available evidence suggests that in crucial cases, the origin and orientation of the bias changed from 'diplomatic' to 'technocratic'. The latter can be as least as damaging to the declared aims of election observation as the former. Two outstanding examples, the observation of transitional elections in Nigeria and Madagascar, will serve to illustrate this hypothesis and its consequences for the necessary reorientation of election observation methodology.

Issue: 99 Volume: 31 More Info: cartoon on international election obsververs at the election. Cultures of Innovation of the African Poor more. More Info: Calabash for palm oil. He has reduced the threat of a new coup with a He has reduced the threat of a new coup with a military reform, taken steps against corruption and made human rights violations of the past the subject of an investigation. At the same time, however, the fighting in the Niger Delta and the dispute over the role of religion in politics threaten to tear the country apart.

Democratization , Nigeria , and Good Governance. Togo - domestic politics, foreign affairs, and socio-economic development more. Overdue political and institutional reforms and local elections were postponed indefinitely Overdue political and institutional reforms and local elections were postponed indefinitely. With promising growth prospects, low inflation and an absence of major external shocks, the government was able to improve the macroeconomic situation.

Volume: 13 More Info: "Independence Day in Togo - the 'My Country' gendarms vent their wrath on a journalist" - cartoon on the lack of press freedom in Togo. Why the Economic Partnership Agreements should be avoided in its current form; in French] more. Why the Economic Partnership Agreement should be avoided in its current form ] - In view of the global run on African resources the EU is at pains to conclude Economic The EPAs are meant not just to liberalize trade but also to promote economic development in Africa and thus creating a win-win situation in a partnership on eye-level.

However, many Africans suspect the EU of double talk and of promoting selfish export interest at the expense of inclusive growth in African countries. Taking the proposed ECOWAS EPAs as example, analyses reveal that tensions are due to both the gap between discourse and practice of EU trade and aid policy as well as different hidden interest of different EU directorates and member states.

The growing preparedness of African states to challenge EU mercantile interest has been effectively backed by long lasting proactive agitation of NGOs and civil society groups inside and outside Africa. West Africa is the cradle of migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, were most African migrants with overseas destinations live. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because they fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of 'good governance';.

The aftermath of these regimes is still to be felt today, and constitutes one of the underlying factors for politically motivated migration. The European Commission EC has been developing proposals on how to enhance the external dimension of the EU's migration policy 'The EU Global Approach to Migration' , to better meet the policy objectives and interests of the European Union EU , its partner countries and all migrants concerned.

To access the full discussion paper prepared by the EC, click here. As a member of M4D Net , the EC wanted to hear your view on this important piece of policy development! The proposals argue that the traditional migration and development agenda should be broadened to offer a migrant-centred approach. It aimed at enabling policy makers to enhance the human and social dimension of migration and development policies. A migrant-centred approach can also be strengthened by increasing the involvement of migrant groups , research institutes , media and other non-state actors in both the development and implementation of migration and development policy.

Finally, given that the largest movement of migrants occurs between countries located in the global South so called South-South migration , the contribution of these migrants to the development of their countries of origin should be recognised and supported. The following areas were addressed during this e-consultation :. Topic 1 - 18th April - 9th May Taking into account the migrant centred approach described above, explain how the various stakeholders i. Topic 2 - 9th May - 30th May How would a more migrant centred approach to migration and development policy impact on the following key policy areas:.

Would the development of circular migration schemes in sectors which are particularly affected by brain drain help ease the issue? According to the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR , the recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in despicable acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and have led to hardship and death of many.

Every member of the world family has the same fundamental and equal rights that others have. Each one is entitled to have these rights respected, and each of us has a responsibility to protect those rights for all others. Yet every day, these rights are being violated in almost every country against both the indigenous people and the migrants. Each violation of human rights, wherever it occurs, is a threat to the welfare and dignity of the entire human family.

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The protection of human rights therefore is a worldwide responsibility which transcends all racial, ideological and geographical boundaries. This is the fundamental belief which has given birth to the international struggle for human rights. And this rights-based approach is the premise upon which our contribution to e-consultation on the proposed EU migration policy on migration and development is based. If rights-based approach is considered, it would go a long way in putting the migrants at the centre of EU migration policy thrust leading to a meaningful impact on the development of both the country of destination and of origin.

In countries where all these factors are in the reverse, migration then becomes a pull-and-push factor to many a migrant. But then, the need for workable policies on migration in countries of destination and origin is imperative in order to minimise the attendant negative impact and enhance the positive impact of migration on development. Resolving the issue of migration should be a joint effort of us all; and this includes but is not limited to migrants, diasporas, and their families, CSOs, governments, and international development actors.

While the CSOs are constantly reminding governments of the need to account to the Millennium Pledge they signed in in New York, governments should develop all necessary political will to make life as much comfortable as possible for their citizenry. Policies on good governance churned out by the UN for all countries to domesticate might be necessary especially for developing countries where bad governance makes people become emergency migrants and asylum seekers.

Political leaders both elected and appointed should be accountable to the electorate while the parliament should enact people-centred policies. Circulating old cargoes as political appointees to the detriment of the youths would not augur well for the development of most of our developing countries. Most presidents of the developed countries are young adults of under 50 years against over 60 years we parade in most of the developing countries while most of them are sit-tight leaders that should be swept away by the millennium revolution as it is happening in north Africa.

Diaspora Organizations and similar initiatives in Europe, America, and Asia have a tremendous role to play in nation building and helping our youths. Diasporas are men and women full of brain and brawn ready to use their intellect and other resources at their disposal to fix the problem of various countries. Their remittances home have been of significant development impact on the lives of families and communities. Any little Diaspora investment done at home would go a long way in transforming the lives of our youths. Therefore, EU migration policies could be tailored to meeting the yearnings and aspirations of these people, and recognising the tremendous contributions they are making in both countries of origin and sojourn.

For example, some industries are relocating to neighbouring countries like Ghana because of incessant power outage or lack of it in Nigeria. UNIDO could invest in power generation redeeming our local industries and transforming the lives of the artisans who have abandoned their trades for lack of power supply.

Using their resources, the diasporas could establish refineries that would eventually generate income to our country. They could set up NGO-led micro-finance banks for the benefit of the poor who would have access to soft loans. Governments should enact youth-friendly policies, and create employment opportunity for our teeming youths to enable them exhibit their respective potentials instead of becoming brain drain and brain waste to their own country.

In addition, governments should direct their policies towards poverty eradication and give the populace functioning social amenities, in order to reduce the menace of irregular migration. They should also provide a conducive environment for our entrepreneurs to operate while encouraging development of home-based industries. Security agencies should be empowered at our various borders while African governments should have a Memorandum of Understanding with European countries most especially on border issues dealing with the protection of the rights of migrants.

Specific protection policies should be enacted for the benefit of the migrants in Europe. It is not only irregular migrants that suffer in the hands of security operatives in Europe, those who have overstayed their visa also suffer human rights abuses. Some migrants who may have some problem with their immigration papers are sometimes arrested and summarily deported without allowing them to have access to their lawyers or their personal effects while some are detained unjustly. There is a well? There is a threat of labour exploitation as well.

In the destination countries, irregular migrants are found in a variety of employment sectors, including agriculture, construction, nursing, care, domestic work and hospitality. These industries typically require large numbers of low? Coercion and deception are used to control and exploit migrants. They may experience debt? Irregular migrants are also subjected to the death penalty as against the injunction of UDHR. According to ThisDay newspaper of 30 th August , the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said 52 Nigerians were currently on death row across the globe for various offences.

A statement signed by the ministry's spokesman in Abuja, Mr. Ayo Olukanni, also said that 3, were serving various terms of imprisonment and while another 1, were in detention, 3, others were to be deported. Europe should refrain from anti-migrant policies and embrace migrant-centred policies that would recognise, respect, and uphold human rights. Libya is becoming notorious for human rights violation of the migrants going by the bilateral treaty it has entered into with Italy. In return in , Libya made a deal regarding asylum seekers and gave Italian companies priority in infrastructure projects.

This bilateral treaty is an ignoble alliance! This anti-human rights policy is already stirring arguments across the globe. That deal, under which Libya pledged to help stop the flow of illegal immigrants from Africa to Italy, has been condemned by the Vatican and by human rights organisations. The UN estimated that in the first four months of the treaty alone, Italy sent back 1, Africans it had intercepted in international waters, without screening them for refugee status.

The governments of the country of origin as a matter of urgency should have friendly youth policy in place that will encourage youths to have confidence in contributing to the development of their own country. Governments should make infrastructure work in order to boost industrialisation and bring sustainable development through employment generation for our youths. Nations should have abiding interest and inherent stake in protecting the basic rights of their own citizens even when they are abroad. Should have memorandum of understanding on migration policy with other African countries and respect such understandings.

Should respect all international treaties that they are signatories to especially those dealing with the issue of labour and migration. Provide an enabling forum whereby migrant communities of interests and practice especially the professionals, researchers, CSOs and individuals could be sharing experiences and getting information on jobs, educational opportunities etc available in other countries within and beyond Africa subregion. Should reaffirm that the promotion and protection of human rights and the fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction by reasons of race, gender, language, nationality, or religion, is a priority for the international community and is the responsibility of every state.


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  • Local governments can as well facilitate information centre at the rural areas among the potential migrants through provision of migration counseling and referral services. People-centred policy tilted in favour of those living in poverty in rural communities should be encouraged by our local councils in order to be relevant to policy formulation at the global level.

    We hope to make further contributions to this e-discussion if opportunity arises again. Thank you. Please click here for the full contribution. Harnessing migrant remittances for sustainable economic development: A case for remittance policy in Nigeria.

    Population Observing the Number of Children with EU-SILC: A Quantification of Biases - Population

    Today, remittances by Nigerians abroad rise to a level that is comparable with its development assistance and foreign direct investments. What is needed is a coherent remittance policy to capture the beneficial effects of remittances in nation building. In the old situation, policy makers, development agencies, economists, and researchers showed little interest in the role of remittances in economic development, arguing that remittances were used for consumption, and not for productive investment.

    This has changed as recent times have seen a substantial remittance growth, together with the level of organization of migrant groups known as Hometown Associations HTAs that have begun to channel funds into local infrastructure projects. The Nigerian government should create a remittance policy that aims at maximizing the impact of remittances on growth and development. It is important to follow the example of a number of other migrant countries who have already devised mechanisms aimed at mobilizing remittances for investment.

    These mechanisms are meant to 1 reduce transfer costs, 2 redirect remittances to investments and 3 help involve migrants in the development of their communities at home. So-called communal or collective remittances transcend the issue of unproductive use.


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    • However, it must be the role of the government to devise policy that entices HTAs and the private sector to channel funds into job-generating projects. Collective remittances are limited by their aim at infrastructure projects. Help is needed on several fronts. Migrant organisations are often not able to successfully design development projects. Additionally, local government sometimes lacks the capacity to implement the project and make it sustainable. Leadership is the first step. Successes have come from government supporting capacity building. Furthermore, programmes for attracting and leveraging remittances must be made permanent.

      To conclude, carefully calibrated support outside the local and migrant communities can make an enormous difference. The organisational problem is possibly the most urgent factor where business can play a constructive role. What is missing is a forum, a platform for matching companies who are willing to provide expertise and perhaps matching funding with migrant organisations and local communities. How the various stakeholders i. Recognising and acknowledging the role the Diaspora can and already is playing, will enable stakeholders to best understand the role to play.

      This involves understanding that the Diaspora is not a homogenous group of people. The drivers of engagement are diverse and play out within the context of the host countries just as much as the reasons for becoming and remaining a Diaspora. Participation of the Diaspora as a stakeholder on the table of engagement and in policy formulation process will enable this process.

      Exploiting and enhancing the strengths of the Diaspora as listed below is critical:. This acts as a buffer and a stabilising force in many countries. Stakeholders can consider some of the following:. Introduction of bold and innovative policies such as allocating a quota of national and strategic positions to the Diaspora.

      This will move more of the informal money flows to formal routes supporting more of the un-banked members of the community to move into the formal banks opening up benefits to them. AfricaRecruit has played a pioneering role in the extensive survey and study of the money transfer phenomenon, especially between the major industrial western countries and African countries, and the uses of transferred funds in the destination countries. Survey of over 5, Diaspora showed that outside sustenance driven remittances, investment driven remittances are used for setting up and or maintaining business, real estate and stock market investments.

      Many members of the Diaspora invest in their home countries in other ways, and efforts should be channeled into facilitating these flows. For instance, the private sector could help to create health insurance schemes for extended family in Africa, mortgage packages and investment in overseas stock exchanges. Sending countries should support the private sector to find additional ways-beyond remittances-to channel investment into home countries.

      Mainstreaming Diaspora engagement in international development host countries and in national planning and delivery sending countries will ensure that effective utilisation of the resources in the Diaspora. There have been a range of comments much of which I endorse.

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      How do we meet those interests via a migrant-centred approach? Where there is an overlap - whose interest prevails? The benefits of migration are well documented. A migrant-centred approach could be strengthened by an in-depth consideration of the political dimension - local, state, national and international.

      Stakeholders must be empowered to be effective actors in development. Prevention is better than trying to cope with the negative impact of migration. Would circular migration incentive schemes and projects encourage some diaspora to return to the land? How do we address rural-urban migration? The study mixes quantitative and qualitative methods to achieve its objectives.

      A quantitative study was carried out through a structured questionnaire with respondents in the three countries. In addition, 49 guiding in-depth interviews were conducted with Egyptians in these three countries. The objective of this study is to provide an overview on contemporary Egyptian diaspora, examine existing avenues for engaging diasporas in the development of Egypt and to recommend policies and programs to enhance contribution of diasporas to the socio-economic development of Egypt. The results of the study indicate that the Egyptians abroad maintain strong ties with their home country.

      This is reflected in the frequent visits to Egypt, remittances to origin, and their willingness to contribute to the development efforts in Egypt. However, most of migrants lack information about the ways in which they can engage in development efforts. Except for remittances, migrants are not aware of the facilities and legislations provided to support their involvement in economic activities.

      For example, the Egyptian law treat investments by diasporas the same as foreign direct investment and offers incentives for their nationals abroad such as tax deduction but Egyptians abroad are not fully aware of such benefits. Moreover, Egyptians abroad are not fully aware of the investment opportunities in Egypt.

      However, their social integration is not aligned with their full economic integration in the host societies. This may attributed, in part, to the legislations in the host countries that ban the foundation of NGOs related to expatriates in the case of the Arab Gulf countries, or due to their strong ties with their Egyptian institutions in the West such as the Egyptian Coptic churches. Egyptian migrants should act as agents for development in their country of origin. The activation and strengthening of development ties should be reinforced through cooperation between the European Commission and the Egyptian government in order to activate the Global Approach to Migration adopted by the European Commission.

      Dina Sava. The project set up activities focused on three specific areas for:. The achievements on all of these three areas are notable from recognition of a newly emerged social category — multigenerational households to increased capacity of NGOs and community networks to conduct community activities to enhance intergenerational solidarity between generations. First, the public authorities and society must include multigenerational households as a new social category and recognize vulnerability among them. This way we will be able to address the specific needs of these households , identified in our project, and help them improve their situation and contribute to development.

      The project was very welcomed by the migrant families and mostly importantly demonstrated a great need for its actions as Moldova, being very close to Europe, is mistakenly perceived as a mid-level or well developed county without apparent problems. At the same time the country is facing a number of challenges as a result of the high level of migration and lack of adequate policies to support vulnerable groups. Migration policies mostly focus on the migrants themselves and not those who stay behind.

      The project demonstrated models of engagement at community level to support this vulnerable group. Older people play the main role in child care in the situation of high migration level in Moldova they care for children in Their pension is the main source of income, despite of remittances, that represents only Despite these facts, the elderly are excluded from policies and social protection programmes and their major contribution is being neglected. Support from the state in terms of a monthly payment for child care, elaboration of extra-curricular activities like life-skills development, intergenerational transfer of knowledge and handcrafting, communication, including information about rights would support vulnerable older people in their care and consolidate family links.

      The academic institutions, international agencies and researchers have focused on the migrant itself and almost never on those left behind, on the situation of families of migrants, on their lives and poverty among older people in Moldova. Moreover, there is no system to record people migrating abroad and the children left behind and no mechanism to monitor the situation of children left without parental care.

      The project tried to address all these gaps and to encourage the involvement of public authorities at all levels and other stakeholders. The Diaspora of Moldovans abroad is not clearly formed and structured and their capacity is very low in relation to engagement in specific initiatives linking them to the country of origin, except for cultural ones. Ways to mobilize and consolidate the Moldovan Diaspora must be analysed and identified for a more comprehensive approach on migration issues.

      The project worked through a consortium, national and international organisations linking together. Connecting partners from North to South is extremely timely and extremely important for Moldova that is gradually moving towards EU integration. The project has resolved many issues of the multigenerational households: helped grandparents to institute tutorship for grandchildren and receive child-care benefits, helped older people get additional social protection material support and free sanatorium tickets. The project helped grandchildren and children get psychological counselling and support of schools in educating the grandchildren.

      It helped to introduce new activities in school curricular to reduce generation gap and enhance communication social theatres, discussion clubs, life-skills development activities. However, the project would like to further address the issue of multigenerational households through:.

      Labour migrants are regarded as agents of development. They are primarily expected to contribute to the development of their countries of origin, their families, households, and communities at home through financial remittances and productive investments, while reducing unemployment pressures and - at the same time - benefiting the countries of destination by meeting labour shortages. The migrants' own human development is often not recognised as a development aim in its own right, but is merely regarded as supporting migrants in exercising their agency to contribute better to the development of their countries of origin, their families, households, and communities at home.

      Include all forms of migration because the focus on labour migrants withholds an important resource for development: The reality of migration is characterised by complex, mixed, and shifting motives and mixed-migration movements. Migration is diverse and it is often difficult to make clear distinction between different forms. Particularly forced migrants, such as asylum-seekers, refugees and IDPs, whose potential to contribute to development is too often neglected, should be considered as agents for development.

      A Gendered Approach. This is Ding Bagasao, of Ercof Philippines sharing thoughts on the above subject. It is interesting to know that the EC wishes to develop proposals that could help move forward to a migrant centred approach to migration and development. Secondly, studies have shown that EU member countries also have different interests to protect, making an EU policy on migration uniformly complied with by member countries a challenge and a highly debatable issue. Thus the move to develop proposals for a migrant centred approach, although presenting a vestige of hope, could be problematic.

      Yet having said that, let me share some thoughts on how I believe better and more informed decisions could be made by the EU on migration policy. Terrorism is a global problem that exempts no one - whether it is a destination or receiving country. As a rule, people migrate to improve their economic standing and survival, and not to spread terror. Aside from paying taxes, both income and VAT from goods or services purchased, they also provide necessary labor in areas shunned by locals. Women workers, especially domestic and household workers relieve the housewife of having to do household chores and even taking care of children, thus giving many women an opportunity to contribute to the family income, self empowerment by following a career that is not otherwise possible if a domestic worker was not around.

      Secondly it is believed that migration policy should move away from being too political, and veer towards treating migrants not as a commodity of labor but human beings who should be accorded human rights. All discourses regarding migration have always been between governments, or between governments and migrants. There is little or no discourse and interaction between peoples from receiving and sending countries, or at least between local governments. No offense meant, but the concept of a migrant centred approach might never be achieved if the migration discussion is monopolised between politicians or bureaucrats, whose terms of office are not permanent and whose views and approaches might not necessarily be the same as the citizens who have elected them, many of whose households or businesses are benefitted by migrant labor.

      Hence, to help ensure that a migrant centred approach is at least approximated, perhaps the EU could encourage more public discussions involving its citizens who could themselves articulate and highlight migrant concerns based on their own personal experience. LGUs from origin countries could help organise group visits not only for tourism purposes, but also to familiarise citizens of receiving countries of local conditions and migrant family needs. Starting from an initiative to encourage Filipino diaspora groups based in the Netherlands to empower women cooperatives in six municipalities in Southern Philippines, the outcomes have shown potential.

      From the words of the women leaders themselves, the project has given them hope to be able to be productive not only within their families but also to help other women empower themselves through entrepreneurship and expanding their new found abilities to lobby and advocate for women empowerment.

      This has not only lured local governments to enter memorandums of understanding and agreement to adopt the programs introduced by the JMDI project, but also opened possibilities and awakening initiatives between neighbouring LGUs of forming economic clusters or corridors that promote inter LGU trading and joint ventures on agriculture. The project, though still a work in progress, has provided a model or roadmap for depressed economic communities in origin countries to help improve economic conditions that in the long term could decrease the incentives towards more migration, or making migration a forced option.

      In the long term, the drain of brains and brawn from agricultural communities could be addressed. We were hoping to share this at the Knowledge Fair scheduled this mid June but unfortunately it was cancelled. On a national level, this would translate to an increase in output by 2. The Maria experience has proven that women can make concrete contributions to economic development, if they are provided equal access to resources as males. It is also a well-studied departure from the traditional discourses centering on remittances and how charges could be lowered.

      Although important, remittances are not the only development dimension of migration. Anne Nolan. The right of every young migrant to education or an education alternative especially when circumstances and the mainstream system fails them, and the right of all unaccompanied minors to an adequate supportive statutory care service on leaving the Health Service Executive system on reaching 18 years of age where they are introduced into the adult Direct Provision accommodation system. Without an adequate education and supportive, accountable care service the futures of young migrants are very much compromised for future generations.

      Many young migrants may not have had the opportunity to attend formal schooling due to conditions in their home country therefore they find it difficult to function in such formal systems, many do not have English as their first language and therefore struggle to keep up, often parents do not have the language or at times the capacity to communicate their needs to schools on behalf of their child. Many are subjected to physical and emotional abuse, are used in the sex industry, forced labour and arranged marriages. Young girls and single women are particularly vulnerable. This can only be achieved with the inclusion of service users in any consultation processes and with the support of NGOs operating at grassroots level.

      The ISU suggests that accommodation for families should not be single room accommodation but rather a suite of adjoining rooms. We would prefer to see this system phased out altogether in favour of managed apartment accommodation where Asylum Seekers can work a fixed amount of hours per week for their upkeep, have control over their own family management and cooking facilities where they have a humane freedom of choice over meals in line with their culture, traditions and religious beliefs.

      Facilities for young children such as pre-school and play areas would be part of the apartment complexes. After schools facilities could be available for those requiring assistance with language and homework. Education initiatives should be available to adults either on site or within easy reach. It is a member of the wider Edmund Rice Network. The aim of the network is to promote Social Justice through Education and Community Development by pooling resources, expertise and experiences of its constituent parties. The human and social dimension of migration needs to be strengthened through the involvement of migrants themselves.

      We support migrants to empower themselves to prepare for engagement in political and decision-making arenas through accessing appropriate education and employment opportunities and supports. Negative aspects of Migration: Many of our clients have experienced forced migration either through civil unrest, epidemiology, famine and drought, or trafficking. They report that the biggest negative factor for them is the Asylum Seeker Direct Provision process where accommodation provided by the Irish authorities is unsuitable for their needs.

      Experience of this process is that they feel that they are being punished for a situation that is beyond their control and especially for those with children often parenting alone there are Human Rights infringements based on the Right of the Child enshrined in Irish Law such as the Right to be protected from harm, abuse and exploitation and the Right to Play. For children living with their parents in one room accommodation they are sometimes unintentionally exposed to the sexual behaviour of adults therefore it would be more conducive to provide family suites to avoid this situation.

      Children are sometimes at risk from outsiders entering accommodation where boundaries of trespass are not always adhered to. This leads to confusion for migrant children which is further compromised in second and third generations of migrants. Issues of parenting styles have been challenged by the Health Services Executive and Schools. Migrant parents feel that traditions of the community raising the child are not accepted in the Western world which causes complications of working with service providers for the best outcomes for children at risk. In response the ISU have developed a Family Support Framework identifying issues at all stages of childhood from 0 — 21 years which focuses on the family as a unit and is working with agencies to deliver age appropriate actions following the parenting seminar.

      As a result:. To address these issues we need to engage with all the stakeholders in a coordinated way to provide the specialised supports required. NGOs have a central role to play in coordinating opportunities for interface dialogue between migrants and service providers especially where service providers have little if any experience or expertise in working with culturally diverse groups. However, NGOs working at grass roots level in Ireland receive little if any recognition of the work that they do to aid integration for future generations putting Human Rights and people at the forefront.

      This is further compounded by the lack of core funding to continue such services. The majority of Irish Aid funding is sent overseas to developing countries yet NGOs are providing services in Ireland to the very same groups who are accessing resettlement programmes here. Awards and Juries. Population report Population report Population report Subscribe to Population.

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