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Glory, independence and love were the themes of their songs as the troubadours passed from castle to castle, spreading the doctrine of love, equality and fraternity. Himself a poet of no mean merit and the greatest of his court, he spared no pains to embellish the literature with beautiful verses which are still read and appreciated. His court became the centre of an intense literary life, poets coming from Galicia, Leon and Castile, to bask in the sunshine of his patronage. Through his encouragement pf education and literature, he brought such influence to bear on the tongue that he raised it from a mere dialect to a most beautiful and expressive language.

He is rightly regarded as the maker of the Portuguese language and the founder of Portuguese literature. The invention of printing in brought hitherto expensive books within the reach of the many ; this greatly stimulated education and thus the number of authors increased. And in our time printing was discovered, which step by step caused so many libraries to grow and science to increase. Germany has the credit of being the author of such a worthy thing. Others affirm that the first inventor belonged to China. Condestavel D. It was in the beginning of the 15th. After the battle of Aljubarrota, , the spectre of Spanish domination was dispelled and national independence established.

In the spirit of the Portuguese people, essentially Catholic, was impressed not only the hereditary grati- tude for the help which the Crusaders had given, but also the hatred which the Christian peoples of Europe felt for the Saracens, who, when established in the Peninsula, had invaded France and whose advance was checked by the battle of Poitiers Tours in A. To inspire their adventurous spirit, legends of the ancient geographers idealised by the Breton imagination, were not wanting. It represented the Gloomy Sea as a vast stretch full of fogs, where there was no inhabited country and where the sailors would get lost without recall, for the sea was bounded only by the sea.

The first dream of the Portuguese was the conquest of the flourishing Muslim Empire developed in the North of Africa. The expedition, though successful in the conquest of Ceuta, , terminated in a disaster at Tangiers, where Dom Fernando remained a prisoner and ended his life rather than yield to the Moors on the field of battle.

It was the martyrdom of their Prince that gave birth to the dreams of Dom Sebastiao some hundred and fifty years later. The first voyages of exploration under the guidance of the School of Sagres began in , though maritime expeditions had already been sent out from Portugal in , and even as early as the discovery had been made of the Canary Islands which by the treaty of , were given to Spain.

I, page So the Portuguese launched out decisively by way of the sea. The legend of Prester John was so widespread in Europe that the Papal Legate of the Church in Armenia talked to the Pope Eugene III, about this Prince whose dominions were beyond Armenia and Persia, saying that he was a warrior and a con- queror and that he united his secular power with his sacerdotal sway, being Pope of the extreme Orient. Before the voyage of Pero da Covilhan, the name of Prester John, or Presbyter John, as he was accustomed to be called, repre- sented a king, intangible and visionary, about whose person and whose dominions there were the most contradictory and conflict- ing reports.

The weak point in this theory was the difficulty of explaining a Christian name in an Asiatic potentate, but even this point was waived by the explanation that Prester John had been a Buddhist and had become a Nestorian Christian. According to the second theory. The nearest way to India should be by the African Coast. To the west should lie either a great continent sians and who took a city in Armenia from the Turks in , though he belonged to the Greek Church and not to the Nestorian sect. But it is not easy to understand how rumour converted him into a sacerdotal king whose dominion was in the extreme Orient.

The third theory was based on the description of Marco Polo whose book was widely read in Portugal where it had been trans- lated about He described him as Uang-Khan, Chief of a powerful Mongol tribe, allied to Chengiz Khan by whom he was beaten and killed in A Syrian writer, Abul Faradj, speak- ing of the same tribe said that with their king they had been converted to Nestorianism and he was called John. This repoH was confirmed by the Persian Muslim writer, Raschid-ud-din, who stated that the tribe was Christian from the time of Chengiz Khan.

Marco Polo affirmed that when he passed through the country of the Yellow River, he found a Christian king who was a descendant of the great Prester John, though very little remained of the great- ness of his ancestor. However, though the legendary king had been described as already dead, rumour was loth to part with him, and his domi- nions were now reputed to be no longer in Tartary but in India ; this was again delightfully vague, for no one knew exactly where India was. In this last direction, the way to India should be impossible, or much longer.

Now began a series of discoveries : in , Porto Santo and Madeira ; in , the Azores ; in , some islands of Cape Verde. In , Gil Eanes passed the Cape of Bojador; in , the Gold River was discovered; and from till , the date of the death of the Infante, exploration went on as far as Sierra Leone. In , the Portuguese took Arzila and Tangiers. The Portuguese fleets, masters of the Straits of Gibraltar, could then go without hindrance to continue their discoveries.

Thus in the Equator was crossed and they discovered the Isles of S. Thome, Anno Bom and Principe. Jorge de Mina, in order to defend the Portuguese commercial interests. A far-sighted and cool-headed king who never acted on impulse, or from purely sentimental feelings, his interest in solving the mystery surrounding this mythical personage, Prester John, was not a mere poetic whim. He was prompted by political and religious motives which arose from the isolated position of western Christians and the growing power of Islam. Moreover, the desire to rival Venice in her monopoly of the trade in spices and pepper with the Levant, made him feel that a bona-fide Christian ally in the East would be of real assistance to him.

But death cut short his plans. But in consultation with Sr. Leite de Vasconcellos, Dr. July II, p. Here their astonishment reached its height when they found people worshipping the image of a goddess, the Virgin Mary as they wrongly thought. This confusion, combined with their ignorance of the language, gave rise to many comical scenes. Pinheiro Chagas, Historia de Portugal, Vol. Ill, p. Vide the article of P. January, On the question of the date there are diverse opinions. May E em o meo do corpo da Igreja esta huu Corucheo todo de quanto e tinha hua porta quanto huu homem cabia, e hua escada de pedra perque sobiam ha esta porta, a quail porta hera darame, e dentro estava huua ymajem pequena a quail elles diziam que era nossa Senhora, e diante da porta principall da Igreja ao longo da parede estavam sete campaas pequenas.

Aquy fez o capitam mor oragam e nos outros com elle, e nos nom emtra- mos dentro em esta capella porque seu costume he em nom entrar nella senam homens certos que servem as Igrejas aos quaes elles chamam quafers. And in the middle of the body of the church was a spire all of stone and it had a door in which a naan could enter and a flight of steps leading to this door which was of bronze.

Toda esta ceri- monia fezeram ao capitam e Ihe davam aqnelle barro que posese, e o capitam o tomou e o deu a guardar dando a emtemder que depois o pomria. Published by Diogo Eopke and Dr. Ant6nio da Costa Paiva, Porto, Sometimes the pillar has receptacles for lamps. The Ghimda is a legendary bird which is supposed to have released Rama from snake bondage. Here the Chief Captain prayed and we also with him. All these ceremonies they performed to the Captain, and gave him that clay which he took and kept, making them understand that he would use it afterwards. And many of the saints were painted in different ways and their teeth were so great that they protruded about an inch from their mouths.

And each saint had four or five arms, and below the church there was a large tank made in masonry, just like many others which we had seen on our way. Pinheiro Chagas, Hist6ria de Portugal, Vol. I, Oh. Good luck! Many rubies! Many emeralds! We are in the land of spices, of precious stones, of the greatest riches that there are in the world! That cry of triumph, those thrills of astonishment and emotion which drew tears from the eyes of the sailors, they carried in their hearts till they anchor- ed in Lisbon, and communicated them to the entire nation.

And, in the letter of Dom Manuel to the King of Castile, giving him the news of the discovery, the triumph and the joy of the King, his delight and astonishment overflow in each phrase : b What a torrent of stones has India! She has rubies! Which have neither price nor count! Emeralds absolutely royal! And pearls of very great value! Spinel rubies and besides carbuncles, Amethysts, turquoises and chrysolites. Sapphires, cats-eyes, brilliants of the richest kind. And many others whose names are given. They have now brought a quantity of those spices, such as, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, nutmeg, pepper, and other hinds of spices and even the woods and leaves of the same, and very fine precious stones of different kinds, as for instance, rubies and others.

They even found land where there are gold mines of whose products and of the said spices and precious stones, they did not carry away as much as they could have, because they had not taken with them merchandise enough to buy more. And because we know that yonr Highnesses are bound to receive great pleasure and satisfaction from this, we thought it good to give you news of this. Your Highnesses may augmented by the fantasy of the sailors and by recounting the news from mouth to mouth, must have caused in the hearts of the people.

The first chroniclers and historiographers relate this fact. Prom that atmosphere, which the nation breathed, were to issue forth the imposing figures of the first captains of India, men of the temperament of Pacheco, of Dom Francisco de Almeida, or of Albuquerque. Besides we hope in our Lord that the principal trade of which all the Moorish people of those parts took advantage and carried on themselves without the aid of other persons or races, will be completely changed by our agreements with the natives and by the ships of our Kingdom, so ihat henceforth all the Christians of this part may be largely provided with the said spices and precious stones, which, with the help of the same God, Who in His mercy ordains it so, will rouse in us greater resolution and determination to employ ourselves more fervently for His service in the war against the Moors in our conquests in these parts, in which Your Highnesses have so much interest, and we so much devotion.

Our Lord giving us the completion of our work regarding the investigation of Ethiopia and India, other lands and the Oriental Islands. Muyto altos, muito excellentes Principes y muito poderosos Senhores, Nosso Senhor Deos haja sempre vossas pessoas e Heales Estados em sua santa guards. Escrita em Lisboa, fto julho M The King considers himself Christian as well as the greater part of the people One finds there all the year round cucumbers, oranges, lemons and citrons There are great fleets The island of Taprobana, which they call Ceilam Ceylon , is leagues from Quolicut.

Our men brought five or six Indians from Quolicut, We, as soon as we heard this news, at once gave orders for general processions to be made in all our kingdoms, giving many thanks to Our Lord ; and His Holiness and Your Reverence must show publicly not less joy and give great praises to God.

Besides, although we hold very amply by apostolic donations the lordship and dominion of all we have found so that it appears little necessary, yet, because it will please us much we ask you affectionately that, after having placed our letters before the Holy Father and the College of Cardinals , you will be pleased speaking of this as coming from yourself, at least as a proof of some fresh satisfaction for us, in something so new and of such great and novel merit, to obtain from His Holiness a renewed approval and grant thereof, in the form which seems best to Your Most Reverend Paternity, whom may Our Lord keep as you desire.


Written in Lisbon, the 28th, August Padre que como irmao muito amamos. Nos, D. Santidade escrevemos, sabera V. Troiixeram os nossos 5 on 6 indios de Quolicut Nos tanto que esta nova soubemos, logo mandamos fazer geraes procissoes por todos os nossos reynos dando mnitas gragas a nosso Senhor e deve S. Santidade e V. Ill, fol. XIV, fol. A third fleet of four ships followed in , under Joao da Nova, and a fourth, consisting of twenty ships, sailed in with Vasco da Gama as Admiral.

He extended the dominions in India and in other parts of Asia. Dabul was taken by him in revenge for the death of his son. He also took Diu after a bloody battle. The navigation and conquests of the Portuguese in the East increased the number of maritime discoveries day by day. In , Joao Homem Discoveries. Jorge and S. Joao, off the coast of South Africa. In the same year, Tristao da Cunha found the islands of his own name and Ruy Pereira Coutinho touched the island of Madagascar. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira occupied Malacca in , and explored the island of Sumatra ; three years later, Francisco Serrao discovered the Moluccas ; in or , the island of Bourbon or Reunion, east of Mozambique, was claimed for the Portuguese crown by Pedro de Masca- renhas.

In , during the government of Lopo Soares de Albergaria, Fernao Peres de Andrade constructed a fortress in Pacem, went to Cochin-China and Canton, made peace with the Mandarins and established relations between Portugal and China. E Ascengao. It is Ascen- sion. Such was the rapid extension overseas of the Portuguese power which exercised lasting influence on her art, literature and social life. As the object of Portugal was not only conquest but conversion, her missionaries accompanied the troops wherever they went and Goa Religious Influence. This work was accomplished by the Portuguese missionaries, not always by persuasive measures but many times by violence, pardonable when judged according to their times as all historical facts cannot be criticised only according to our light and actual experience.

It was thus natural that the fleet should be followed by an army of missionaries and in those times it was a common thing to find the Cross and the Sword in permanent alliance with the same objectives of conquering lands for the King of Portugal and winning souls for the King of Heaven.

The influence of religion in bringing about closer relations between the West and the East, was by no means small. Amongst numerous missionaries who took up this role, the most important without doubt, was St. Francisco Xavier, Apostalo do Oriente. Having laboured as a missionary from India to Japan, he sleeps to-day in the Convent of Bom Jesus in Old Goa, where his body is venerated by thousands of Orientals, both Catholics and non-Christians. The engrossing desire of the first discoverers and conquerors was to expand the temporal and spiritual confines of the kingdom of Portugal and to unite the East and West with ties of affection.

The mercantile monopoly remained in the hands of the Portuguese till , before which time there were no European competitors. Their commercial programme obliged the creation of factories along the coasts under the jurisdiction of the respective captains and governors. The colonial institutions invented by the Portuguese and reproduced by the nations which followed them in the East, were the means of the colonization of the Asiatic Islands, Africa and Brazil.

The influence which the Portuguese had in India, resulted from several causes: viz, their direct government over the people ; their commercial intercourse with the different races ; the political influence which they exercised in their relations with the various Indian potentates ; the nearness of the Portuguese possessions to the Indian States, and the religious propaganda which they carried out.

As it is not within the scope of this work to treat of Portuguese history at length, for that would require several volumes, it is enough to say that the dominion of the Portuguese in the East was of short duration. Her imperial sway was never firmly established. Of the immense empire that was founded, as if by enchantment, by the strong arm of the terrible Albuquerque and the able Castro, now only a few fragments remain. TnlS epoch is the most brilliant in Portuguese literary history.

The fall of Constantinople had caused the exodus of the Greek scholars of that place into Italy, where they carried the treasures of their learning. Biker, pages 18 to See also I. From the classic lands of Italy came educationists as well as religious teachers, and besides the clerical school a secular one was established.

It was for Portugal the golden age of learning. As we have previously noted, in Portuguese literature, we find that the early writers did not deal with subjects relating to India, but, after the discovery of the way to India by sea and the establishment of Portuguese rule in the East, familiarity with the East, especially India, produced a number of brilliant writers, both in poetry and prose, who show intimate and enthusiastic knowledge of the country.

The riches which had come from the overflowing Orient, were eclipsed by the more precious treasures of learning which embellished the kingdom of Dom Manuel and his successors. It was enough to have produced an epic poet like Camoes, a dramatist such as Gil Vicente or a historian like Goes, to make any epoch glorious.

The superhuman deeds of bravery accomplished by those intrepid early explorers, aroused the loudest Poets of the enthusiasm and admiration among Sixteenth Century, the writers, whose minds had already been developed by their contact with the Italian learning, and the world was startled by the memorable production of the great epic poem of Cam5es, dealing with the discovery and conquest of India by Vasco da Gama. Of his birth we know very little. There is even some doubt about the date, though most chroniclers give it as There is equal dispute over his birthplace, some saying it, among other places, to be Coimbra, but the majority accept Lisbon as the most probable.

His early education was obtained in Coimbra, and, judging by his mastery of the classics and his familiarity with the literatures of Spain, Italy and his own country, it must have been a very thorough one. As a youth he was at the court of Dom Joao III and then his life began to be so full of sorrow and adventure.

In he enlisted as a private soldier for Africa, where he fought during two years, having the misfortune to lose his right eye in an encounter with the Arabs.

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In , he embarked for India. Thence he proceeded to the Molucca Islands, returned to Malacca in , and went to Macao. This incident reminds us of a similar occurrence in the life of Julius Caesar so graphically told by Plutarch, when he saved his manuscripts in an engagement off Pharos, by holding them in one hand and swimming with the other. His old mother alone remained to take a natural pride in the poem he had written. It was dedicated to Dom Sebastiao, the youthful sovereign of Portugal.

The battle of Alcacer Qebir foreshadowed the domination of Spain over Portugal. Camoes is just as perfect in his lyrical poems as he is in his great epic. But if niy pen should be tired of writing what my heart feels, let my memory not tire to fly to Sion. It was a satire which roused the anger of those against whom it was written and defied the superior power of the famous Governor who arbitrarily banished the poet to the Molucca Islands.

Eu nunca vi rosa Em suaves molhos, Que para meus olhos Fosse mais formosa. Rosto singular, Olhos socegados, Pretos e cansados, Mas nao de matar. Presenga serena, Que a tormenta amansa ; Nella emfim descansa Toda minha pena. I never saw a rose in its soft bunch of leaves, that seemed more beautiful to my eyes.

Neither the flowers of the field nor the stars of heaven seem to me as beautiful as my love. Uncommon face, quiet eyes, black and weary, but not weary of killing. But containing a lively charm to be the mistress of him whose slave she is. Her black hair makes fickle people change their opinion that light hair is beautiful.

The blackness of Love— so sweet is her face — that snow swears to her it will exchange its colour for hers. She is smiling suavity accompanied by good sense. Indeed, she appears a foreign beauty, but not barbarian. She has a serene presence which stills my passions, and in the end takes away all my sorrow.

Os Lusíadas

This is the captive that has enslaved me, and since in her I live it is necessary that she should live. Jose Maria Rodrigues. Embora de data recente, foi este vocabulo escolhido para o titulo do poema, por causa do cunho epico que o caracteriza. E para Ihe dar todo o realce, Camoes s6 o empregou no frontispicio da Epopeia. O artigo tambem pertence ao titulo, de que na grafia se nao deve desligar. THE CLASSIC EPOCH 41 of the Portuguese Fatherland, the autobiography of the poet and an encyclopaedia transunto reduzido Em pequeno volume transcript compressed into a small volume of all the knowledge of the period, of the discovery and conquest of India, of the traditions peculiar to the sixteenth century in Europe and of those which at that time had come from the Orient.

XLY, Notas filoldgicas, histdricas, geograficas, e cosmoldgicas. La Lusiade du Camoens by M. Duperron de Castera a Paris. Duperron de Castera. La Lusiade de Louis Camoens. La Lusiade de Camoens by M. Lusiada Italiana de Carlo Antonio Paggi. This is enough to show that many mistakes have been made. The apparent hero of the poem is Vasco da Gama ; the real hero is the spirit of the nation. Brave himself, the bravery of others attracted Camoes and brought forth from him undying strains of music.

He lives to inspire every Portuguese in his wonderful lines, so full of art, beauty and pathos. Till the last strophe, Camoes is as thoroughly conversant with his subject as he is sublime in his music and is as ardent in genius and as vigorous is his phrases as he is in his daring, heedless bravery. The disasters and misfortunes into which fate led him wandering Com pobreza aborrecida Por hospicios alheios degradado With hateful poverty Exiled to distant inns Canto VII.

It is also the description of the founding of a vast empire in the romantic East. LX : Este, por haver fama sempiterna, Mais do que tentar pode homem terrcno Tentou, que foi buscar da roxa Aurora Os terminos, que eu vou buscando agora. Ventured, who sought those bounds of kindly morn.

Which I go seeking, this my voyage-bourne. I, Canto IV. Dali vao em demanda da agua pura, Que causa inda serd de larga historia, Do Indo, pelas ondas do Oceano, Onde nao se atreveo passar Trajano. Canto IV, Est. Through Spain and France they hold their venProus sway. Translation by Mickle. Covilhan then returned to Ethiopia, where he was kept a prisoner. He was alive in Custar-te-hemos com tudo dura guerra, Mas, insistindo tu, por derradeiro.

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Thou shalt lay bonds on all thou seest here. But both within a moment disappear ; Manuel awakes Translated by J. They sailed on their adventurous path along the coast of Africa towards the East till they reached the shores of Melinde where India's ocean laved the orient shores of gold. Quern erao? Ou que partes do mar corrido tinhao? A feasting cheery all the guests inquired in Arab language, whence had come their hosts? Who were they? Where their land? What they desired? What seas their keels had cut and conned what coasts?

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Translation by Richard F. Burt on. Canto VI, Est. Amid such fierce extremes of Fear and Pain, Such grievous labours, perils lacking name, whose fair Honour waveth aye shall gain, Man's true nobility, immortal Fame. Burton's translation. This description shows how thoroughly conversant ihe poet was with the geography and history of India where he had passed so many years. The river Ganges is described in several places, but the sacred property which it possesses in the eyes of the Hindus, is particularly mentioned in Canto X, Est.

If to the stream the breathless corpse be given, They deem the spirit wings her way to heaven. Hum so m, a quern tinha muito amor, Despois que tudo deu, se Ihe apresenta : Pera este Calecut somente fica, Cidade ja por trato nobre e rica. Isto feito, se parte dilligcnte Pera onde em sancta vida acabe c ande. E daqui fica o nome de potente Samorim, mais que todos digno e grande, Ao mogo e descendentes, donde vem Este que agora o imperio manda e tcm.

But as this region there and then was sought by other races from the Arab Bight, who Mahometic worship with them brought ; — the same my parents planted in my sprite,— it hapt their wisdom and their prayers so wrought upon the Perimal ; and lit such light that to the Faith convert with fervour high, he only hoped a Saint in it to die.

Only one youth, for whom warm love he bore, when all was parted, did himself present : nothing save Calecut for him remained, which, by her traffick, wealth and rank had gained. Dous modos h4 de gente, porque a nobre Naires chamados sao e a menos dina Poleas tem por nome, a quern obriga A lei nao misturar a casta antiga. Desta sorte o Judaico povo antigo Nao tocava na gente de Samaria. Canto VII, Est. XVII Mickle. To crown their meal no meanest life expires, Pulse, fruit, and herbs alone their board requires.

But he was imbued with the same Christian spirit as his compatriots, and he expresses his deep religious conviction that the conversion of the people was of even more importance than the founding of the Empire : Deos por certo vos tras, porque pretende Algum servigo seu, por vos obrado ; Por isso so vos guia e vos defende Dos imigos, do mar, do vento irado. God, God hath brought you : he hath sure some grand And special business for you to do. For this alone he leads you by the strong hand, Through foes, seas, storms and with a heavenly clue. Translation by Richard Fanshawe. His lament on the alleged martyrdom of St.

Thom6, by Pope Paul IV in Pedimos-te que a Dcus ajuda pe9as. Com que os teus Lusitanos favoregas Canto X, Est. Wept Gange and Indus, true Thome! But Angels waiting at the Paradise-gate Meet thee with smiling faces, hymning God. We pray thee, pray that still vouchsafe thy Lord Unto thy Lusians His good aid afford. Translation by Burton. No recostado gesto se assinala Hum venerando e prospero senhor ; Hum panno de oiro cinge, e na cabe9a De preciosas gemmas se adere9a. Lordly his posture, and his brow serene.

No bard of ancient or modern times was ever so intensely national, since the days of Homer, so hon- oured and beloved by his countrymen. It will also serve as an interesting link for all the ages to come, between Portugal and the romantic eastern lands over which she held sway for almost a century. Among other poets of this period who have written about India, there is Jeronimo Corte-Real, Jeronimo Corte-Real.

He was the admiral of a fleet in the seas of India where he fought about , returning a short time after to Lisbon where we know he was in Anno de Year of It consists of twenty-one cantos. It was printed in Lisbon in There is only one copy of this edition, which exists in the Bibliotheca Nacional of Lisbon. In the opinion of critics, this poem has value on account of the profusion and beauty of its similes, which are almost always striking and original ; and on account of its pen pictures which reveal in the poet a decided gift for poetry of a descriptive kind.

Joao que se perdeo no Cabo da Boa Esperancja, na terra do Natal. E a pere- grinafao q. Lianor de Sa, his wife and children, coming from India to this kingdom in the large Galley called S. Joao which was lost off the Cape of Good Hope, in Natal. Also the journey which they had made, in passing around more than leagues of lands of Kaffirs until their death.

A copy of this edition is in the Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. This poem is composed of seventeen cantos. The death of D. Lianor and the bitter grief of her husband are delineated with a master hand. Camoes has treated of the same subject in his Lusiadas, in Canto V. Corte-Real, nobleman and soldier, has much value as a poet and a painter of Indian scenes, yet he cannot rank with Camoes. He never had to pass through the trials of the less fortunate but more brilliant poet, for his life was always spent in pleasant surroundings, in the company of admiring friends.

Librarian of the Torre do Tombo Francisco de Andrade. Coimbra It is a poem divided into twenty cantos, well written in an elegant style. It contains a vivid description of the manner in which Sultan Bahadur Shah of Cambay met his death and this work is considered by critics to be among the best poems of the second class.

There is only one copy of it which is in the Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. A dramatist and play-wright of the period who showed Indian influence in one of cen e. He had quite early in life a place at Court. For more than thirty years he continued to write plays at the Court of Dom Manoel and of Dom Joao III where he was a noble figure, declaiming against all that was base in the ruling classes of the kingdom.

This play is composed of two parts; it was written to celebrate Christmas and was played before the King D. Joao III, in Payo Vaz judged by this that it was best to dismiss the shepherdess, Mofina Mendes, and in payment of what he owed her gave her a pot of oil. These when sold would bring more than a million reis and thus she would be able to marry a rich and honourable man.

And the day I am married I shall come out arrayed In a scarlet shawl. And before the bridegroom Who will be making love to me 1 shall come from inside the house dancing Thus, dancing this way And singing this song. Will end, as it did, in the ground. It should be noted that the dialogue of Payo Vaz with Mofina Mendes has no relation to the principal subject of the play and so it appears to have been inserted only to capture the attention of the hearers and to inculcate a moral lesson.

The original Sanscrit text of the Panchatantra and its Pehlvi translation are lost, but two ancient notable tmnslations, have been preserved — one in Syriac and the other in Arabic. The Arabic translation was written in the 8th. From it, a Hebrew translation was written in and another in Castillian about Then D. Joao Manuel —1 , the father of Queen D. Constanta, wife of D. Johannes Hertel, Cambridge, Mass. However, this similarity cannot be considered as a direct influence of the Sanscrit text of the Pancha- tantra, for this work was known in Europe only after its first impression in Joao Manuel; but it is more than likely that it was the last one.

The hero goes to India, leaving in Lisbon his wife, who in fidelity, does not appear to resemble Penelope.

Fomos ao rio da Meca, Pelejamos e roubamos, E muito risco passamos, A vela e arvore secca. We went to the river of Meca, We fought and we pillaged, And we ran much risk With sails flying, and furled.


Be quiet and you will see How elegantly you will turn out. It was the first of his productions and was received with great enthusiasm by all his contemporaries. It really shows great dramatic talent. Our distinguished writer, Aubrey F. Bell, reprinted it in Lisbon in The letter is remarkably well written and with such naturalness that it seems authentic. The brother of Silvia recounts the troubles of his journey, refers with a sneer to Indian girls, promises her to make a fortune to support her and bring her honour, and in the end sends her news for her to give to his acquaintances — to a supposed aunt, Briolanja Soares, he sends the message that her son went to the Maidive Islands, where he made money; to an imaginary Constanta Dornellas, he says that her husband had left for China and sold at great profit in Malacca the merchandise that he took with him.

The entire letter is very valuable, and very much more significant than if it were a bona-fide letter, for it presupposes hundreds of similar letters, whose existence authorised the artist — and Jorge Ferreira was a real artist — to introduce it as a feature of the epoch in a comedy of manners and customs. We do not know the date of his birth or death, but we do know that he lived in It is an account of the countries bordering on the Indian Ocean and their inhabitants. He gives an interesting description of the kingdom of Guzerate in which he tells us about the Baneanes. Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon.

That's it. Build your family tree online ; Share photos and videos Moonspell is een Portugeesn Gothic metal band, ountstoan in uut Morbid God. Ook leidt hij sinds wedstrijden in de Primeira Liga. It was released as a single. Moonspell is a Portuguese gothic metal band formed in Complete Luz Casal Biography. Dia bermain untuk Renofa Yamaguchi FC. Medlemmar Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? The band's press release cited Bathory, King Diamond, Onslaught, early Metallica, Testament, and Artillery as influences for Alpha Noir, which was described as "an incendiary album".

Extinct is the tenth full-length album by the Portuguese gothic metal band Moonspell, released on March 6, , in several versions with a different cover for each jewel case, LTD deluxe box, mediabook, Gatefold LP. Miguel Ferreira was born on May 7, in Lisbon, Portugal. Cadastre-se no LinkedIn Resumo.

Akhirnya, kesepakatan dicapai pada tanggal 15 April, pada pencalonan Pedro Klamar Fuik sebagai kepala staf baru. This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors. The band performance takes place amidst tall, dead timber with gusts of wind blowing for greater effect.

Jump to. Played out like a trailer to a horror film, it includes various elements such as exorcism and magic. Working Skip trial 1 month free. It premiered on 20 March , replacing Tempo de Amar, and concluded on 24 September The album is characterised by a more experimental approach than their previous material, incorporating many elements of electronic music and industrial metal.

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Filmografie Televiziune. Showing official release groups by this artist. Wolfheart No ano de na Brandoa, na cidade da Amadora surgiam os Morbid God, uma banda ainda inexperiente, sem bons instrumentos e sem um bom local para ensaiar. The song is performed by Miyu Innoue. Birthday: Cesario fight video, highlights, news, Twitter updates, and fight results. Find out why Close. Suddenly, the head of the serpent appeared in a doorway at the other end of the room and began to expel the boys through its flaming mouth.

The boys had had their clothing soaked in alcohol and so they emerged in flames. The momos then danced until supper was served. For the attribution of this work to Pedro de Escavias, see Carriazo's introduction pp. Like many entremeses, it leads up to, and in this case includes, a tournament, and thus can serve as an example of the elaborate dramatic frames that developed for tournaments in the fifteenth century.

Like the momos this spectacle involves disguising and probably ended in social dancing. I n a n entertainment c o m p o s e d by S a n n a z a r o for t h e marriage of C o s t a n z a d'Avalos a n d Federico del Balzo before t h e Olympian gods presented symbolic gifts t o t h e bride. Torraca, "Sacre Rappresentazioni del N a p o l e t a n o " , in Studi di storia letteraria napoletana Livorno, , p. Pereira Lisboa, , II, p. T h e chronicle reads as follows: Indeed, in most entertainments of this type, the distinction between "actor" and "spectator" is blurred. It is this very porosity of the dramatic court entertainment, this Carriazo, Hechos, pp.

For the Epiphany festivities of the Condestable and his family were seated in their sala after dinner and watched as people representing the Virgin Mary, the Child Jesus, and Joseph entered the room. Then the Condestable himself and two pages left the sala, disguised themselves as the three kings, and re-entered bearing gifts, which they offered to the Holy Family.

Alfonso is thus at once a spectator and a mute actor, since each speech is directed to him.

The birth of a theater: dramatic convention in the Spanish theater

During the series of momos that celebrated the Christmas holidays at the Portuguese court in , each successive group of masked courtiers danced with the ladies of the court, who were thus alternately spectators and participants. The Condestable and the hundred Christian knights, for example, are in a sense playing themselves.

They are not "acting", for their behavior in this theatrical role is identical to their theoretical role in medieval society as defenders of Christendom. The fifteenth century abounds in examples of people who place themselves in literary roles or in "theatrical" situations. For the tournament in general, see F. James who approached the passo was obliged either to fight or to forfeit a piece of armor and his right spur. He had a puente erected in one of the plazas of the city and challenged any knight who might try to cross over the bridge. This consisted of a cage, that symbolized a prison, in which there was a statuette of himself with a sword piercing the heart and the hands in chains.

Kingsley Porter Cambridge, Mass. These circumstances correspond to the entry of the two "Moorish" emissaries into the Condestable's sala. While the element of surprise may often be theoretical, in this case it is probable that those members of the family and household who were assembled in the hall were unaware of the pageant that was being prepared for them by the knights. It may also be noted that this entertainment freely accepts the events it enacts as occurring in the very time and space of the enactment.

The spectators are not required to imagine that what they see before them is occurring somewhere else or in a time different from the present, nor must they pretend that they themselves have been transported to some other place or time. The combination of the theoretically unexpected arrival of the entertainers and the fact that they often wore strange or exotic costumes gave the person who invented the "plot" of their playlet the opportunity to imagine that they had come from some far-away land to this very court for such and such a reason.

As mentioned above, for one of the entertainments that graced the Condestable's wedding celebration, a group of costumed pages entered the sala and claimed to be a "gente de ynota luenga tierra". At her entrance the lady showed that she was aware of being in the present time and space of her audience when she said: See the Chronique de Mathieu d'Escouchy, ed.

The work begins as an angel appears and says: The planets then enter and begin to praise Isabella. The serpent is then made to come into the space of the spectators so that they can witness the liberation of the pages. In the momo that Princess Isabella put on for the birthday of her brother Prince Alfonso, she and eight other ladies pretend to be the Muses who have traveled from Helicon to visit him.

They explain their strange costumes by the fact that they had asked the gods to change them into birds so that they might endure the perils of such a long journey. Moreover, since the feathered Muses claim to have been attracted by the virtue and greatness of Alfonso, the lack of dramatic illusion with regard to time and space is made to serve a panegyrical purpose. Musical expression furnishes many examples of this phenomenon. Reese, Music in the Renaissance, rev. New York, , pp.

Similarly, as mentioned above, when the Holy Family makes a most flattering visit to his banquet hall, the Condestable welcomes them and seats them on the raised platform where he and his family are seated. Then he himself plays the role of one of the three kings and pays them homage. Two other angels served his food. At the end of the meal the cloud descended again, and the angel offered the king fruit and a cup of wine.

As the king entered the room, the wheels on which some of the costumed entertainers were standing began to turn, the angels played on their instruments, and all the rest of the figures began to sing hymns in honor of the coronation. Many are knights, and as such it is their duty to defend Christendom against the Moors and to wage war against all infidels.

Henry IV did make six large-scale military incursions into the kingdom of Granada in the period , but little was achieved in completing the Reconquista. Elliott remarks that the king considered the crusade "as a useful pretext for extracting money from his subjects under papal auspices", a reference to the bulls of the cruzada that the Pope had authorized the Crown to sell to finance the Reconquista.

The Castilian nobles were violently opposed to such indirect tactics, and their growing opposition to the policies of Henry IV forced him to abandon the Reconquista a truce was signed in , two years before the Condestable's entertainment took place and to devote his time and efforts to domestic problems. Without gaining any major victories, he did engage in numerous skirmishes with his Moorish foes 51 and defended his territory against several Moorish Venezia, , pp. When Isabella of Bavaria entered Paris in , the procession came upon a representation of heaven with the Trinity and angels.

As the queen passed beneath, the gates of paradise opened and two angels came out and placed a crown on her head. See Oeuvres de Froissart, ed. See Carriazo, Hechos, pp. Thus, the Condestable's pageant, under the guise of entertainment, is also propaganda, an exhortation, to continue the Crusade against the Moors and to propagate the Faith. Political and religious propaganda also colored Fernando de Antequera's coronation festivities of One of the entertainments presented during the royal banquet consisted of an angel who descended in a cloud from the above-mentioned representation of heaven and sang the following message from the Holy Trinity: La iglesia de Dios a ti se encomienda creyendo ciertamente que le quitaras la cisma llevando al Sancto Padre alia dentro en Roma, sin toda falleciencia obedecerlo an con gran reverencia, e cesaran las cismas de aqui adelante.

The popular hope that is expressed in the banquet entertainment was never to be fulfilled, for Fernando was already under pressure from both France and the Emperor to withdraw his obedience from Benedict XIII, and he did so in The chronicler here translates from the original 'limosin'. Macdonald, Don Fernando de Antequera Oxford, , p. Speaking of Torres Naharro's Comedia Trophea, he recalls the belief among primitive societies that the proper representation of a desired event will result in its realization in reality.

A statue of the king with crown and scepter was placed on a high throne on top of a scaffold, and a long list of grievances was read. Don Juan Pacheco, the Marquis of Villena, took the scepter from his hand. Finally, several nobles removed the rest of the royal emblems and kicked the statue to the ground, shouting: And all Spain marvelled at this and gave thanks to God, "como les pareciese cosa que por manos de onbres no pudiese ser fecha".

The threat of civil war led to the famous Compromise of Caspe of 57 J. Huizinga, Homo ludens ; paperback reprint Boston, , pp. Scipio, Hannibal, and Alexander debated their relative merits before Minos, who eventually awarded the palm of victory to Scipio. In a Latin discourse Cyprien de Mer explained the allegory. Unfortunately, this magic action did not bring about the hoped-for result, for Naples fell to Alfonso on June 2, , after a siege of some six months.

The re-enactment magically confirms Godfrey's exploit, while at the same time anticipating the success of Charles V himself if he were to follow his predecessor's example and attempt a new Crusade the city of Jerusalem had been reconquered by the Saracens in The other pretenders to the throne did him homage, with the exception of the Count of Urgel, who rebelled in May of and shut himself up in his castle of Balaguer.

After a siege of three months, Balaguer fell,60 and Fernando felt his sovereignty established solidly enough to stage his coronation in February of Part of the coronation festivities included two entremeses that depicted the "highlights" of Fernando's rise to royal power. As the king left the cathedral following the coronation ceremony, he saw a town of wood resting on wheels, with men inside who defended themselves against other soldiers inside two smaller castles to the left and right of the town.

Siege-engines fired balls made of stuffed leather, while fireworks simulated gunfire. As if it were a representation of the Wheel of Fortune, one maiden rose as another fell, while on top of the tower was seated a child in royal robes who represented the triumphant Fernando de Antequera. In this case, as in that of the representation of the siege of Balaguer, the long-delayed coronation of Fernando is "confirmed" by the re-enactment of the two most important events that brought him to the throne.

A group of entertainers enters unexpectedly at least, in theory into the court from a doorway or pageant wagon and explain where they have come from and the reason for their strange disguises. Whatever action their playlet may consist of is understood to occur in the space of the court and in the present time of the spectators and participants. The "actors" may address members of the court directly, or the spectators may mingle with the actors. These "actors", while pretending to be someone else, are nevertheless also recognizable as their real selves, and their theatrical and real-life roles may coincide.

There is a kind of natural mixing of the sacred and the profane, both with regard to the themes of the entertainments and the type of entertainment suited to a given occasion. Nevertheless, one might say that these playlets are seldom mere entertainment. The fact that they are tied so closely to the circumstances of their performance enables them to bear directly on their spectators and on their historical moment.

A secular personage may be flattered by his being placed in a divine context. The show may praise a certain spectator directly or indirectly, or may serve as a general exhortation to bring all the spectators to a certain persuasion. Finally, such entertainments may contain an element of anticipatory or confirmatory magic, designed either to bring about a desired effect or to celebrate something already achieved.

Such festivities become more elaborate and more sumptuous and expand into the area of the civic celebration, but internally they retain the characteristics of the fifteenth-century pageants discussed in this chapter. It should be kept in mind that this continuing tradition of court and civic entertainments made their conventions available to generations of playwrights throughout the gestation of the comedia.

Lope de Vega himself participated in such festivities and later wrote accounts of them. Rosell Madrid, , pp. Playing a role analogous to that of Princess Isabella when she functioned as the "presenter" in the mumming for Prince Alfonso, Gil Vicente enters and delivers an introductory speech of praise. Gil Vicente, Obras completas, ed. Marques Braga, I Lisboa, , p. A similar idea of gift-giving animates Encina's first eclogue, in which the shepherd Juan presents some of his verses probably the second eclogue to the Duchess of Alba. The magically confirmatory obeisance of the Eastern kings, the presentation of gifts, the praising of the monarch, and the flattering prognostications are all ingredients encountered in the entertainments of the fifteenth century.

The presentation of the gifts in Act IV is analogous to the many Christmas plays in which gifts are presented to the Child Jesus. The fact that the rustics who present these gifts have appeared previously in Act II, where they Sweep the floor of the room in which the wowo-like succeeding acts will take place, suggests that the Trophea is really a comedia about the staging of a momo, a kind of proto-play within a play.

Hart Madrid, , p. Gillet, II Bryn Mawr, , pp. In the Coloquio de las damas valencianas c. The conversation, singing, and dancing are interrupted by the arrival of a rey de armas, who challenges the five knights to combat five other knights, whom he represents. The challenge is accepted as the play closes, and a tournament presumably followed. Just as some plays took over the functions of fifteenth-century entertainments by serving as frames for courtly social rituals, other dramatic works imitated the structure of such entertainments.

Such was the case of the Portuguese Christmas momos of in which successive groups of masked courtiers entered the great hall of the palace and danced with the ladies in the audience. Shergold notes the structural similarity between the momos and the pairs of lovers who come to the forge of love in Gil Vicente's Fragua de amor , for "the characters of the play itself come to the castle and its forge of love to be 'remedied', much as the mummers of come to the Queen for release from their sorrows". Ferreres Madrid, , pp.

In his Fragua de Amor the forge and some of the actors emerge from a castle that was probably wheeled into the hall. Let us now examine certain specific parallels between the early peninsular drama and the court festivity, giving special emphasis to the persistence in many plays of the principal characteristics of the entertainments discussed in chapter III. But at the same time, references to biblical place names and contemporary allusions give these plays an ambiguous spatial dimension.

Similarly, one finds a flexible time scheme in which the action is at once the reenactment of sacred history and the actual event taking place in the present. In the light of chapter III, one can see how this scheme is analogous to that of court entertainments, whose action is nearly always restricted to taking place in the very space where the court is assembled, while from a temporal viewpoint, such entertainments seem to take place in the present time of the spectators.

The entry of a given group of entertainers into the Condestable's sala is analogous to the entry of Encina's shepherds into the Duke of Alba's sala. In both cases the sala remains the major playing space for the dramatic action. In the Rappresentazione allegorica of Serafino de' Ciminelli dall'Aquila, performed at the court of Mantua in , La Virtute explains how she has come to the specific space of the court: The witch who enters the court at the beginning of Gil Vicente's Auto das Fadas?

Space of actor and space of spectators also coincide in the similar O Juiz da Beira , in which a rural judge, accused by his enemies of handing down irregular decisions, has come to the palace to hold court so that the king himself may witness his probity. The performance probably took place in a room in the palace at Coimbra, but there is no textual indication that the action of the play is taking place anywhere else than in a wild outdoor spot until shortly before the end of the play.

Menghini Bologna, , I, p. Mingo, the shepherd who speaks for Encina in the eighth eclogue, pretends to be embarrassed to enter the sala where his patrons are seated. He is finally persuaded to abandon his fears, and he greets the Duke and Duchess, offering them a copy of his collected works. Craik, The Tudor Interlude Leicester, , pp. After the play proper has begun, they decide to join in the stage action and become servants to two of the characters in the main plot. In The Pardoner and the Friar c.

Farmer London, ; reprint New York, , pp. The French Farce nouvelle de Legier d'argent begins as a servant pretends to clear the way through the spectators for his master, also asking them to remove their hats. In the Farce du Goguelu from the same collection the characters sing a song and then ask the audience for alms Ibid. Torraca's edition in his Studi di storia letteraria napoletana Livorno, , p. Later, the magician breaks into praises of the sovereign Ibid. Kohler, Sieben spanische dramatische Eklogen Dresden, , p.

At the end of the play actors and spectators join in singing the villancico whose text they have all received. Near the end of the play Mars tells Jupiter that they must make the Moura Taes appear: As part of the festivities celebrating the coronation of Martin I at Zaragoza in , an angel appeared in the banquet hall and scattered colored papers among the guests from a cloud. The papers contained verses in honor of the occasion. The theme is of particular interest because it apparently was the basis for a fairly common type of court entertainment.