Moreover they declared that objective explanation is totally impossible as there is no single way of interpreting material culture. This approach towards ethnicity in the past instigated research focusing either on its role in the construction of economic and political relationships or the association between material culture and ethnic symbolism. In 6 Binford ; Renfrew ; and Jones , Thus, it can create fixed images, cause inconsistency and misconception and provoke theoretical discussions and reassessments.
This is due to the rhetorical nature of humanities. After having uncovered, recorded, classified and studied their material, archaeologists are expected to produce texts about it. Publishing excavated material is an essential task that facilitates its communication to an audience, as well as data recording and storage. As such, it is quite technical in nature. Indeed, plenty of archaeological discussion has been devoted to terminological issues in association with certain classes of material, mostly ceramics.
Besides publication, this type of standardised terminology is generally utilised in classificatory studies and stylistic analyses. This is so since putting together an archaeological narrative constitutes the object of a procedure incorporating social, political, ideological, cultural and emotional parameters reflecting the context in which it took place. Leriou Hellenized Cyprus 25 disursive index through which, and by which, historical events are mediated. Beyond simply delineating events, narrative actually simulates that which it refers to, because it is an outcome of the same type of occurrences as those that lie behind the events and experiences that are accorded a place in history.
The way in which archaeologists go about writing up the objects and events of archaeology is caught up within this same process. In dealing with a past that is absent, archaeologists constitute the material worthy of representation.
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An analogous, though not identical, situation may be observed with regard to researchers originating from areas that have acted as initiators of processes such as those mentioned above. I chose this narrative as a case study, as its earliest appearance goes back to the middle of the 19th century. Consequently, its development through the last sixteen decades reflects all major stages in the development of theoretical archaeological thought. Setting the stage: the archaeological narrative of the Mycenaean colonisation of Cyprus It has already been mentioned that the earliest version of the narrative generally known as the Mycenaean colonisation of Cyprus goes back to the first half of the 19th century.
Since then, it has been gradually developed, modified and refined in the light of new archaeological discoveries and as a result of novel research methods and theoretical approaches. Despite the objections and criticism expressed by many scholars lately,20 this narrative remains widely accepted, while only a limited number of researchers have produced differentiated versions. It is used in a purely conventional manner, as it constitutes the earliest and most widely used term employed by historians and archaeologists in order to define the cultural phenomenon in question.
Leriou Hellenized Cyprus 27 influxes of Aegeans in Cyprus. The first one occurred immediately after the fall of the Mycenaean palaces during the 12th century and is substantiated by considerably large quantities of locally produced MycIIIc:1b style pots. The second, definitely more extensive Aegean wave took place during the first half of the 11th century and is thought to be attested by: a.
The introduction of a new tomb-type bearing close affinities to Mycenaean graves. Many Mycenaean elements in the shape- and decoration- repertory of the of the Proto-White Painted ceramic style, that appeared at the beginning of 11th century Late Cypriot IIIb. The introduction of the Greek language. The first wave of newcomers has been associated with the activity of the Sea Peoples, which is thought to be substantiated by a series of destructions in almost all Late Bronze Age centres.
Furthermore the newcomers are held responsible for the subsequent establishment of new sites during the 11th century. These coincide more or less with the capitals of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, which according to a set of foundation myths were founded by Greek heroes that came to Cyprus after the Trojan War. Consequently, the 11th century has been regarded as the beginning of a long and extremely significant procedure: the hellenisation of Cyprus. Some scholars 25 This summary is based on Karageorghis a; Karageorghis b; Karageorghis ; ; Karageorghis b; Karageorghis a; b: ; Iacovou ; Iacovou ; Iacovou ; Iacovou ; Iacovou a; Iacovou b; Iacovou and Iacovou Some seven centuries later Pausanias reported that Paphos was established by Agapenor, the legendary king of Tegea, who was driven to the western coast of Cyprus by a storm while on his way home after the sack of Troy 8.
Several similar references describing the foundation of the Cypriot kingdoms by Greek heroes after the Trojan War may be found in the texts of various Greek and Roman authors the latest being Stephanos Byzantios. Thus, 19th century historians described the Aegean movement as a colonising one and the cities established by the newcomers as colonies. Myres and Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, undertaking excavations on the island during the final decades of the 19th century. It is the very same activity that had 35 Casevitz , and Hadjiioannou 48 no. After all, most of the excavators of Cyprus during the last quarter of the 19th century were of British nationality.
As a result, these researchers believed deeply in the superiority of the Greeks, which would have made the colonisation of Cyprus a simple venture. Consequently, they paid special emphasis on the Aegeanising material, the presence of which was attributed to the Mycenaean colonisation of the island, by that time a widely established historical fact. Einar Gjerstad, the head of the Swedish Cyprus Expedition has outlined the basic characteristic of the post-colonisation society as follows: The Mycenaean colonists and conquerors were the lords of the country, but the descendants of the Late Bronze Age inhabitants, whom we may call the Eteocyprians, formed the majority of the population, and for some time parts of the island still remained entirely Eteocyprian.
No foundation legends refer to cities in the interior of the island or to places on the south coast between Kourion in the West and Salamis in the East. Eteocyprian cities at least down to the Classical period. For the Eteocypriots see Leriou and Given ; moreover, see the various comments and responses to Given by Y. Hamilakis, P.
Van Dommelen, N. Silberman and P. Saint-Cassia in Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 11 1 : Leriou Hellenized Cyprus 31 definitely arrived.
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As they could not have possibly been mighty conquerors, they must had come as refugees fleeing the disasters in the Aegean. Thus, the term immigration was introduced. This was evident in the appearance of many studies investigating classes of material characterised by a fusion of Aegean and LBA Cypriot stylistic elements. This is particularly so, as almost none of the researchers discussing the Aegean presence in Cyprus has so far explained the reasons for choosing any term over the others and subsequently defined this particular term in an exact and clear way before dealing with the actual narrative.
The use of this characterisation has been more systematic since the early s, when an 11th century inscription in Greek was discovered at Palaepaphos;56 it constitutes the earliest example of the Greek language on the island. Demetriou has gone as far as stretching this term to describe the cultural assimilation of the Phoenicians by the supposedly fully hellenised population of EIA Cyprus! Their interaction with the native population resulted in the development of the Mycenaean civilisation.
Salaminians, Arcadians, Argives. Excavated remains from the 12thth centuries are fragmentary and rather limited, thus allowing ample space for assumptions and hypotheses. She maintains that ethnicity is employed by most researchers to describe a certain level of group identity, which is usually vaguely defined and therefore unclear.
Furthermore when archaeologists or anthropologists do attempt to define these terms, their definitions slide into the essentially political concepts and preoccupations of relatively recent history. As a result, I would like to conclude this paper by stressing the need to take some time and clarify our terminology, before starting to use it, and most importantly, before putting any of it in print.
As objectivity is 70 Iacovou 53; Iacovou ; Catling ; Karageorghis ; Karageorghis a: ; Karageorghis a: 13 and Karageorghis Leriou Hellenized Cyprus 35 practically impossible to obtain within the field of a humanistic discipline made by people, for people like archaeology, providing a clear definition for each of the proposed terms will I hope leave no space for confusion and misunderstanding. In regard to the Mycenaean colonisation of Cyprus, my attempt to produce and utilise a well-defined set of terms enabled me to work through the complex semantic web that was outlined in the previous sections; moreover, it allowed me to adopt an alternative, much wider point of view.
My ideas concerning the nature and extent of the Aegean movement to Cyprus at the end of the Late Bronze Age have been presented elsewhere. On the other hand, politically charged terms such as occupation, or the even more explicit hellenisation have to be altogether abandoned. Furthermore the use of settlement should be strictly confined to the designation of the establishment of people as resident at a particular place and not extend as far as processes like community or colony formation after migration.
Consequently, characterisations such as colonists, immigrants, refugees may not be used when referring to the people, who are generally thought to have moved to the island of Cyprus around the end of the Late Bronze Age, while the use of the term settlers should be in accordance with the above definition for settlement. Moreover, terms such as newcomers, incomers or arrivals are by all means preferable. Therefore the geographic Aegean people, where Aegean includes the Aegean archipelago and the surrounding lands, namely mainland Greece, Crete and the western coast of Turkey74, seems more appropriate.
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