A cultural psychology perspective extends the notion of collective beyond individual experience to consider the extent to which psychological processes are mediated through material or ecological manifestations of mind. Observers propose that this sense of community is difficult to accomplish in the abstract, and instead requires corresponding ecological manifestations or cultural tools e.
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With respect to the topic of memory, this approach emphasizes that understandings of the past are not the sole property of atomized individual minds, but develop through engagement with commemoration practices, cultural products, and other cultural tools for memory. On one hand, the reference to intentionality highlights the directed character of cultural worlds. Humans do not inhabit a neutral or indifferent nature, but instead inherit cultural worlds invested with a psychological charge over iterations of activity as people selectively re produce features that resonate with their beliefs and desires about what is true and good.
On the other hand, the reference to intentionality highlights the directive character of cultural worlds. Cultural practices and products carry their psychological charge to exert influence on new generations of sometimes unwitting actors beyond the original context of their creation. From this perspective, the collective character of the memory process refers not simply to the storage and distribution of information across individual actors, but more importantly to the extent to which cultural tools for collective memory mediate social influence and motivational force to new contexts of collective activity.
To illustrate this point, consider the issue of intentionality and motivation with respect to commemoration. Implicit in these commemoration practices is a psychological charge that resonates with the beliefs and desires of previous actors: for example, a sense of anger associated with a desire for vengeance or a sense of anxiety associated with a desire for vigilance. In many cases of hegemonic commemoration where the collective motivation is conscious or explicit, a person may be able to effectively resist the directive force associated with the practice.
In many other cases where the collective motivation is less explicit, people are likely to attune their responses to the affordances or directive force inherent in the commemoration practice. Chief among the moral goods or motivations inherent in national commemoration practices are beliefs and desires about national identity. An abundance of research dating at least from William James has described the bi-directional relationship between memory and identity. In one direction, people draw upon past personal experience to construct and maintain a coherent sense of self Pasupathi, Although most of the research has considered the bidirectional relationship between autobiographical memory and personal identity, social and political psychologists have extended the focus to consider the bidirectional relationship between collective memory and social identity.
In one direction, people draw upon understandings of the collective past to construct a sense of collective identity: an experience of imagined community Anderson, with people who are otherwise distant in time and space. Collective memory affords identity stories or coherent narratives that provide both a sense of continuity across a disjointed collective past and a sense of direction that points beyond the present and projects into the collective future McAdams, In the other direction, people re-member—in the sense of both recall and reconstruct—the collective past in ways that resonate with their current beliefs and desires e.
Moreover, given the extent to which collective memory narratives project into the future and direct collective action e. In sum, commemorations are not simply an occasion to remind people about the past events upon which they are based. Instead, each instance of commemoration provides an opportunity to collectively reconstruct the meaning of past events in ways that resonate with present-day identity concerns, including new cases of intergroup conflict. In turn, these collective reconstructions provide an opportunity to direct motivations for belligerence and vigilance beyond original perpetrators to new outgroup targets who are otherwise unrelated to the source of collective victimization.
The present research considers these ideas in the context of two experiments that we conducted shortly after the 14 th anniversary of the attacks in September Participants then completed dependent measures concerning a potential case of intergroup conflict. The current work extends this research in two important ways.
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Especially as years pass and society fills with people who do not have direct experiential memory of September 11, , reminders about engagement make salient the collectively constructed meanings attached to commemoration practices in the intervening period including of the ongoing trail of responses that continue to unfold in the present. Second, the current studies extend consideration of consequences for intergroup relations to a new target unrelated to the original event. Parties started negotiations in February , and they settled on terms in July The agreement was subject to nullification in the U.
At first glance, our selection of the JCPA as a case of intergroup relations may seem strange. Accordingly, we did not select this case of intergroup relations because of any inherent connection to the original events. Instead, we did so in anticipation of the possibility that—as Bush did in his address at the U. The design of the both studies permitted the test of two hypotheses. We recruited participants Participants received 1 USD as compensation for their completion of an online survey. We randomly assigned participants to one of two conditions.
Briefly describe your life on that day Friday, September 11, To the extent that engagement was instead a coincidental byproduct of action for some other purpose, one can understand effects of commemoration as the product of collective intention mediated through cultural practices rather than individual intention. The Gallup poll conducted surveys of public opinion during the JCPA negotiations throughout most of and We adapted four items from these polls to assess vigilance and suspicion regarding the deal, particularly the notion that the JCPA would facilitate the development and deployment of nuclear weapons.
The Long Road Home: Memories of September 11th by Joann B Namorato (Paperback / softback, 2002)
We computed the mean of ratings for the Bin Laden and Taliban items and the Khatami and Khamenei items to serve as respective indicators of accurate and false Iran-relevant beliefs. Participants used a scale from 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree to rate the extent to which they agreed with four items that we adapted from a measure of collective identification Cameron, I did. I went to our neighborhood pool where we have grills and I grilled a ton of chicken and beef and drank beer all day long to celebrate my labor.
I did attend a barbeque with neighbors which was nice and Presidential politics were discussed. Other than that it was routine. I went to a family barbecue. I talked to family and friends who were invited. Other than that, I did nothing else special that day. I drank during the day, which was a nice change of pace. But I basically saw it as a three-day weekend and treated it like it was just another day.
On Labor Day, I gathered with my family for a picnic. Rather than celebrate the true meaning of Labor Day, it was used to celebrate the unofficial end of Summar sic. We dined outside on our deck and bonded as a family. I did not do anything special on Labor day other than display an American flag on my front porch. We had a high school football game to attend. We participated in a moment of silence before the game. This year, I did not do anything that day. I did everything as I normally would besides watching the movies based on the Sept 11 attacks.
When I put my Flag out in the morning I made sure it was at Half staff.
And that was about it and I reflected where I was on that day. I did not do anything special. I did have a couple of brief discussions about the victims and the war on terror. I walked with my dog along the road quite a ways and said some silent prayers. I joined in on a moment of silent at my son's school on that morning.
I also gave some thought throughout the day about the individuals lost, the families still suffering, and where I was on the day 14 years ago. I went to my job in a school and the rest of my day was normal except in school, the entire school sang the national anthem at In some cases, participants reported conscious or intentional decisions to engage in relatively private or personal but still very social or collective forms of commemoration practice e.
In other cases, participants reported conscious or intentional decisions to engage in relatively public or collaborative forms of commemoration practice e. Most interesting for current purposes, participants also reported that they encountered forms of commemoration practice in the course of their everyday activity often without any mention of any personal intention or deliberate plan to do so.
These examples illuminate the collaborative process of collective memory. Horizontal bars represent unadjusted means. Results provided evidence for hypothesized effects of the manipulation on both outcomes of interest. Landau et al. We then used these responses about collaboration to test a corollary to the primary hypotheses in the form of a moderation effect.
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They received 1 USD as compensation for completion of an online survey. We randomly assigned participants to one of two conditions in an order manipulation. As in Study 1, some participants reported conscious or deliberate decisions to engage in commemoration practice, whether of a private and personal e. Most interesting for current purposes, other participants again reported that they encountered forms of commemoration practice in the course of their everyday activity without any mention of personal intention to do so.
Participants mentioned moments of silence at various public events e. These examples again illuminate the collaborative character of collective remembering as a process that occurs across individual minds. Then i realized that that is why history channel had the show on. We remembered how scary it was and what we did to stay calm. I always take time out that day to pray for those who lost their lives that day as well as for their families.
I took my daughter, who is a member of the high school marching band, to a memorial that she was playing at. Posted rememberance sic memorabilia to social media sites and changed the profile pictures to indicate we should honor the memory of the Fallen and the families left behind. I changed my Facebook Pic to a picture of a half-mast flag with the two Rays of light in the background.
I did not really do anything special. My husband is in the Navy, when he went to work I went with him most of the other wives do the same and we all had a minute of silence at colors. I was a 19 year old kid sticken sic with disbelief as I watched a smoky skyscraper on fire. The horror only intensified when I watch an airplane slam into the building right next to it. That was truly a sad day. No, if I had a joint I would have smoked it, but no as stated I avoided the foul taste of the 11 September jingoism. Two coders who were blind to the experimental condition read all open-ended responses.
Coders assigned a score of 0 to participants whose responses suggested no commemoration e. Coders assigned a score of 1 to participants whose responses suggested low-level commemoration e. Finally, coders assigned a score of 2 to participants whose responses suggested engagement with high-level or more collaborative commemoration e. Results of the probe revealed the hypothesized pattern. The interaction between salience of commemoration and level of commemoration engagement, Study 2. Shaded bands represent standard errors. A probe of the interaction revealed that results were generally consistent with the hypothesized pattern, although simple effects of the manipulation at each level of commemoration engagement did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance.
Probes of these interactions indicated similar patterns as for attributions to Iranian sources. We consider this slight discrepancy across studies in the General Discussion. Results of Study 2 qualified results of Study 1 in a theoretically meaningful way. Additional Product Features Author s. Show more Show less. No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best-selling in Non Fiction See all. Kiyosaki , Mass Market Paperback The Secret by Rhonda Byrne Hardback, Save on Non Fiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days.
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The Long Road Home: Memories of September 11th by Joann B. Namorato
Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! That fateful September morning started out like any other. The skies were a gorgeous blue, nothing like the gray hell they would appear hours later. Joann Namorato was only working in Downtown Manhattan to help alleviate some of the costs of putting two of her three children through college.
Despite the financial ease that working in New York City would provide, she feared that a terrorist bombing like the one in would occur. However, after consulting with friends and family, she came to the conclusion that a second attack on the same location was highly unlikely. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join.