That this is my south-west discovery,. Per fretum febris , by these straits to die,. For, though their currents yield return to none,. What shall my west hurt me? As west and east. In all flat maps and I am one are one,. So death doth touch the resurrection. All straits, and none but straits, are ways to them,. Whether where Japhet dwelt, or Cham, or Shem.
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Christ's cross, and Adam's tree, stood in one place;. As the first Adam's sweat surrounds my face,. May the last Adam's blood my soul embrace. So, in his purple wrapp'd, receive me, Lord;. By these his thorns, give me his other crown;. And as to others' souls I preach'd thy word,. A range of disparate sources, including Sanskrit poems and treatises on rhetoric, Brajbhasha song texts and commentaries, as well as memories from the Persian tradition, uncover further intriguing signs of the reception contexts for riti literature.
Keshavdas says, that dynasty gave rise to King Bir of Gahadavala fame, Fearless in battle, an enemy of wayward times. He had a son named Karan — the very embodiment of virtue on earth. He conquered the entire world and made his home in Varanasi. Karan sponsored a pilgrimage place, known in the world after his name. He had a son named Arjunpal, who settled the village of Mahoni [in Bundelkhand]. He had a son named Sahanpal, [founder] of Garhkundar. Keshavdas says, his son was like Indra himself, a destroyer of enemies. Another is to be alert to references within texts that bring into view the importance of performance in the daily life of Indian courts.
The fingers of Rangray are the epitome of expertise. As soon as she touches the drum, the room comes to life with sound. They are perfectly synchronised, having mastered the study of music in tandem. The experts have expounded every theoretical aspect of music — Rangmurti reigns over them all, embodying perfection in her dance poses.
These courtesans are skilled in dancing, singing, and playing the vina. They are all studious [or: they all recite] and the incomparable Pravinray composes poetry. They are assumed to have been sung or chanted, 10 and to this day they comprise part of the kathak dance repertoire. The division of labour among these various court professionals is not always easy to fathom over the gulf of centuries, but a few details can be made out. And for Keshavdas the encounter with Sanskrit classics was through texts, not tellings: he knew them because he read them.
The assiduous copying of manuscripts and commentaries throughout the early modern period illustrates how readership was absolutely central to literary culture. Bells, cymbals, horns, pipes, and sitars played.
The city was bustling with kirtan in the towering temples. Some were listening to harilila , others were singing songs of Rama and Krishna. One would recite the Puranas, another would listen, yet another intoned the prescriptions of grammar. Still others were practicing mantras and teaching yoga. The opening frame story likens the text to a sermon quite literally a telling!
Another intended listener, as evident from the title as well as numerous panegyric poems, was Emperor Jahangir r. In the final scene Keshavdas mentions that the emperor enjoyed his work, purportedly addressing the poet with the following Braj doha couplet :. Abu, Aser, Avadh, Ang and Ashapuri, have established residence.
Note the long list-like quality of the passage, almost hypnotising with its heavy alliteration. Others, such as Arabia and Iraq, were part of a wider Muslim geographical imaginary. Place names like Anga Eastern Bihar and Sinhala modern Sri Lanka were not relevant Mughal administrative terms but instead hearken back to an ancient tradition of geopolitical description in kavya that gave expression to universalist political aims through representations of sovereigns claiming authority over all the Indian regions.
Employing virtuoso alliteration, Keshavdas cleverly assimilates both older and newer political paradigms to present Jahangir as supreme among kingly vassals in the style of a universal emperor maharajadhiraja from classical India.
Linking together a chain of epithets virudavali was another aural technique that Brajbhasha and Sanskrit poets used to express the power of their royal patrons. A second Agastya, he drank up the ocean of Rana Pratapa … A consummate crusher of enemy pride on the battlefield at Mau, A sun rising over the morning mountain of Amber, A lighting bolt striking the formidable, impenetrable forts of the Northern lands, Victory pillar on the battlefields of Khorasan, Thousand -armed Arjuna to the lifeblood of the Mirs of Khorasan … The embodiment of the strength of Shah Akbar, lord of Delhi … Long live lord of the Kurma dynasty, emperor among kings, Man Singh.
To be present in a royal assembly where such a list of epithets was intoned would have been to partake of the body politic in a symbolic but also profoundly experiential manner. Scholars have remarked on the ritual dimensions of courtly panegyric, an effective tool for political incorporation. Note how the expressive punch is handled entirely by performative features, from the brilliant alliteration to the sense of sheer plenty conjured up by the long, cantering list:. There were champa and jasmine flowers of magnificent form, groves of pines, Clusters of ketaki blooms, water lilies, screwpines, grand trumpet flowers, Lovely coral trees, basil, and jewel-bright jasmine.
Delectable citrus fruits, excellent betel nut, apples, and plums flourished. Jamuns, limes, figs, and copious orange apricots, Jackfruits, corindas, coconuts, large bels, and barhal trees. Khiranis, date palms, mimosas, milkhedge — countless in number are the varieties! I joyfully describe all the types of gardens and groves on the outskirts of the city. That English is an impoverished idiom when it comes to distinguishing subspecies of jasmine, limes, and other Indian flora is a trivial problem in comparison to how a silent written medium is unable to recapture the mood of an original that positively exploded with sounds.
Another is his social location, for, according to Gopalnarayan Bahura, Amrit Rai was probably from the Bhat community whose literary compositions had a special relationship to performance. Clever pandits , talented storytellers, and expert musicians bring lustre to the realm.
Read aloud, they bring to life the courtly salons of Mughal India, conjuring up the rhythms and whirls of a Kathak performance. The auditory experience of such luscious verses would have served to dramatically underscore this political point. Riled up with passion, the soldiers grabbed their fiercely gleaming swords. The entire battalion surged ahead to decimate the enemy forces. Fuses ignited, the canonnonballs exploded forth, lighting up the whole battlefield.
The [enemies] who were unscathed were filled with wrath; they sheltered in the forts, taking fright. Fearsome as the noose of death, they rushed forward in a wave. They leapt, roaring their battle cries, swelling with anger, Sparked with a passionate inner light, unwavering. Crazed with intensity they jostled, shields clanging. Guns blazed, arrows whirred by, and lances crashed together. Elephant bells jingled, bullets shot forth, and the nearby jungles echoed with sound. Cannons boomed, the earth trembled, as people everywhere were agitated.
Thanks to an abundance of guttural and geminate consonants, we hear the din and clamour of warfare, the metal-on-metal sound of swords and shields clashing; we see the terrifying cannonballs flashing through the sky; we feel the intensity of battle as soldiers dash into the fray, ready to fight to the death. These verses remind us that battlefields were soundscapes as well as landscapes and, in fact, martial styles of music and recitation were part of the very ambience of war. When warriors blow the conches, The Elephants who guard the cardinal points scatter in all directions.
The incessant rumble of the kettledrum resounds, riling up the soldiers. Martial odes blare forth, accompanied by music, proclaiming their might everywhere. The sound of the drums pervades the earth, fomenting anxiety in enemy kings. The rising percussive tempo booms like thunderclouds.
Wherever bards intone martial verse, they become excited and are eager to fight. Sometimes poets literally did double duty as singers. Rigorous immersion in poetics can indeed be considered comparable to musical training — musicians knew their ragas melodic modes , talas beat cycles , and would have memorised snatches of lyrics, while riti poets were highly trained practitioners of a sophisticated craft who sharpened their skill by mastering literary theory, which in India was considered a shastra or formal science. Expected to participate in poetry competitions and to present occasional verses, poets would have been prompted to recycle lines or to retool them for changing contexts.
Thus they, like musicians, developed repertoires. The technology of modern publishing makes repetitions easy to spot, but in premodern times patrons probably just assumed that a given panegyric was composed for him alone. The following kavitt by Keshavdas occurs with only very minor changes in two separate places in his collected works. Keshavdas outlines objects and concepts associated with the numbers one through ten before consolidating the lesson through two examples a companion poem treats the numbers from six to ten.
He has only two hands, but collects taxes 50 from all the lands. He is comprised of three elements, endowed with many beautiful qualities. He brings the talent-trees of the talented to fruition. Keshavdas says, Indrajit is unprecedented on this earth: He is made up of the five elements, yet he protects the material prosperity of the entire earth. As Lakshmidhar Malviya observes, poets did not just set out to write a work of muktaka : they gathered together material into a collection crafted — and performed — over time.
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Various discussions evidently ensued in the intervals between songs:. And my patron… out of his vast ocean of eloquence, brought to [the] surface the pearls of meaning.
More frequently, performances involved the rigorous assaying of the skills of those employed by the patron, whether musicians, poets, or scholars. Often a courtesan or devout bhakta scores a point against the Mughal emperor with a timely poem. The first purti was unsuccessful:. Placing all their faith in the supreme godhood, sages and holy men bear witness. God sustains the existence of life forms both movable and movable, whom He holds dear.
Portions of the proceeds will be donated to the Twin Towers Fund for families of workers in the New York police and fire departments, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and other agencies who lost their lives or were injured. Artists who all came from such widely different backgrounds, with such widely differing political views try to imagine Pete Seeger and Lee Greenwood at the same political event--highly unlikely , but they knew what united them all: each and every artist on this CD was proud to be an American.
So am I. Romano : "Following last Tuesday night's celebration honoring Michael Jackson's 30 years as a solo recording artist, Michael informed the world that he he would soon honor the victims of the World Trade Center tragedy with another tribute to himself The song's lyrics seek to help the world's citizens find solace in the wake of the attack on America and to create a sense of global unity It is time we used that power to help us begin the process of healing immediately,' he concluded.
How many children have to cry, before we do all we can? If sending your love is all you can, give that we all live What have I got that I can give? To love and to teach you, to hold and to need you. What more can I give? Wave the Red, White and Blue "I was just impressed at the fact that immediately after the attacks, people who normally would have disagreements started working together for the benefit of the United States. The country has always pulled together in times of national crisis and showed a tremendous amount of strength. The same thing is happening now and I just want to encourage it.
Angell "If there is anything good that came about this tragedy is that it made America stronger, uniting its citizens more, and strengthening this wonderful Nation of ours. History will mark September 11, as the Day Americans and the World were drawn closer together as one in the fight against terrorism and evil. God Bless America! United, ignited, to fight to keep us free; Remembering those who gave their lives we go on to victory. American Heroes, your lives will always be. Forever Heroes, in our eternity.
You are mothers, fathers, daughters, sons, husbands and wives; We will never forget you and what you sacrificed. Hand in hand we will prevail You and I are survivors. My friends, let's show the world what we are. Be strong, we will work together to carry on.
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Be strong, we will rebuild. We'll stand together for the land of liberty. We will be strong, we will survive.
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We'll fight the darkness now to keep the light alive. And in our hearts we find a hope to carry on. Together still we dream our dreams through every trial still it seems Our tears give brighter vision of a better day to come. America is still the Promised Land. With one heart and voice together we will stand. Our flag still waves, reminding us again That God will guide our way. Take my hand, together we will stand. We've brought hope from fear, our flags fly high.
Beneath the skin we are the same, We're patriots against acts of hate and shame. For freedom now and always shall remain.
Your prayers won't go unanswered, if it's hope for which you pray. The sleeper has awoken, united for a day. I was more shocked when it closed the peace-mongers' mass we attended that Sunday. But his soul goes marching on? In Kansas, he committed brazen acts of murder--he'd have said war--against slavers He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment-seat. John Brown was a religious fanatic who believed slavery was a sin worse than murder.
Marsh To be continued. Storage for private use is allowed and welcome.