Das Problem der Geltung. Berlin: Reuther and Reichard : vi, Kantstudien Ergnzunghefte, The Problem of Value. This work contains a section on Bergson. Fritz Mauthner. Die Philosophie und der Kreig. Berliner Tageblatt, 43 : 2d supp. Philosophy and the War. Wer ist Henri Bergson? Berliner Tageblatt, 43 Who is Henri Bergson? Charles B. Bergson and Practical Idealism. New Review, 2. David Morrison. The Treatment of History by Philosophers. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 14, , Edgar A. The Egoist, 1. Waihan Nomura. Bergson to gendai shicho.
Tokyo: Daidokan, Jean Piaget. Bergson et Sabatier. Revue chrtienne, 61, srie 4, , An English translation of the title of this item is: Bergson and Sabatier. The young Piaget here finds many similarities between Bergson and A. Valentino Piccoli. Bergson e Sorel. Utopia, 2. Charles Rappaport. The Intuitive Philosophy of M. Georg Simmel.
Bergson und der deutsche Zyrusmus. Internationale Monatsschrift fr Wissenschaft, Kunst und Technik, 9. An English translation of the title of this item is: Bergson and German Cynicism. Paul Souday. Les Livres du temps 2e srie. Paris: Emile-Paul Frres : This item, a highly critical survey of French writers circa , contains several references to Bergson and Bergsonism. In general the author is highly critical of Bergsons antiintellectualism esp.
The author notes the Bergsonian tendencies of the young Andr Gide p. Professor Henri Bergsons Biology. Zoological Studies of the University of Aberdeen, Ser. For annotation see J. Thomson London: J. Dent; New York: E. Dutton : This is a study of the place of mysticism in the emergence of Christianity. See esp. Willhelm Wundt. Rede, gehalten in der Alberthalle zu Leipzig am 10 September Leipzig: Alfred Krner Verlag, , An English translation of the title of this item is: Concerning the True War. Another Bergson Book.
Ruhe and N. Bookman, 4. This article contains a photograph of Bergson by Gerschel, Paris. Vas Choroko. Filosofija Bergsona s toki zrnija medika. Russkaia Misl, 36 : Charles Dawbarn. Makers of New France. Bergson is included here among sixteen other figures: generals, politicians, writers, etc. Lynn Harold Hough. New York: Abingdon Press : This item contains an essay titled Bergson, as Seen from a Preachers Study. Auguste Keufer. Letter to Bergson. Revue positiviste internationale, 2 15 Feb. Also in Mlanges, pp.
The writer asks Bergsons opinion of Auguste Comtes philosophy and its influence on sociology. Richard Koebner. Referat ber Max Scheler. Literarische Centralblatt, Dominique Parodi. La Guerre et la conception allemande en morale. Revue Pdagogique May : For annotation see Dominique Parodi The War and the German Concept of Morality.
Francesco de Sarlo. Il significato filosofico dellevoluzione in Il pensiero moderne. Palermo: Sandron : viii, The Philosophical Significance of Evolution. Ichiro Tokutami. Tokyo: Minyusha Taisho 4 : Wrtliche bereinstimungen mit Schopenhauer bei Bergson. Jahrbuch der SchopenhauerGesellschaft, 5 : Verbal Agreements with Schopenhauer by Bergson.
Novyi opyt intuitivoj filosofii. Severmie Zapinski, Apr. A New Way in Intuitive Philosophy. Lee J. Mann : 45 pp. Jean Ajalbert. Comment glorifier les morts pour la patrie? Opinions MM. Bernard, R. Boylesve, H. Bergson Paris: G. Cres : xvi, Opinions of H. Manuel Garca Morente. La filosofa de Henri Bergson: Con el discurso pronunciado por M.
Bergson en la Residencia de Estudiantes el 10 de mayo de Montevideo, Uruguay: C. Garca : Publicaciones de la Residencia de Estudiantes.
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Serie 2, v. Bergson at the Students Residence, May 10, Andrs Gonzlez-Blanco. La filosofa de Bergson. Nuestra tiempo, The Philosophy of Bergson. Wilhelm Hager. Bergson als Neu-Romantiker: mit besonderer Berucksichtung von M. Munchen: A. Frohlich : viii, Bergson i ego kritiki in Georgiju Ivanoviu Celpanovu ot uasinikov ego seminarov v Kieve i Moskve : Stati po filosofii i psihologii.
Moscow : Bergson and His Critics. Wildon Carr. This is the authors presidential address before the Aristotelian Society. Alfred North Whitehead notes that he took Carrs concept of solidarity, as used in this talk, which is an exposition of Bergsons mind-body theory. Thomas Stearns Eliot. Eeldrop and Appleplex. The Little Review, 4. The Philosophy of William James. Edwin B. Holt and William James, Jr. London: Constable, On pages the author compares the philosophies of William James and Henri Bergson, seeking to establish differences between them.
Bergson has monistic metaphysical aspirations that are anathema to James. For a similar view, see H. Kallen, Percy Heywood. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. January MAE papiers dagent Bergson , chem. In this second letter to Bergson, Lavisse notes that the United States possesses a terrible weapon that it may use against the allies: credit. See P. Soulez, Les Philosophes et la guerre de 14, Philippe Soulez notes in Les Philsophes et la guerre de Briand to confer a diplomatic mission on Bergson and to talk to him.
Seth Pringle-Pattison. The Idea of God in Recent Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, The author, in the course of providing an accurate account of Bergsons protest against the spatialization of time, argues that Bergson falls into the very trap he has sought to avoid. Denying that the past can account for the present, he holds that the present can determine the future.
Bergson thinks that the present is fatally and externally determining the future beforehand, in such a way as to deprive future actions, when they occur, of their proper reality p. The author also criticizes Bergsons teleology pp. Ernest Seillre. LAvenir de la philosophie bergsonienne. Paris: Flix Alcan, The Future of the Bergsonian Philosophy. Natura e genesi della metafisica di Henri Bergson. Revista di filsofia neoscolastica, 9. The author argues that Bergson raised certain of Claude Bernards ideas into a metaphysical schema.
Nature and Genesis of Bergsons Metaphysics. New York: Fleming H. Revell, This item contains a section on Bergson and the lan vital. Marcel LHerbier. Hermes et le silence. Le Film, 29 Apr. This item concerns Bergson and motion pictures. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Giovanni Papini. Milano: Studio editoriale lombardo, vii, Twenty-four Brains. Lausanne: Edition La Concorde, This is a novel, written by the founder-to-be of genetic epistemology. It describes the struggles of a young French-Swiss intellectual to resolve the antithesis of science and religion.
In Part I, Chapters 6 and 7, the protagonist, Sebastian, debates with himself the merits of three philosophies: positivism, pragmatism, and Bergsonism, rejecting all three in favor of the creation of a new science of types, similar to that of Aristotle. Bergsons unresolved oppositions are unsatisfactory, while his intuition either reduces to inexpressible mysticism or an enlargement of the intelligence in which case it loses its special character.
- Glue Ears;
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Barakat Ullah. Professor Henri Bergsons Philosophy of Change. East and West, 17 : Twentieth Century French Writers. London: Collins, Ren Gillouin. Ides et figures daujourdhui. Paris: Grasset, This contains an item titled M. Henri Bergson, historien, politique et moralist. Poul Helms. Fra Platon til Bergson. Copenhagen: MP Madsens Boghandel, From Plato to Bergson. March 3, in Lettere a Xavier Lon e ad altri.
Napoli: Bibliopolis, n. Lon writes in this letter that he has just had a long conversation with Bergson concerning: 1.
loyalty a marines journey book 1 Manual
Franco-American relations and their difficulties; 4 his need to write an intellectual autobiography. Antonio Aleixo SantAnna Rodriguez. A dinmica do pensamnto. Lisbon: Tipografia do Anuario Commercial, The Dynamics of Thought. This is a thesis in psychology. Raphael Seligmann. Individual und Ethos: Kurze Betrachtung ber Bergson. Probleme d. Wien: Lwit, Arthur Thompson. Secrets of Animal Life. New York: Henry Holt, Bergsons Concept of Consciousness.
Clark U. Worcester, MA. Jacques Boulenger. Du ct de Marcel Proust. Opinion, 4 Dec. On Marcel Prousts Way. The author sees Prousts work as the best example of a Bergsonian aesthetic. Armando Carlini. Il Pensiero e la Vita. Giornale critico della filosofia italiana, 1 : Thought and Life. Ernst Robert Curtuis. Die Literarischen Wegbereiter des neuen Frankreich. Potsdam: G. Kiepenheuer, Literary Pioneers of the New France.
Louis De Raeymaeker. Expos et rapprochement du systme de Ravaisson et des thories bergsoniennes. Garca Godoy. Aspectos del bergsonismo. Cuba contemporanea, 24 : Aspects of Bergsonism. John Charlton Hardwick. Religion and Science from Galileo to Bergson. Helmuth Peter Holler. Oriental University Progressive Studies, No.
Alfred Hoernl. Studies in Contemporary Metaphysics. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, See also p. Mariano Ibrico y Rodrguez. Bergson in Una Filosofa Esttica. Lima, Peru: San Martn y Cia. Biblioteca del mercurio peruana. Alexandre Mercereau. Les penses choisies dAlexandre Mercereau. Carlos Larronde. Paris: Eugne Figuire, Penseurs contemporains. Selections From the Thoughts of Alexandre Mercereau.
Henry Clay Sheldon. Mustafa Sekip Tun. Bergson ve kudret-i ruhiyeye dair bir ka konferansi. Istanbul: Matbaa-i Amire, Attards et prcurseurs, propos objectifs sur la mtaphysique et la philosophie de ce temps et de ce pays. Paris: E. Chiron, The Author deals with contemporary French philosophy, including especially Bergson and Emile Boutroux. Leopoldo Castellani. Henri Bergson frente a Kant y Santo Toms. Tribuna Catlica, 7.
George Rostrevor Hamilton. Bergson and Future Philosophy. London: Macmillan, Roman Ingarden. Intuition und Intellect bei Henri Bergson. Darstellung und Versuch einer Kritik. Freiburg, philosophy dissertation, The authors dissertation was completed in , but not officially accepted until Intuition and Intellect in Bergson. Presentation and Attempt at a Critique. This is an important essay on Bergsons epistemology by a prominent member of the phenomenological school. June 13, in Lettere a Xavier Lon e ad altri, R. Ragghianti, ed.
Le Problme moral et la pense contemporaine. See La Guerre et la conception allemande en morale, German aggression stems not from scientist mechanism, he argues against Bergson, but from a mystical notion of history and war. French love of clarity and distinction and German insistence on complexity and profundity are destined to correct and complete each other. The Moral Problem and Contemporary Thought. Essai sur quelques aspects du dveloppement de la notion de partie chez lenfant.
Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, 18 : The author states: Tachistoscopic experiments and the analyses of M. Bergson have shown that sentences are not read and understood in detail, but in one inspection. In this regard, the phenomena of the limitation of the field of attention are fundamental: it is in part thanks to them that we have been able to characterize the three stages of our classification. Woodbridge Riley. Le Gnie amricain. Penseurs et hommes daction. Henri Bergson. Paris: Flix Alcan, iv, Georges Sorel.
De lutilit du pragmatisme. Paris: M. Rivire, Etudes sur le devenir social. This work contains a critique of Bergsons Creative Evolution. On the Utility of Pragmatism. Albert Thibaudet. Rflexions sur la littrature. Psychanalyse et critique. Nouvelle Revue franaise, Throughout the author compares Bergsons views with Freuds, arguing that les thories de Freud sclairent singulirement la lumire de Matire et Mmoire.
He speculates whether, if Bergson had been allowed to teach at the Sorbonne, he would have had disciples as does Freud, and a journal for research inspired by his method. Adriano Thilgher. Voci del tempo. Profili di letterati e filosofi contemporanei. Roma: Libreria di scienze e lettere, This item contains a brief essay on the aesthetics of Bergson. Le pragmatisme religieux chez William James et chez les catholiques modernistes.
A Utilitarian Romanticism. Ludwig Binswanger. Einfhrung in die Probleme der allgmeinen Psychologie. Berlin: Springer, , viii, Albert Einstein on Bergson. Gestern lass ich in Bergsons Buch ber Relativitt und Zeit. Merkwrdig dass ihm nur die Zeit aber nicht auch der Raum problematisch ist. Er scheint mir mehr sprachliches Geschick als psychologische Tiefer zu haben. Bei der Objektivierung des psychischGegebenen macht er sich wenig Skrupel. Er scheint aber die Realtivitts-Theorie sachlich zu begreifen und setzt sich mit ihr nicht in Gegensatz. Die Philosophen tanzen bestndig um den Gegensatz Psychisch-Real und Physikalisch-Real herum und unterscheiden sich nur durch Wetungen in dieser Beziehung.
Entweder erscheint ersteres als blosses Individualerlebnis oder letzteres als blosse Gedankenkonstruktion. Bergson gehrt zur letzteren Gattung, objektiviert aber unvermerkt in seiner Weise. Yesterday I immersed myself in Bergsons book on relativity and time. Amazingly, he considers time, but not space, to be problematic. He seems to me to possess more linguistic facility than psychological depth. He does not hesitate to objectivize the psychologically-given.
But he seems to really sachlich understand relativity theory and not to put himself in contradiction to it. The philosophers deal tanzen constantly here with the contrast between psychologically-real and physically-real and in this respect distinguish themselves only through what they value. Either the first appears as mere individual experience or the second as mere thought-construction. Bergsons views are of the latter sort, he objectivizes in his own way without realizing it.
Pete A. La tradition philosophique et la pense franaise. Paris: Flix Alcan, ii, See Ch. Equally in error, in his view, were those who followed Albrecht Thaer and urged the extensive use of animal as opposed to human manure. Leroux observed that humans ate bread, not a mixture of flour and salt.
And, like bread, the soil was alive and life-giving. To prove his point he put his own ideas into practice between and at the agricultural colony that he and a group of his supporters set up at Boussac in the Creuse as part of his project for a socialist printing works. Twentieth-century proponents of organic farming often drew inspiration from communities in India and China that had traditionally returned human waste to the earth.
Leroux was of the same opinion. He revered the Chinese as masters and praised them for having instigated a system of agriculture based on natural law. A chain of solidarity linked the animal, vegeta-. The editor of the review, Pierre Joigneaux, was a friend of Leroux. Regrettably, however, humans had broken with the order of nature.
Modern industrial society fostered division, competition and separation. Leroux argued that in future the exploitation of human waste should be handed over to public authorities interested in alleviating the condition of the poor and no longer entrusted to individuals driven by the desire for private gain. Again and again he denounced Malthus and his followers, accusing them of using an inadequate model of nature in order to lend legitimation to the cruel and heartless society created by industrialism.
Leroux wanted to reconstruct the social bond by reconnecting humans to the order of nature. This foregrounded connectivity. He started from the premise that the processes of digestion and excretion cannot adequately be understood in terms of the ways in which an organism extracts nutriments from ingested food before expelling the residue as. In his view that which we perceive as mere waste has real value within the greater chain of solidarity. If only his ideas had been adopted by the Provisional Government of then, mused Leroux, the violence and bloodshed of the June days might have been avoided p.
What needs to be stressed, however, is the extent that, for Leroux, the potential practical benefits arising from recycling human waste were part of a world vision founded upon the ideas of interdependence, reciprocity and solidarity. God did not intend that dead or waste matter should simply be discarded. Human manure should be returned to the earth in order to enrich the soil and aid the production of food.
Death was not absolutely necessary in order for life to continue. The products of excretion, far from being without worth, were intended to fulfil a positive role within the cycle of life. Leroux challenged received opinion regarding the status of urine and excrement. He argued that it was incorrect to draw too sharp a distinction between excretion and secretion, compared urine with milk and regretted that he had not been able to write a study on the consumption of urine as he had once intended p.
Leroux explained that when food passed through the alimentary canal something more complex than straightforward assimilation took place. Something new was actually added during the process p. Bichat had not grasped the relationship between the large intestine and the caecum p. Berzelius, on the other hand, received praise on the grounds that he had noted that something new was added during the passage of ingested matter through the intestines p. Again and again Leroux reinforced this point that life was supported by a set of interlinked bodily functions.
Animal waste that was returned to the earth enriched the soil. Cats and certain other carnivorous animals instinctively covered their excrement because they knew that it needed to be mixed with minerals and vegetable matter in order to become productive. He was alert to similarities and analogies. He seized upon some remarks made by the Swiss botanist Augustin Pyrame de Candolle who had discovered the presence of small lumps that resembled excreta on the root systems of certain plants.
Leroux argued that it was the excrement discharged by one type of plant that made the soil fertile when another species grew there. Humans should follow the example set by the plants and animals and return their own excrement to the land. He accepted that decaying vegetable matter produced humus but he contended that this, on its own, was. Discussion of such matters was current among specialists. Truly fertile soil was a combination of animal, vegetable and mineral elements. The man who used his own faeces to make soil and grow food completed the circle of life and reintegrated humankind within the purposeful totality of living things.
Were such practices to become generalized then there would be enough meat and good quality bread to support an increasing population p. It would be like a return to Eden. However, the implications of the theory of the circulus went beyond the eradication of hunger. It constituted a religious truth and inspired faith p.
The Word was to be preached abroad and enacted in practical living p. In his younger days Leroux had been a Saint-Simonian. Central to Saint-Simonian doctrine had been the desire to rehabilitate matter, to restore to the material universe the value that had traditionally been denied to it by the Christian tradition. When it came to transforming and using nature Leroux implied that humankind should act wisely and take account of the bonds that linked the microcosm and the macrocosm p.
The error of the Malthusians had been to ignore the true message of nature; genuine social progress involved respecting natural law, uniting with the general movement of the cosmos. However, while this indicated that the future for France lay in agriculture rather than industry, Leroux was not by any means a Luddite. After all, his plans for the distribution of manure required the construction of complex systems of piping designed to run alongside railway lines. The whole was greater than the sum of the parts but the parts needed to combine with each other in order for the whole to thrive and prosper.
Healthy soil, as we have seen, was a composite that arose from a collaborative process. Were this not to be the case then the landscape would run the risk of being suffocated beneath an increasingly thick layer of human guano. It also answered the Maistrian vision of life on earth as generalized violence, death and consumption. Here was a chain of consumption and production that involved giving and receiving. Leroux was convinced that his vision. He explained that an individual plant, interested exclusively in its own survival, would soon perish.
Selfishness decreased the chances of survival. To imagine that a plant selfishly drew water and minerals from the surrounding soil and then repaid its debts to the earth when its leaves finally fell to the ground was to betray a singular misunderstanding of the workings of nature. In reality, continued Leroux, the fallen leaves fertilized the soil for the wider benefit of other plants.
The continuance of life on earth rested on similar complex processes of sharing and exchanging. Malthus had correctly recognized the infinite fertility of living things but he had not grasped the true character of natural law. Nature was debased and traduced when its processes were used in order to lend legitimacy to economic liberalism. It was quite wrong to draw an analogy between nature and a banker who was interested in profit and loss and expected to be repaid p. The operation of the circulus worked against the exploitation of the weak by the powerful. It was intrinsically anti-hierarchical in character.
Benabid and R. Waste matter underwent a metamorphosis as it transformed the soil into that which it was intended to be. Leroux epitomized the Romantic desire to redefine the relationship between infinity and the finite, time and eternity, heaven and earth, matter and spirit, the sacred and the profane.
He believed that his contemporaries needed a new unifying faith and he attempted to construct it, blending humanitarianism with nationalism, the revolutionary idea with perfectibility, equality and solidarity with individual freedom and private property. Subjectivement, objectivement, nous trouvons Dieu. Its operation disrupted received definitions of spirit and matter, purity and impurity.
It allowed the emergence of new definitions of labour, capital and consumption. The feelings of disgust, revulsion and shame engendered by the sight of waste did not tell the whole story. As if by magic, the circulus converted sterility into fertility, base matter into something of positive value. By attending to the soil and to the nature of its composition humans could learn important truths, not only about agriculture, but also about themselves and the organization of society.
He was interested in animal welfare insofar as he objected to cows being kept permanently in stalls p. Freud speculated on the causes of modern psychopathologies by figuring the mind as an ancient city in ruins. He postulated that, like an archaeological site, the modern mind is structured in temporal layers and that forgotten or repressed events from the past can be reconstructed from fragmentary remains.
In this new, archaeological figuration of the mind, Freud challenged the conventional Enlightenment conception of it as unitary, rational and master of its conscious will. Let us try to grasp what this assumption involves by taking an analogy from another field. We will choose as an example the history of the Eternal City. If [the observer] knows enough — more than present day archaeology does — he may perhaps be able to trace out in the plan of the city the whole course of [the wall of Aurelian] and outline of the Roma Quadrata.
This is the manner in which the past is preserved in historical sites like Rome. Now let us, by a flight of imagination, suppose that Rome is not a human habitation but a psychical entity with a similarly long and copious past — an entity, that is to say, in which nothing that has come into existence will have passed away and all the earlier phases of development continue to exist alongside the latest one. Literature has in the modern academy become the poor cousin of the social sciences, although many contemporary social sciences, including sociology, psychology and even psychoanalysis, originally emerged from literary observations and figurations.
Freud was a voracious reader of literature and shamelessly lifted metaphors, analogies and mythical figures in developing his various models of the unconscious mind. Like Freud, Balzac was obsessed with archaeology and archaeological modes of narration. Also like Freud, Balzac discovered powerful heuristic potential in archaeology as he began to suspect that adult psychopathologies were secretly rooted in forgotten or repressed childhood events. One major. Sigmund Freud, Civilization and its Discontents, trans.
For Balzac, modern French consciousness emerges in its fragmented, modern state as it crosses the historical and epistemic divide between old and new France. Most prominent are, of course, nobles or provincials who remain attached to their archaic traditions although they live, often unwittingly, in modern environments. Put differently, moral archaeology permitted Balzac to study human reality by adopting a sociological or anthropological approach, and thus to determine culturally-determined causes of behavioural effects.
The Balzacian unconscious is not yet, how-. Balzac, like Freud, was probably atheist, considering the metaphysical substance of religion a simple illusion. As a moral archaeologist, however, he clearly recognized the residual influence of Old Regime customs on modern consciousness. It is this contradiction between the myths of modernity individualism, rationalism, freedom from Catholicism, etc.
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X, He illustrates the process of fragmentation and internal repression that contemporary consciousnesses experienced in crossing the epochal threshold from Old Regime to modernity. Passionate about archaeology himself, Freud openly declared in Constructions in Analysis its importance in his invention of psychoanalytic methodology and narrative. To apply psychoanalysis to Balzac.
Our hypothesis is that the narrative, textual and imagistic fragmentation characterizing the text is not gratuitous and does not necessarily correspond to a postmodern or poststructuralist point of view. The narrator, by contrast, is a debauched mondain in nineteenth-century Paris. Cet objet est le corps humain. The narrator is, indeed, able to offer only a partial and incomplete idea of his object despite the excessively long — even obsessive — description of him. The old man is represented as a fragmented vestige from another era, but the key element that would give finality to the portrait remains missing.
The puzzle pieces that the narrator presents in the first half of the narrative the description of the Lanty family, the fragmented condition of the old man, the picture of the Adonis, etc. The abrupt crossing of temporal and geographical frontiers corresponds to the internal rupture of consciousness marking the separation between Sarrasine and the narrator. Attached to Catholic France figured geographically by the still Catholic nineteenth-century Italy where Sarrasine discovers transcen-.
The narrator does not immediately reveal the content of these two disparate worlds which he views as a banality of modern Parisian life, nor does he explain the psychological division between life and death or between the exterior and interior worlds.
This internal division may be connected to his catastrophic experience with the old man since his perspective on him is also radically divided. On the other, the old man is dead, in ruins, a spirit, a ghost, a source of cold, darkly-clothed and smelling of a cemetery. The anonymous narrator, a double of Sarrasine, emerges resuscitated from death and endeavours to explain the cause and the consequences of the spiritual catastrophe to others. His narratorial dilemma is that his nineteenth-century reading-public will be perplexed or scandalized by his love object, since he had fallen in love with a man.
It is un-. Understanding this lost illusion involves great difficulty, and is not without certain dangers. In order to avoid an immediate scandal and gain the confidence of modern readers, Sarrasine takes cover under his own death, doubling and obscuring himself behind the anonymous narrator while hiding the identity of his ideal love object behind a feminine appearance. In other words, he transforms his loss of religious love into a hoax love story, recounted anonymously and in the third-person, about how Sarrasine fell in love with an opera singer, a castrato disguised as a woman.
At the thematic level, we could easily conclude that the narrator does not master his story. But is the scandal awaiting Rochefide i. For what narrator would publicly recount his own failure if there were not some hidden and more serious objective? That the obvious scandal i. The old, displaced emotions associated with la Zambinella surge forth into consciousness, reminding him of.
Why would this be if he had not been formerly so attached to the totality? And who else in his tale other than Sarrasine had known la Zambinella in his perfection and would thus be in a position to regret his current ruined state? There are other examples of a residual attachment: who other than Sarrasine would see in the old man the image of a woman we know that Sarrasine had first perceived la Zambinella dressed as a woman? Without appealing to the myth of the omniscient narrator, who except Sarrasine would have known this body sufficiently to make a comparison between present and past?
The Christological allegory of love will be discussed later. Consider, for example, the strange event that takes place immediately after the description of the old man: the narrator personifies his thought and underscores this act so that the reader does not fail to reflect on its content. By this strange omission Balzac may be simulating a blockage in order to make the reader look for the solution, requiring us to follow the allegorical logic of the tale. The narrator wants us to discover his union with the old man, but cannot refer to himself or to the union directly without causing a scandal.
Marianina, personifying a resuscitated Sarrasine, provides the means to present to the public a heterosexual union, but by linking it to Sarrasine the anonymity of the narrator remains intact. If the narrator manages to make us believe that the two sides of the union of his personified thought are the old man and Marianina, it is through a logic of contiguity, but also because bourgeois conventions push us to find a union between man and woman as a solution to the marital mystery.
Marianina, as the only young woman in the story, is therefore assumed to be the twentytwo-year old symbolic spouse of the old man. The kernel of the entire narrative, the union on which all the other events depend, but which remains nonetheless obscure, is the union that Sarrasine fantasizes about with la Zambinella at the opera in Rome, of which the memory is unsignifiable in a word. Balzac puts us onto the scent by various indirect means, including literary tropes. For it is the narrator who insists on this detail, and why would he be so precise in stating the age of the partner in both unions with la Zambinella if no secret link existed between the two?
Marianina, in our view, figures Sarrasine in the modern, bourgeois era. The narrator needs her feminine identity in order to indicate discreetly to the modern and bourgeois reading public the scandalous union of Sarrasine and la Zambinella, while giving us the key to deciphering his identity in her. When the narrator sees the old man for the first time after so many years, emotions and memories attached to the young Zambinella rise to consciousness alongside his current appearance, leaving the narrator divided between two images and two sets of emotions. Yet no scientific, historiographic or narrative convention existed at the time to capture this split reality of his consciousness, especially with one half anchored in an admissible love.
Consider now the key scene where Sarrasine imagines himself in a mystical union with la Zambinella. We begin to perceive that la Zambinella symbolizes a spiritual or religious kind of love for Sarrasine. The voyage in geographical space is then simultaneously a voyage in time, towards a Catholic homeland that remains intact. Most likely, the narrator imagines la Zambinella as half of a mystical union.
According to the conventions of Catholic mysticism, the union of two souls and two fleshes forms a perfect unity. Translated visually, it would be perfectly logical to see only one body. We see a hermaphrodite with both male and female traits, but whose gender is, ultimately, masculine.
The Culture of Reconstruction
Does this mean that the original model for all the copies is that of a man? The narrator explicitly says that the statue is of a woman while contradicting himself with the presentation of the material evidence and narrative symbolism, thus casting doubt on his own reliability. Yet if the narrator is Sarrasine, he cannot expose his love story openly. For epistemological and moral reasons, he is forced to communicate indirectly, playing a double game by presenting his union in heterosexual terms while offering clues about the concealed truth.
The statue is not a purely visual entity, but emerges from the union of a phallic voice the symbol of idealized masculine love penetrating the vaginal soul of Sarrasine. And why not a male, since the erotico-mystical images representing the voice of la Zambinella are phallic while the soul of Sarrasine is female? Though this initially seems. In the modern and desacralized context in which the narrator tells the story of his lost illusion, mystical love no longer officially exists and is, in any case, incomprehensible according to a rationalist or materialist epistemology.
This explains the scandal of signification generated by the relationship between Sarrasine and la Zambinella. At one level, a love between two men registers in a modern context as homoerotic love. At another, any attempt to signify a religious or transcendental ideal will necessarily cause a slippage of meaning and infinite signification: immanent linguistic conventions cannot, by definition, render divinity.
It registers as an absence or gap in meaning. The narrator, however, plays a double game, revealing that Sarrasine knew his ideal object of love to be a man. Homme ou femme, je te tuerai! The absence of love provokes a catastrophic separation, a death in the soul, a radical disillusion, after which the narrator will no longer have direct access to the soul or to the transcendent love of la Zambinella, or to his own former state of mind.
While remaining sentimentally attached to his former self the self that had access to divine love , his rational consciousness and his language become radically detached. Up to this point our allegorical reading remains speculative. However, we find confirmation at the end of the narrative, when Madame de Rochefide interprets for us what the narrator has been attempting to accomplish, sharing his religious disillusionment with her in order to shake her from her Christian illusions: Ah!
The divine love and religious belief that la Zambinella symbolizes have no real substance in a modern, post-Catholic world: this is why the old man appears to the narrator as a ghost with a dead and hollow body. Throughout the s she collected artefacts retrieved from archeological digs, financed excavations in her local Berry and took part in other archaeological ventures in the area.
She threw herself into the study of botany, geology, entomology and, although it is less widely known, archaeology and one of its branches in particular, numismatics. Her archaeological interests have often been overlooked by critics,1 due to the fact that they have been either largely hidden by her research into folklore and ethnography or have, alternatively, been understood as forming part of those activities. George Sand and archaeological relics Her interest in and her passion for archaeology was apparent in her many site visits and, most especially, in her excavations.
It should, however, be noted that she was particularly partial to Celtic archaeology. While she took the opportunity to visit Roman sites in the south of France and in Italy, these visits simply did not hold the same fascination for her. By the s, druid stones were already proving to be a source of interest for the novelist. In , in Mauprat, a very short scene takes place on a druid stone at Crevant. This site would become a favourite beauty-spot for the whole Sand family in the s, where they would go to pick flowers and to catch butterflies among the standing stones.
Subsequently, in , Sand visited a much more impressive site, that of Toulx-Saint-Croix, in the Creuse region. There she discovered the standing stones, taking great pleasure in their contemplation. Je compte sur Charles pour cela. Then, in the s, a stroke of good fortune would have it that archaeological excavations were undertaken on her very doorstep. This opportunity led, during the month of February , to George Sand becoming a real archaeologist herself. Sand, Agendas, I, p. Pour satisfaire la passion de ces jeunes. Elles sont par lits, les une sur les autres, sans fin. The day after, excavations proved fruitful once again.
These included seven coins, some broken urns and three stone burial caskets. The major interest of this event is, however, the accompanying drawing, which shows the cross-section of a tomb with a skeleton laid out on a bed of clay and covered with soil and stones. Unfortunately, the project was never completed, much. Sand, Correspondance, XI, pp.
But what George Sand emphasizes particularly is the fear that the archaeological finds aroused in the peasants and the ordinary folk, as well as the air of madness that they brought with them to Nohant. Sand thus experienced directly the fantastical dimension of archaeology. Her next dig would take place under less extravagant circumstances. Car il y avait une ville, toutes les histoires du Berry en font mention. Comment et quand a-t-elle disparu? Tout cela ne me dit pas quand et comment ce fort et cette ville ont disparu. In the s, her interest in numismatics was, for instance, still apparent.
Can we, for instance, discern the presence of standing stones, ancient currencies or mardelles in her work? What use does she make of archaeology? How does she present the process of archaeological discovery in her writings? And how does she describe the figure of the archaeologist for her readers? Firstly, although the traces of archaeological influence in her works are, at times, extremely subtle, they reappear constantly throughout the duration of her career, thus bearing witness to a long-standing preoccupation on her part.
Sand, Agendas, III, p. Certain Berrichon legends could then be understood as the last remaining vestiges of Gallic culture, and the natives of Berry the direct inheritors of this ancient people. Yet although Sand may have played the role of apprentice archaeologist herself, she did not see fit to introduce the figure of the archaeologist into any of her works. How then can we explain her creation of these dilettante archaeologists? Il prenait tous les abreuvoirs de granit qui servent aux bestiaux pour des sarcophages antiques. In short, then, the archaeologist is presented as a somewhat insipid character, lacking in literary depth.
Nonetheless, in La Famille de Germandre, Sand gives us the character of Sylvain de Germandre, a gentleman whose passion for archaeology has led him back to the land. The novel itself is a curious story revolving around the theme of inheritance. In order to become the heir of the Marquis de Germandre, the hero must open the casket guarded by the Sphinx. During a stroll with his cousin, the Chevalier de Germandre adopts the role of cicerone:. Conference proceedings in preparation. In any case, the Chevalier does not see himself as an archaeologist, but rather as a numismatist.
Yet here, once again, the Chevalier shows great humility, particularly in his reflections on the conflict between his own intellectual ambitions and his material needs. Que voulez-vous! His apparently pointless pastime will, however, prove to be the key to the novel, effectively the deus ex machina which will permit him to escape from poverty and find a better life.
Subsequent references to this edition are given after quotations in the text. If La Famille de Germandre has been largely ignored by Sand scholars, Jeanne and Nanon have, by contrast, aroused much more critical interest. These two mystical spaces, constructed as havens of peace and revelation, lead one of the heroines to celibacy and death, and the other, by contrast, to marriage and fulfilment.
From the opening lines onward, it is clear that archaeology and the passion for all things Celtic so beloved of the Romantics will be dominant themes in the novel Jeanne. Sand thus lends a mythical dimension to her peasant figures. In order to consolidate this theme, Sand places great emphasis on the archaeological backdrops. Sand then describes the town, showing off both her own knowledge of history and archaeology, and that of the town-dwellers pp.
The stong insistence on the Gallic origins of this town and the simultaneous refusal of any Roman contribution to its founding serves as a means of contrasting it with Boussac, a modern town which will become a prison for Jeanne in which she will finally end her life. In Nanon, the Celtic monuments of Crevant are also described as a safe place, in direct contradiction of their modern role as a site of barbarism associated with the Revolutionary Terror. Nanon is a revolutionary novel, written in , in the midst of another turbulent period of French history.
The novel recounts the story of a peasant-girl and a young nobleman caught up in the torments of the Revolution and the Terror. Destined, despite his republican sentiments, to be arrested and condemned, Emilien de Franqueville is assisted in his attempts to escape and find a safe hiding-place by the young Nanon. It is at a crucial point in the novel, taking place in his refuge in the village of Crevant, that Sand chooses to bring archaeological themes into play. Claire Le Guillou Trois-Rois.
These first traces and their knowledge of archaeology offer them salvation, with the Roman road leading them to the Gallic ruins at Crevant, which are not initially visible. Sand thus leads us backward through time, in order to take us to the quasi-mythical origins of Berry. She reinforces the line of temporal continuity by presenting the Berrichon peasants once again as the last vestiges of the Celtic people p. In this place which is so totally steeped in archaeology, Sand describes the contentment of the peasant-girl Nanon and the young aristocrat Emilien de Franqueville, thus delimiting a space which is more than a mere utopia, but which may rather be understood as an uchronie, taking place outside of history as we know it.
However, as in the novel Jeanne, Sand makes a clear distinction between two types of Celtic monument. It is at the Druiderin, a site which is barely visible and which is also much. By such means, George Sand contrives to enrich the places she describes. For, in her opinion, archaeology serves to reveal that the relics taken from the earth are neither dead nor unmodifiable. They are rather an element of social reconciliation, as when, for example, peasantry and aristocracy end up by being united, as in Nanon and in La Famille de Germandre.
They are, in short, a portal leading the happy few towards fortune and happiness, and as such, they constitute a return to a kind of golden age. Yet although Sand repeatedly emphasizes in Nanon the extent to which the modern world has been rendered prosaic, the ultimate corruption of the site in fact gives rise to few real regrets. Few are so quintessentially of their time. Throughout his colossal enterprise Verne aims to provide systematic and comprehensive coverage of the globe, while also putting together a compendium of current knowledge about it through the texts and documents he so conspicuously uses in the making of his stories.
Harpenden UK , Pocket Essentials, , pages. Paris, Robert Laffont, , pages. Totem Books, , pages. Fictions of the Cosmos : Science and This study pays particular attention to Edward Literature in the Seventeenth Century, Bellamy's seminal utopian fiction, L o o k i n g Chicago, University of Chicago Press, , xi, Backward , embedding it in a number of pages.
Cosmic imagination. Kepler sets the passages against the grain, but it also offers Earth in motion ; Genealogy of the dream: detailed discussions of William Morris, H. Both historical and ; The dynamics of the voyage: a thought- theoretical in its approach. Conjectural machines. Zwischen den Spiegeln. Observing monsters. Introduction: Reaching for the narcissus: This collection provides insight into the way Byronic boys, toys, and the plight of classic horror texts were received, interpreted Persephone -- Unearthing the child underworld: and discussed by the first generations to the history of Persephone and developmental experience them, ideas that continue to define psychology -- Toying with Persephone: Herr the way modern society views horror.
Each Drosselmeier and Marie in E. The book also includes an overview of underworld queens in J. Hermann, Savoir Lettres , , pages. Kind zuvor gewesen ist Histoire du genre : aux sources world leaders in Gothic Studies, offering du gothique dynamic new readings on popular Gothic Scott contre Hoffmann : le combat du gothique cultural productions from the last decade. Les monstres invisibles de Chuck Palahniuk. Les trucs habituels sur les vampires Farnham, Ashgate, , viii, pages.
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London Gothic. Pombini, Ass. Culturale il Foglio, Fumetto , 1. Introduction Anne Witchard and Laurence , pages. Linking little-studied authors like M. Stephen Dougherty. Steffen Hantke. Christopher Palmer. Dick and the Spectacle of Home pages. Publications, , pages.
Brewer, , on trouve les articles suivants : , viii, pages. Fantastic in Europe, Berlin, et al. Trier, , pages. Neumeyer, Petaluma CA , pages. Pomegranate, , pages. New York, Abrams Image, , pages. Lovecraft — Le , pages. Aires, Publ. Littlefield, , xxi, pages. Walters -- Northwestern University Press, , xx, Race, pirates, and intellect: a reading of Poe's pages. Shannon Duval or sound thinking? Stop the Madness! Martin] , pages. Corrigan Sommaire complet sur Fabula. Part Two. Winter is Coming!