Human granulocytic anaplasmosis HGA , an emerging infectious disease in China, is caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. More recently, several outbreaks of TBDs, which may lead to organ failure and death have been reported in the central regions of China since [ 20 ]. Until , more than cases had been reported in Henan province, and Most of patients were farmers and residents in the mountainous or hilly villages with history of tick bites [ 22 ].
In , a new virus, isolated from blood samples of such patients from Henan province, was named as the severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus SFTSV , which became another emerging TBD in China [ 23 ]. It has been reported that one tick species can transmit a variety of pathogens, and several kinds of TBDs often co-exist in the same natural foci [ 24 ]. Therefore, if humans or animals were bit by ticks with co-infections, it could result in a more complicated pathogenicity and worse prognosis. The potential threats of emerging pathogens as well as their co-infections due to the local social economic development and alteration of the natural environment will pose high risks to human health.
For instance, the number of patients with fever of unknown origin is on the rise at peak activity period of ticks. This provides the hypothesis that there could be some unknown pathogens or co-infections in local ticks. Therefore, we investigated the fauna of ticks and potential pathogens and co-infections in Xinyang city which aimed to achieve a better understanding of distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens in central China. The collection sites were determined by a method of random grid sampling, which was performed in ArcGIS.
Ticks were collected once in each sampling site from the skin of domestic animals including sheep, cattle and dogs. The number of ticks collected from each individual animal was not more than Ticks were counted and grouped according to their developmental stage. The species were identified based on morphologic criteria [ 25 ]. Spatial distribution of various pathogens in sampling sites in Xinyang, Henan province, China. In this study, each tick specimen was screened by PCR for both identification of tick species and detection of pathogens including Babesia spp.
One step PCR was used to detect L. Nested PCR was used for detection of Babesia spp. Aliquot of double distilled water were included in all PCR runs to detect contamination. A total of ticks were collected in 10 villages range 3—89 ticks per site. Only two tick species were sampled. Both were Ixodidae. The most abundant species was H. The other one was R. The majority of collected ticks were adult female Only a few of nymphs 5. Babesia spp. TBEV, B. There was no positive tick found in three villages sampling sites 5, 8 and Piroplasms were the most frequently detected pathogen, the positive rate was 5.
In this study, four Theileria T. Detected pathogens in ticks collected from different hosts in different locations, and GenBank accession numbers in this study. Overall, 8. All the pathogens were detected in H. The overall prevalence of pathogens in larvae, nymphs and adult ticks were 0. However, there were significant differences in prevalence of these pathogens among host species and terrain types.
Prevalence of these pathogens in ticks collected from sheep, dogs and cattle were 9. The positive rate of pathogens in ticks collected from cattle was 2. Prevalences of these pathogens in ticks in mountainous, hilly and plain areas were The positive rate of pathogens in ticks collected from mountainous area was 5. Comparison of the differences of collected ticks and positive rates of pathogens among ticks life stage, host species and terrain types. Out of 27 positive ticks, 3 ticks One co-infection detected was B.
The other two co-infections were T. The prevalence and diversity of pathogens were much higher in the middle elevation regions, which mostly were mountainous areas sampling site 1,2,7 and 9. Relatively, there were lower prevalence rates and fewer species of pathogens detected in low elevation regions, which mostly were plain or hilly areas sampling site 3,4,5,6 and 10 as well as in the high elevation region, which is mountain top area sampling site 8.
The geographical locations of co-infections were adjacent to each other sampling site 6 and 7. Xinyang city is located at the sub-tropical region of China. Relatively high humidity and temperature during the summer provide a suitable environment for the development and reproduction of ticks. In this study, we found that H. These results are consistent with previous studies [ 33 - 36 ], which suggested that H.
Only a few R. Moreover, previous study documented the existence of O.
This could be attributed to only one transmission season as well as the limited number of host species that were taken into account. The results of this study have demonstrated two interesting facts about infections in ticks which were correlated to the impacts of local environment and social activities. First, the positive rates of pathogens in ticks were significantly higher in the mountainous areas than those in the plain areas.
This is probably because of the diversity and larger population size of host animals in mountainous areas. Second, the positive rate of ticks was significantly higher in ticks collected from cattle and sheep. This situation is potentially related to local animal husbandry. It was reported in the Henan Statistical Yearbook that a total of Therefore, all these factors could pose high risks of exposure to humans resulting in human infections with those pathogens.
Overall , Anaplasma spp. The other three pathogens were distributed in separate foci respectively. This is the first report of Rickettsia spp. In fact, human ehrlichiosis HE had been clinical diagnosed in local farmers that had evidence of tick bites in Xinyang [ 41 ]. This finding suggested that Xinyang would potentially be an endemic area of human ehrlichiosis. The positive rate of Theileria spp.
Given that theileriosis was endemic in animals in Henan province [ 42 , 43 ], as well as in other regions [ 44 , 45 ], it could pose a high risk of exposure and infection to livestock and increase the economic burden on the breeding industry and farmers in this region. Although Babesia spp. The positive rate was higher in ticks sampled from dogs, and similar result was reported in Thailand [ 47 ]. In this study, we found one tick infected with B. Generally speaking, B. These findings warrant further studies.
Book Review: RISE AND WALK – PATHOGEN
However, B. Babesiosis had been detected in livestock in China including Henan province [ 48 - 53 ], and human babesiosis had been diagnosed in some province in mainland China recent years [ 54 , 55 ]. Although there has been no report of human babesiosis in Xinyang yet, we suspected that some cases have been misdiagnosed as Plasmodium infection [ 56 ], since Plasmodium spp. It would be even more difficult to differentiate Babesia spp.
A new finding was that Babesia spp. The results also indicated that Theileria spp. The spatial distribution of those pathogens suggested that humans and animals in the region were at the higher risk of exposures to co-infections. In recent years, great progress had been made on identification of tick-borne disease TBD vectors, hosts and evaluating the impacts of TDBs to humans.
So far as we know, there were only several reports documented that B. Preview — Rise and Walk by Gregory Solis. The wait is over! The long awaited sequel to Rise and Walk is here.
The Rise of the Tick
The adventure continues as our party of four survivors descend into a town overrun by the walking dead. Tensions mount as they are driven apart by differing needs and circumstance. New threats emerge when a team of mercenaries arrive commanded by the patriarch of the Richardson family, bent on finding his The wait is over! New threats emerge when a team of mercenaries arrive commanded by the patriarch of the Richardson family, bent on finding his son.
Our heroes will resupply, improvise, find allies, evade new enemies, and struggle to survive as they discover that there is more to fear in the town of Whisper than just the gnashing teeth of the dead who Rise and Walk Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. More Details Other Editions 1. Friend Reviews.
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To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Rise and Walk , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. The symptoms come on quietly, disconnected. I get grumpy. Borrelia burgdorferi dwell in the guts of ticks. When the tick switches from drinking blood to spraying saliva, the bacteria travel from the blood pool into the torn capillaries surrounding the wound.
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Along the way, Borrelia also makes Williams sick. Some immune cells fight disease by engulfing invaders, like the Blob. Borrelia is so fast that it can outswim these monsters. Other immune cells gather intelligence to kill Borrelia , grabbing proteins and bringing them to the lymph nodes, where they manufacture new immune cells targeted to Borrelia. But Borrelia can outfox these special forces, too. Some of the immune cells make antibodies that grab onto Borrelia and act as a beacon for other cells.
The bacteria produces proteins of its own that destroy these antibodies first. To escape immune cells that recognize Borrelia by their surface proteins, Borrelia shucks off their old surface proteins and builds new ones, like a fugitive changing his wig and coat. The assassin cells, still relying on their obsolete profile of Borrelia , search for the bacteria in vain.
Our immune system produces inflammation as it chases after Borrelia , which causes the symptoms of Lyme disease. The sooner Lyme disease is diagnosed, the more likely antibiotics can deliver a clean kill to Borrelia and stop the symptoms. Steven Kotler , a year-old journalist and Outside contributor in Chimayo, New Mexico, knows all too well what happens when the bacteria go unnoticed for a length of time.
The first sign that he had Lyme disease came in , as he was driving from San Francisco to Los Angeles, where he was living at the time. His life spiraled down from there; he began losing weight—eventually dropping 50 pounds—and ended up spending almost his entire day on the couch, too exhausted and in too much pain to get up. Kotler had traveled to Madagascar the year before, so his doctors searched for worms and other parasites in his stool.
They found none. In his book West of Jesus , he listed some of the diseases he was informed he had—including the flu, schizophrenia, lupus, leukemia, and strep throat. When Kotler heard about Lyme disease, which had not yet become familiar in California, he suggested it as a possibility to one of his doctors. After all, he had come down with his symptoms not long after he had gone to Long Island for a wedding.
It took a year for Kotler to get properly diagnosed, and he was placed on antibiotics for months. Afterward, many of the symptoms continued to plague him, including intense fatigue and a sometimes uncontrollable mood. Still, the damage had been done. We usually encounter them one at a time, worriedly plucking lone individuals off our skin. The best way to reckon with the sheer number of ticks is to do what tick scientists do many times a year: go into the woods and perform a tick drag. I did my first tick drag last fall in a forest just outside Millbrook, New York. She handed me a one-meter-square piece of cream-colored wide-wale corduroy.
She had looped one end of the cloth over a wooden rod, which had a rope tied to each end. I laid the cloth flat on the forest floor and used the rope to pull it in a straight line for meters. When I got to the end of the transect, I wrapped a bungee cord around a young tree and hung the tick drag at shoulder height. It took a while to distinguish between black-legged tick larvae and bits of dirt.
Once you can see tick larvae, the cloth starts to swarm with them. I began grabbing the larvae with fine tweezers, the pressure of my fingers pushing their legs out to the side. I dumped each one into a tiny alcohol vial. Goth was standing a few trees away, systematically plucking off larvae and nymphs from her own tick drag. Up until the mids, biologists found them only at the eastern end of Long Island and a few islands off the coast of Massachusetts.
Ticks themselves are awful travelers. During the months that they spend living on the ground, they may move a few yards. But when ticks climb aboard a host, they can travel for miles—especially on the deer that the adult ticks prefer.
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During the 19th century, white-tailed deer nearly disappeared from the eastern United States as farmers plowed under most of their forests. In Connecticut, the population dropped down to a dozen or so animals in the entire state. Once the farms began to be abandoned in the early s, and as developers planted delicious shrubs around suburban houses, deer populations expanded. Now there are about , deer in Connecticut alone.
They presumably cast a shower of black-legged ticks in their wake. When the cause of Lyme disease was first worked out in the early s, the solution to the problem seemed obvious: get rid of deer.
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As the deer population dropped, so would the incidence of Lyme. That failure led scientists to a deeper understanding of the ecology that fuels the black-legged tick boom. All told, black-legged ticks have been plucked off of some species. They feed on birds, which can airlift them to new territory. And small mammals, like white-footed mice, nurture the younger generation of ticks. Some of them also sustain Borrelia. The only way for the bacteria to endure is for older ticks to infect Borrelia -free larvae.
White-footed mice, on the other hand, can become covered in larvae and nymphs. Other hosts actually drive down tick numbers. Disease ecologist Rick Ostfeld and his colleagues at the Cary Institute have found that opossums are disastrous for black-legged ticks. A single opossum may kill 5, ticks every week. Some species may even be able to control tick numbers and infection prevalence not by killing the ticks but by killing their favorite hosts. That is the new argument that Taal Levi, a postdoctoral researcher at the Cary Institute, put forward in a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
After the morning tick drag, I sat down with Levi at a picnic table outside the institute to hear about the history of foxes. Foxes were originally very abundant in the eastern United States, where they feasted on small mammals like white-footed mice. But the past few decades have not been good to them. A number of studies suggest that coyotes have been responsible for the decline. Originally, foxes coexisted with wolves in the eastern and midwestern United States. Once wolves were eradicated, coyotes expanded from the Midwest to take their place.
Coyotes kill foxes or scare them out of range. Levi and his colleagues built a mathematical model of how these changes can affect rates of Lyme disease. When foxes disappear, the model suggests, numbers of small mammals like white-footed mice boom, feeding a growing population of ticks and their pathogens.
For evidence, Levi points to historical records from sites across the Midwest and eastern United States. In some places, Lyme disease rates have gone up even though the deer population has not. But the rates in those places match up nicely with a decline in fox numbers. It occurred to Williams and his colleague Jeff Ward back in One day, while they were clearing a stand of Japanese barberry, they noticed something strange. Williams and Ward speculated that the Japanese barberry was creating a miniature environment that favored ticks.
The Rise of the Tick | Outside Online
They also got rid of some barberry stands. The results were striking. When the scientists dragged the barberry sites, they found infected ticks per acre. Where they killed the barberry, they found only 40 ticks. And when they dragged places that were free of barberry, they found only ten. He points to an explosion of barberry.
A tick can hang out there and wait for a host.