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Deus te ve, God sees thee.

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Ella se huva, she praises herself. Eu Ihe direi, I will tell him, or I will tell her. Eu Ihes prometti, I promised them : as well for the mas- culine as the feminine. The same observation applies to the other conjunctive pronouns. Note, that the pronouns conj active are very often joined to a verb, preceded or followed by the verb haver. Lhe is sometimes rendered in English by you. Que Ihe parece aquillo? What do you think of that? Assente no que Ihe digo, be persuaded, or believe what I tell you.

There are some pronouns in Portuguese which are composed of the pronouns personal and conjunctive, and which therefore are called mixed. These pronouns are formed by changing the letter e of the pronoun conjunctive into o for the masculine, and a for the feminine ; thus, it to me, instead of me o, or me a, you must say, m'o or m'a. J I tas, f. J Ih'o, m. J vol-os. Dai-m'o, give it to me. Entrego-t'o, I deliver it to you.

Dize-lh'o, you tell it him, or her. Entrega-ltios, deliver them to him, or to her. Elle nol-o disse, he told us of it. Eu vol-os mandarei, I will send them to you. If the verbs are in the infinitive, the pronouns mixed may be put either before or after the verbs ; as, para dtzerm'o, or para ra'o dizer, to tell me it : but if the verbs are in the gerund, the pronouns mixed must be trans- posed ; as, dizendom'o, and not m'o dizendo, in telling me it.

Pronouns possessive, so called because they denote Jiat the thing spoken of belongs to the person or thing they are connected with, are of two sorts, absolute and relative. See the remarks hereafter. Plural, os meus, masc. The pronouns possessive in Portuguese are the fol- lowing : Sing, men, m. J Sing, sua Plur. J Sing. J The pronouns possessive are declined with the de- finite article o for the masculine, and a for the feminine.

Fossa magestade, your majesty. Men pai, my father. From the above examples it appears that nouns declined with the definite article have no article in the nominative, in the singular number. Sen is sometimes used instead of vosso and -yossa, in the polite way of speaking : thus, tenho o sen livro, I have your book ; fallei ao sen criado, I spoke to your servant ; os sens olhos saoformosos, your eyes are handsome.

The pronouns possessive absolute always come before the noun they belong to. We have expressed them above. The pronouns possessive absolute do not agree in gender with the noun of the possessor, as in English, but with that of the thing possessed : as, a mdi ama a seufilho, the mother loves her son ; o pai ama asuafilha, the father loves his daughter. Thus the pronoun mas- culine sen, in Portugue e, is in this case rendered by her in English, and the feminine sua by his. We have already said that seu and sua are sometimes rendered into English by your when they are absolute : they are also sometimes rendered into English by yours, when they are pronouns relative, speaking politely of anything belonging to a gentleman or lady, e o seu, QIC 6 a ma, it is yours ; but if the gentleman or lady is not pre- sent, or if they are not directly spoken to, though present, then the pronouns, seu and sua must be rendered into English by his or hers.

From this example, it will be seen that the Portuguese have no particular pronoun possessive for things that are inanimate, corresponding with the English pronoun its. Hence, finally, it follows that, when the Portuguese possessives seu and sua are relative, they are rendered into English by his or hers, or theirs, according to the gender and number of the noun of the possessor that is understood.

The possessives absolute are left out when they are preceded by a verb, or by a pronoun conjunctive, which sufficiently denote whose thing it is they speak of; the article alone being sufficient ; as, devo-lhe a vida, I owe my life to him, or to her, or to it. When the pronouns possessive absolute are before nouns of different genders in the same sentence, and with which they are grammatically construed, they ought to be repeated, as, sen pai e sua mdi, his father and mother ; not sen pai e mdi.

The pronoun possessive absolute is also used as in the following case, when we use the possessive relative ; a friend of mine, um dos meus amigos. The possessives minha, tua, sua, nossa, vossa, may be also relative, but with a different meaning. Examples : Levarei a minha avante, I will insist upon it, I will obtain it ; elle levard a sua avante, he will insist upon it, he will do it ; levai a vossa avante, go on with your resolution ; fazer das suas to play tricks, to dodge. When the pronoun possessive is accompanied by a pronoun demonstrative, we do not put the article in the nominative ; we do not say, o este men livro, but este men livro, this book of mine.

They are called pronouns demonstrative, because they serve to point out or demonstrate any thing or person ; as, this book, este livro ; that man, aquelle homem. There are three principal demonstratives, viz. JZsse, essa, are used in writing to any person to express the place or town wherein he dwells ; as, tenho fallado n'essa cidade com muitos amigos, I have spoken in your city with many friends. These pronouns are declined thus : Sing. I Gen. The same observation applies to the pronoun aquelle, wherein you will see another elision besides in the dative case.

Both Portuguese and Spaniards have demonstratives of the neuter gender, though they do not agree with the substantives, as in Latin ; they do not say isto homem, but este homem, this man. The pronoun mesmo, the same, is also frequently joined to the demonstrative ; as, este mesmo homem, this very same man ; aquillo mesmo, that very same thing. Aqui, ali, and Id are sometimes added to the demonstra- tive, or to the noun that comes after it, in order to specify and particularise it still more ; as, este homem aqui, this inun here ; aquella mulher Id, that woman there ; aqui, denoting a near or present object ; and Id, a distant and absent one.

The pronouns aquelle, aquella, aquelles, aquellas, when they relate to persons, and are followed by the relative que, are rendered into English by he who or he that, site who or that, they who or that : as, aquelle que ama a virtude efeliz, he who loves virtue is happy ; aquelles que desprezdo a sciencia nao conhecem o valor d'ella, they who despise learning know not the value of it. The pronoun possessive absolute his, her, their, con- strued in English with a noun followed by the pronoun relative ivho or that before a verb, is rendered in Portu- guese by the genitive of the pronouns aquelle, aquella, aquelles, followed by que, and the possessive is left out ; as, all men blame his manners who often says that which himself does not think, todo o mundo censura o procedi- mento d'aquelle que tern por costume dizer o que ndo tern 42 PKONOUNS.

The English pronoun such, followed by as or that but not governed by the verb substantive to be , is also ren- dered into Portuguese by aquelle que, or aquelles que ; as, such as do not love virtue do not know it, aquelle or aquelles que ndo amdo a virtude ndo a conhecem. The pronouns mo, isto, aquillo, before que, are rendered into English by what; as, elle diz aquillo que sabe, he says what he knows. Aquelle is also used to show contempt ; as, que quer aquelle homem?

The pronouns interrogative serve to ask questions, and are as follows : who, what, which, quern, que, qual. Quern d? Quern vos disse isso? Que quereis? Com que se sustenta?

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Que estais fazendo? De que se faz isto? Que livro e este? Que negocios tendes? Que casa e? De qual fallais vos? Qual d'elles? Quern or qual dos dois? Who is it 1 Who told you so 1 What will you have 1 What do you maintain your- self with 1 What are you doing 1 From what is this done 1 What book is this 1 What affairs have you 1 What house is it?

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Which do you speak of? Which of them? Qual is used in speaking both of persons and things, and is declined thus : Masculine and Feminine. Masculine and Feminine. Pronouns relative are those which show the relation or reference which a noun has to what follows it. They are the following : qual, which ; que, that or which ; cujo, whose ; quern, who. Qual, in a sense of comparison, is followed by tal, and then qual is rendered in English by as, and tal by of. When qual is only a relative, it is declined with the definite articles o or a. The pronoun que may be relative both to persons and things, and is common to all numbers, genders, and cases ; as, o livro que, the book which ; os livros que, the books which ; a carta que, the letter which ; as cartas que, the letters which ; o mestre que ensina, the master who teaches ; a mulher que tenho, the wife that I have ; o homem que eu amo, the man whom I love.

Que is sometimes a conjunction ; as, creio que irei, I believe that I shall go. See the Syntax. Observe, that quern is common to all numbers, genders, and cases ; but it has no nominative in the plural. Quern is declined thus : Nom. Quern sometimes serves for exclamation ; as, quern me de'ra estar em casa! Cujo, cuja, are declined thus : MASC. Observe that cujo must be followed by the noun or term to which it refers, and with which it agrees in gender, number, and case : as, a pessoa cuja reputaqao e rjrande, the person whose reputation is great ; o ce'o cujo soccorro nunca falta, heaven, whose assistance never fails ; cuja bella cara, whose fair visage ; cujas bellezas, whose beauties ; a cujo pal, to whose father ; de cujos irmaos tenho recebido, from whose brothers I have received.

Observe also that cujo is not to be repeated, though the terms to which it refers be of different number ; as, cuja valia e obras, whose valour and deeds. See the Syntax, chap. These pronouns are called improper, because indeed they are not properly pronouns, although they bear a great resemblance to pronouns as well as to adjectives. Qualquer, any one ; whether man, or woman, or thing.

Qualquer dos dois, either of the two, or whichsoever of the two. Quemquer, whoever, or any person. Todo, all, or every. Um has two terminations for the two genders, viz. It is declinable, Alguem has only one termination, and is declinable. Algum has two terminations, viz. It is declinable. Ninguem has only one termination and is declinable ; ninguem o ere, nobody believes it. Nenhum has two terminations, viz. Cada um has two terminations, viz. It has no plural, and is declinable : cada dia, every day ; cada mez, every month.

Outro has two terminations, viz. Outrem has only one termination. It has no plural, and is declinable. Qualquer has but one termination. It makes quaesque. Qualquer is said both of persons and things. Quemquer has but one termination. It has no plural, and is declined. It is rendered in English by anybody : quemquer vos dird, anybody will tell you.

Quemquer is used in speaking of a person. Todo has two terminations, viz. It is declinable, and sometimes taken substantively, and then it signifies the ivhole ; as, o todo 6 maior que a sua parte, the whole is bigger than its part. Tal has only one termination. It makes taes in the plural, and it is declined with the indefinite article. It is common to the masculine and to the feminine genders ; and sometimes it is joined to qual ; as, tal qualelle e t such as it is. Tal supplies sometimes the place of the person whose name is not specified ; as, um tal velhaco deve ser c such a rogue ought to be punished.

THE verb is a part of speech which serves to express that which is attributed to the subject in denoting the being or condition of the things and persons spoken of, the actions which they do, or the impressions they receive. The first and the most general division of Verbs is into personal and impersonal. A verb personal is conjugated by three persons. A verb, considered in regard to syntax, is of four sorts, viz. Some of the verbs are regular and others irregular. We shall give their definitions in their proper places. The auxiliary verbs are so called because they aid the conjugation of other verbs.

They are four in Por- tuguese : viz. The Indicative Mood. This tense may also be conjugated thus : tive'ra, tiveras, tivera, tiveramos, tivereis, tiverao. I shall be obliged to have, tfec. Imperative Mood. Optative and Subjunctive Moods. I join them together because their tenses are similar. It is compounded of the first preterimperfect subjunc live and the participle. Sing, Plur. It is compounded of the second preterimperfect sub- junctive and the participle. See Syntax of the Auxiliary Verbs. It is composed of the first future and the participle. Sing, tido, tida Plur.

The supine is supplied by the prepositions a or para and the verb in the infinitive ; as, para ter to have. The verb ter, to have, is an auxiliary or helping verb, which serves to conjugate other verbs : examples, ter lido, VERBS. The verb haver is seldom used now as an auxiliary in Portuguese, since ter is an auxiliary to itself, as well as to all other verbs. The verb haver, with the particle de after it, denotes a firm resolution, possibility, or necessity of doing any- thing, as, eu hei de ter, I must have ; eu hei de cantar, I will sing ; eu havia de fallar, I was to speak ; also before the passive voice, as, o principe ha de ser respeitado, the prince ought to be, or must be respected.

In the foregoing examples the verb haver may be put before the other verb ; but then it requires the particle de, and has a different meaning : as, in the first example, you may say, hei de dar-vos, I must give to you. Observe, also, that when the indica- tive present of the verb haver is auxiliary to other verbs, as in the foregoing examples, you must cut off the last.

To express interrogation, put the personal pronoun after the verb, as in English, thus, terei eu? Sometimes the pronouns are omitted ; as, que far- emos? Indicative Mood. T eu era, or estava Sing. The tense is compounded of the preterimperfect indica- tive ; and the participle sido or estado. It is compounded of the present conjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter, and its own participle sido, or estado.

It is compounded of the first preterimperfect subjunc- tive of the verb ter, and its own participle. C se eu tivera, or tivesse sido, or estado if I had been Sing. Compounded of the second preterimperfect subjunc- tive of the verb ter, and its own participle sido, or estado. In English there is no word to distinguish them, being both rendered into English by to be.

But estar denotes a place, or any adventi- tious quality : as, estar em Londres, to be in London ; estar de saude, to be in health ; esta frio, to be cold ; 62 VERBS. A regular verb is such as is confined to general rules in its conjugation. A verb active denotes the action or impression of the subject, and governs a noun which is the object of that action or impression ; as, amar a virtude, to love virtue ; receler cartas, to receive letters. The regular Portuguese verbs have three different terminations in the infinitive ; viz.

I have reduced all the tenses of the Portuguese verbs to eight ; four of which are general, and have the same terminations in all the verbs ; and the other four may be likewise made general by changing some letters, and all the conjugations reduced to one. The general tenses are the future indicative, the first and second preterimperfect subjunctive, and the first future subjunctive. The future indicative is terminated in all the verbs in rei, rds, rd ; remos, reis, rdo. The imperfect subjunctive, in ra or sse, ras or sses, ra or sse ; ramos or ssemos, reis or sse is, rao or ssem.

The second imperfect, in ria, rias, ria; riamos, rieis, ri The first subjunctive, in es, mos, des, em. As to the future in- dicative, you have only to add ei to the respective present infinitive of the three conjugations, in order to form the first person singular ; and if you add to the same infinitive present as, you will form the second person singular of it, and so of all the rest, by adding to the infinitive present a, emos, eis, do.

The imperfect subjunctive has two terminations for every person, both in the singular and plural ; but if you cut off the last consonant, r, of the infinitive, and then add to it the terminations above mentioned, you form the imperfect subjunctive, according to its two different terminations. Lastly, if you cut off the last consonant of the infinitive, and add to it the terminations above mentioned, you will form the second imperfect subjunc- tive. The present indicative of the three conjugations is formed by changing the last letters of the infinitive, viz.

The preterimperfect indicative is formed in the first conjugation by changing the last consonant of the in- finitive, viz. The perfect definite in the first conjugation is formed 64 VERBS- by changing the termination ar of the infinitive into ei r aste, ou, dmos, dstes, drdo ; and in the second conjuga- tion it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into i, este, eo, emos, estes, erao. In the third conjugation, the same tense is formed by changing the termination ir of the infinitive into i, iste, io, imos, istes, irdo.

The present subjunctive in the first conjugation in formed by changing the termination ar of the infinitive into 6 es, e, emos, eis, em ; and in the second conjugation it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into a, as, a amos, ais, do. As to the imperative mood, you have only to observe that the second person singular is always the same as the third person singular of the present indicative, in all the conjugations. This tense is composed of the participle amado and the present indicative of the auxiliary verb ter. This tense is composed of the participle amado and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter.

It may be conjugated thus : amdra, amdras, amdra, amdramos, amdreis, amdrdo, or 'eu tinha amado Sing. It is composed of the participle amado and the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle amado and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle amado and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter.

I 1 amardes amarem when I shall love thou shalt love he shall love we shall love you shall love they shall love VERBS. It is composed of the participle amado and the future subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. The other tenses are conjugated like amar. Before we proceed to the second conjugation, it is necessary to know that the passive verbs, which express the suffering of an action, are nothing more than the participles of active verbs, conjugated with the verb ser, to be. C eu venderei Sing.

T que eu venda Sing. This tense is composed of the participle admittido and the present indicative of the auxiliary verb ter. Composed of the participle admittido and the imper- fect of the auxiliary verb ter. It may also be conjugated thus : admittira, admittiras t admittira, admittiramos, admittireis, admittirdo. A adfMtfau ,, admitta C que n6s admittamos Plur.

Composed of the participle admittido and the present subjunctive of the verb ter. It is composed of the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the verb ter and the participle admittido. It is composed of the second preterimperfect subjunc- tive of the verb ter and the participle admittido. It is composed of the first future subjunctive of the verb ter and the participle admittido. Infinitive Mood. There are, in each conjugation, some verbs which do not conform to the common rule, aud on that account are called irregulars.

There are but two of the first conjugation, which in some of their tenses depart from the rule of the verb dinar, viz.

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We have already conjugated the first, and the second is conjugated in the following manner : Indicative Mood. I give. This tense is composed of the participle dado and the present indicative of the auxiliary ter ; as, tenho dado, c. I begin with fazer, poder, and saber, because they occnr often in conversation. I tinfias feito, dec. Cfagdmosnos let us do.

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After the same manner are conjugated desfazer, to undo; contrafazer, to counterfeit; refazer, to do again. Cnos pudemos we could pudeste thou couldst -! I did know Sing. C quando n6s soubermos when we shall know, Plur. TO SEE. J llm ge g I vejdmos nos let us see Plur. Wrew Infinite Mood. In like manner are conjugated the compounds antever, prever, and rever. The verb prever, to foresee, is conjugated in the pre- sent indicative thus : t eu prevejo Sing. C nos dizemos dizes Plur. Optative Mood. J queres Plur. I was willing, fec.

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But when it is not repeated and is joined to the particle se, it is sometimes rendered into English by at least ; as, urn se quer, one at least : and sometimes by however, when joined to the particle que ; as, como quer que seja, however it be. In all which cases, it is not to be confounded with the third person singular of the indicative of the verb querer. The verb querer is sometimes used with the particle se instead of the verb dever ; as, as cousas ndo se qiierem feitas d pressa, things must not be done in a hurry.

I shall give no other tenses of this verb than the pre- sent indicative, the imperative, and the present of the subjunctive, none but these being irregular. This verb changes the d into c before the a and the o, namely, in the first person singular of the present indicative ; third person singular, and first and third persons plural of the imperative ; and in the whole of the present subjunctive.

It is conjugated in the following manner :- Indicative Mood. Some verbs of the conjugation ending in er are only irregular in the participle passive : as, escrito, from escrever ; absolto, from absolver. The verbs ending in eio in the present indicative change that termination into ia in the imperfect, and into i in the preterdefinite, and are so conjugated.

C lemox Sing. You must observe that they lose the i through all the other moods and tenses. The verb crer, to believe, is conjugated in the same manner. It is composed of the participle ido and the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle ido and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle ido and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter.

C eu vinha. Tew wWi Sln g-1 - x. T wos vinhamos I. The verbs change the i of the first person singular of the present tense, indicative, into e in the other VERBS. They are conjugated thus : Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. These verbs change the g of the infinitive mood into. This verb changes the e of the infinitive mood into i in the first person singular of the present indicative, eu sigo, I follow ; in the present subjunctive, que eu siga, that I may follow ; and in the imperative it is conju- gated thus : segue tu, siga elle, sigamos nos, segui vox, sigdo elles.

The compounds are perseguir, to persecute ; conseguir, to obtain ; proseguir, to pursue. It is also irregular in the imperative mood, where it is conjugated thus : foge tu, fuja elle, fujamos no's, fugi v6s, fujao elles. It keeps the u in all other tenses and moods, as also the g. The verb surgir, to arrive, or to come to an anchor, has the same irregularity, and makes surto in the participle passive. This verb is irregular in the first person singular of the present indicative and subjunctive, as well as in the imperative, in which it changes the d into f.

I pec amos n6s let us ask. Feijoo says that the o of this verb is to be changed into u in those tenses where the t is followed by e or a ; and that it is to be kept when the t is followed by i ; but in the Fabula dos Planetas we read, surtio effeito, it took effect ; and Andrade, 2. This verb is defective, and is only used in those tenses and persons where the p is followed by i; as, earpimotj carpis, we weep, you weep.

I go out, Arc. This is the common way of writing the irregular tenses of the verb sahir, as well as those of the verb cahir, viz. Feijoo says that this verb changes the o into u in those persons where it would otherwise meet with the syllables, da, de, do. Advertir is irregular in the following tenses, only by changing vir into ver.

H[ advertes Plur. It is composed [of the present indicative of the auxi- liary verb ter, and the participle posto. Composed of the participle posto, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle posto, and the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. Composed of the participle posto, and the first preter- imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. Composed of the participle posto, and the second pro. Composed of the participle posto, and the future sub junctive of the auxiliary verb ter.

I said seldom, because sometimes neuter verbs may be conjugated with the verb ser; as, ser bem fallado, to have a good name. It is necessary to be acquainted with the nature of a neuter verb, to avoid mistakes in the participle, as may be seen in the Syntax of Participles. I did repent, ttc. Yet it is to be observed that the conjunctive pronouns me, te, etc. In like manner we may say lembrando-me, remembering, and not me lembrando.

In the subjunctive mood, you must put the conjunc- tive pronoun before the present ; but you must carefully observe that the conjunctive pronouns must be placed before it when preceded by the particles se, if, que, that : thus we may say, que eu me lembrasse, se eu me lembrasse? But -when the first preterimperfect is not preceded by any particle, then you must place the conjunctive pronoun after it ; as, arrependera-me eu disso, I wish I repented it.

In the future you must always place the conjunctive pronouns before it : thus, quando eu me lembrar, when I shall remember ; but not quando eu lembrar-me. All the verbs active may become reciprocals. A ide-vos go away, get away, or get you 1 vao-se let them go away Subjunctive Mood. This verb is also used in speaking of vessels to signify their being leaky ; as, vdi-se a cuba, the tub leaks. It is also used before the gerunds : as, o inverno vai-se acabando, the winter is drawing to an end ; elles vdo-se preparando, they are preparing themselves : in which examples the verb is to be rendered into English by to be, and without the addition of the adverb away.

Sometimes it is placed before the present infinitive : as, ir-se deitdr,. This is a compound verb, which is to be conjugated by putting the particle a before the verb vir in all its tenses and moods, attending to the observations already made concerning the conjunctive pronouns, and also in regard to the reciprocal verb haver-se, to behave, in the conjugation of which no more is necessary than to add the conjunctive pronouns to the verb haver.

There are three sorts of impersonal verbs, which have only the third person singular. The first are properly impersonals of themselves ; as, succede it happens basta it is enough, or it suffices chove it rains troveja it thunders The second are derived from the active verbs, followed by the particle se, which renders them impersonal ; as, ama-se, they love ; diz-se, they say ; nota-se, it is noted.

They are also called passive impersonals. In like manner all the active verbs may become im- personal. In regard to these verbs, observe, when the noun that follows them is in the singular number, you must put the verb in the singular ; if the noun be in the plural, you must put the verb in the plural. Louva-se o capitdo, they praise the captain. Louvao-se os capitdes, they praise the captains. Ve-se um homem, they see a man. Veem-se homens, they see men. When Ihe is used after the word se, then the must be rendered into English by his or her ; as, louva-se-lhe o valor, they praise his or her courage.

Conjugate after the same manner succede-me, it happens to me, ttc. Many of these impersonal verbs have the third person singular and plural ; as, doe-trie a perna, my leg pains me doem-me os olhos, I have sore eyes o vosso vestido parece-me novo, your coat appears new to me os vossos sapatos me parecem muito compridos, your shoes seem to me too long. You may observe that quando, when, must be made use of in the last examples, although it is not required in English. It is to be thus conjugated Indicative Mood.

I have explained them at large in the following conjugation.


There is of it ha Id d'isso There is not of it nao ha Id d'isso Is there of it? Is there not of it? There was of it fiavia Id d'isso There was not of it nao havia Id d'isso Was there of iff havia Id d'isso? Was there not of it? There was of it There was not of it Was there of it? Was there not of it 1 There shall be of it There shall not be of it Shall there be of it 1? Shall there not be of it? That there may be of it That there may not be of it That there were of it That there were not of it There would be of it There would not be of it Would there not be of it?

If there had been of it If there had not been of it houve Id d'isso ndo houve Id d'isso houve Id d'isso? When there will be of it When there will not be of it teria havido Id d'isso? Will there not have been ndo terd havido demasiado Id too much of it? Examples : there is some, is there not 1 ha Id d'isso, ndo e verdade?

Most sentences beginning with the word some and the verb to be are expressed in Portuguese by the impersonal ha : as, some friends are false, ha amigos falsos ; some Christians are unworthy of that name, ha Christdos que nao sdo dignos de tal nome. Observe that ha comes before a substantive even of the plural number. The impersonal ha is besides used to denote a quan- tity of time, space, and number : as, ha dez annos que morreo, he has been dead these ten years, or, he died ten years ago ; ha trinta milhoens d' almas em Franca, there are thirty millions of souls in France ; de Paris a Londres ha legoas, Paris is leagues from London.

The question of space is asked thus, quanta ha de Paris a Londres? This verb answers to the Italian bisogna and to the French il faut, and always requires to be intercepted with the preposition de, thus : present, ha-de-se ; preterite, havia-de-se being then followed by the infinitive. Ha-de-se ir, one, or somebody must go. Sometimes the verb coming after this impersonal is rendered in English by the passive voice ; as, ha-de-se fazer isto, this must be done.

In the conjugation of this verb, you must use the verb to be with the word necessary, as I have already said. Present, ha-de-se, it is necessary. Imper- fect, havia-de-se, it was necessary ; and so through all the tenses and moods. Sometimes the infinitive that follows the particle de is placed between the impersonal and its particle se; as, ha- de-achar-se, it must be found : and sometimes the infini- tive precedes the impersonal and this follows the particle VERBS. The verb carpir is used only in those tenses and per- sons where the p is followed by an i ; as, carpimos, carpis, we weep, you weep.

The verb soer is only used in the third persons of the present indicative, of the preteriinperfect of the same mood, and in the gerund : as, elle soe, he is wont ; elles soem, they are wont. Gerund, soendo, being wont. THE participle is a tense of the infinitive, which serves to form the preterperfects and preterpluperfects of all the verbs : as, tenha amado, I have loved ; tinka amado, I had loved.

Such participle is likewise a noun adjective. Examples : Homem amado, mulher amada ; livros amados, letras amadas. Some participles are frequently abridged ; as, envolto or envolvido, corrupto or corrompido, enxuto or enxugado, and several others, which the use of authors will point out to you. THE adverb is that which gives more or less force to the verb or the adjective. The adverb has the same effect with the verb as the adjective with the substantive : it explains the accidents and circumstances of the action of the verb.

Adverbs of time : as, at present, presentemente ; now, agora ; yesterday, hontem ; to-day, hoje ; never, nunca ; always, sempre ; in the meantime, entretanto. Adverbs of place : as, where, onde ; here, aqui ; from whence, donde ; there, all ; from hence, daqui ; above, em cima ; below, em baixo ; far, longe ; near, perto.

Adverbs of quantity : as, how much, quanta ; how many, quantos, or quantas ; so much, tanto ; much, muito; little, pouco. A great many adverbs are formed from adjectives, changing o into amente : santo, santamente, holily ; rico, ricamente, richly ; douto, doutamente, learnedly. From adjectives in e or I we likewise form adverbs, by adding mente to them ; as, Constante, constantemente, constantly. Diligente, diligentemente, diligently. Prudente, prudentemente, prudently. Fiel, fielmente, faithfully. Abundantemente, abundantly Com razao, justamente, justly Absolutamente, absolutely Antigamente, anciently De proposito, purposely Adeus, farewell Admiravelmente, Maravilho- samente, ds mil maravil- Jias, admirably Astutamente, cunningly Agora, or por hora, now at this time Jd, para jd, now, immedi- ately ADVERBS.

Antes do diet, before daybreak Diante de Deus, before God Dentro da igreja, within the church Detraz do palacio, behind the palace Debaixo da mesa, under the table Em cima da mesa, upon the table Alem, besides Alem dos mares, on that side of the seas Alem d'isso, besides that, moreover Alem de que, idem A'quem, or d' a? This preposition governs also a nominative ; as, f6ra sen irmao, except his brother, or his brother excepted. Per ante ojuiz, before the judge Entre, between, among, or amongst Entre os homens, among men Sobre a mesa, upon the table Conforme, or segundo a lei, according to the law Por amor de Deus, for God's sake Pelo mundo, through the world Pela rua, through the streets Pellas terras, through the lands Por grande que seja, let it be ever so great Contra elles, against them Durante, during; as, durante o inverno, during the winter We shall be more particular about prepositions when we examine their construction.

Some conjunctions are copulative, which join, and, as it were, couple two terms together ; as, Portuguezes e Inglezes, Portuguese and English. Some are disjunctive, which show separation or divi- sion : as, nem, nor, neither ; ou, either, or. The adversative denote restriction or contrariety : as, mas, or porem, but ; comtudo, yet, however ; mas antes, or pelo contrario, nay.

The concessive, which show the assent we give to a thing : as, embora, or seja embora, well and good ; estd feito, done, agreed. The casual show the reason of something ; as, porque, what for, or because, or why. The concluding denote a consequence drawn from what is before ; as, logo, or por consequenda, therefore, then, or consequently.

The transitive, which serve to pass from one sentence to another : as, diem disso, moreover, or besides that ; sobretudo, or em summa, after all, upon the whole, in the main a proposito, now I think of it, or by the by. To the above-mentioned parts of speech, grammarians have added Interjections, which are particles serving to denote some passion or emotion of the mind : but there is another sort, which may be called demonstrative ; as, cd and Id, and aqui and ali.

To which we may. OP JOY. Ha, ha, ha! Oh que prazer! Oh joy! Ebooks and Manuals

Ay de mim I Poor me! Ay I Ay! Ora vamos! Come, come on! Oh I oh Id! Oh, oh Id, alii! Oh my! Oh dear me! Irra f Away! Away with! By no means! Fora I Fie! Guardem-se or arredem-se! Out of the way, or stand away! Oh that! Oh se! The interjection Oh! Fran co G de Snr. It is divided into three sorts : the first, of Order or Arrangement ; the second of Concordance ; the third of Government. The Syntax of Order or Arrangement is the proper placing of words in a sentence. The Syntax of Concordance is when the parts of speech agree with one another, as the substantive with the adjective, or the nominative with the verb.

The Syntax of Government is when one part of speech governs another. For the sake of those who, perhaps, have not a gram- matical knowledge of their own language, I shall lay down some general rules for the Portuguese construc- tion. The nominative denotes the subject, and is usually placed before the verb or attribute ; it may be either a noun or pronoun : as, Francisco escreve, Francis writes ; eufallo, I speak. The adjectives belonging to the nominative sub- stantive, to which the action of the verb is attributed, are put after the substantive and before the verb : as, os estudantes morigerados e diliyentes estudao, the obedient and diligent scholars study.

If the nominative has an article, this article is always placed before it. The nominative is sometimes understood ; as amo, where eu is understood : and so of the other persons of the verb. After the nominative comes the verb ; and if there is an adverb, it is to be placed immediately after the verb whose accident and circumstances it explains : as, Pedro ama com extremo a gloria, Peter is extremely fond of glory. The preposition is always placed before the case it governs ; as, perto de casa, near the house. The relative is always placed after the antecedent; as, Pedro o gual estuda, Peter who studies.

When two or more substantives singular come together, the adjectives belonging to them must be put in the plural ; as, tanto el rei como a rainha montados a vavallo parecem bem, both the king and the queen look well when they ride. But when there is one or many words between the last noun and the adjective, that adjective common to all agrees with the masculine noun, though the last noun be feminine ; and if the nouns are in the singular, then the adjective must be put in the plural number and masculine- gender : as, o rio e a lagoa estavdo conyela- dos, the pond and river were frozen ; o trabalho, a indus- tria, e a fortuna unidos, pains, industry, and fortune joined together.

Every personal verb agrees with its nominative, expressed or understood in number and person. The nominative being the basis of the sentence, the verb depends on it, as the other cases depend on the verb. The adjective depends on the substantive to which it refers ; and the adverb on the verb whose accidents it explains. The genitive depends upon a substantive, expressed or understood, by which it is governed. The accusative depends either on an accusative verb, or on a preposition.

The dative and vocative have, strictly speaking, no dependence on the other parts : the dative is common, as it were, to all nouns and verbs ; the vocative only points out the person to whom you speak. I now come to the Construction of the several parts of speech. BEFORE we come to the syntax of the articles, remem- ber that o, a, os, as, are articles only when they precede the nouns or pronouns, but not when joined to the verbs. Those who understand Latin will quickly perceive the difference, if they take notice that every time they render o, a, by ilium, illam, illud ; or by eum, earn, id ; and os, as, by illos, illas, ilia ; or by eos, eas, ea, they are relative pronouns.

The article is used before the names of things which can be spoken of ; therefore nouns of substances, arts, sciences, plays, metals, virtues, and vices, having no article before them in English, require the article in Portuguese ; as, oiro e a prata ndo podem fazer feliz ao homem, gold and silver cannot make the happiness of man. A virtude ndo e compativel com o vicio, virtue cannot agree with vice.

A philosophia e uma sciencia muito noire, philosophy is a very noble science. Joguemos as cartas, let us play at cards. The article is not placed before a substantive which is followed by the adjective of number that stands for a surname ; as, Joseph Primeiro, Joseph the First.

When a book, or some part of it, as chapter, page, tfec. If the- adjective of number comes before the substantive, it takes, the article ; as, o primeiro livro, the first book. The article is never made use of before proper names of men, women, gods, goddesses, saints. The article is not used in Portuguese before the possessive relative pronouns ; as, de quern e esta casa? When a mount, mountain, or hill's name is preceded by the word monte, it takes neither article nor preposition ; as, o Monte Atlante, Mount Atlas ; o.

The noun of measure, weight, and the number of the things that have been bought, requires the article ; as, o trigo vende-se a tanto o alqueire, wheat is sold so much a-peck. A manteiga vende-se a tanto o arratel, butter costs so much a-pound. Os ovos vendem-se a tanto a duzia, eggs are sold so much -dozen. No article is used with proper names of persons and planets, except a terra, the earth ; o sol, the sun ; a lua, the moon.

When proper names are used in a determinate sense, that is, when they are applied to particular objects,, then they take the article : o Deus dos Christdos, the God of Christians ; o Archimedes de Inglaterra, the Archimedes of England. Nouns are used without an article in the follow- ing cases : 1st.

Primeira parte, the first part. S 10 Antonio, navio de noventa pec as, the St. Anthony, a ninety-gun ship. In sentences of exclamation : as, As mais bellas florcs sdo as que menos durdo ; qualquer ckuva as desmaia, o vento as murcka, o sol as queima, e acaba de secar ; semfallar d'uma infinidade de insectos que as perseguem e deitdo aperder: natural e verdadeira imagem da bellezaf the most beautiful flowers last but a very short time ; the least rain tarnishes them, the wind withers them, the sun scorches them, and completes the drying of them up ; without mentioning an infinite num- ber of insects that spoil and hurt them : a natural and true image of beauty!

When nouns of number are used in an indefinite sense ; as, mil soldados de a cavallo contra cem infantes, a thousand horse against a hundred foot. Tenho lido dous poetas, I have read two poets, that is, any two out of all that ever existed. But before a noun of number, in a definite sense, it would take an article ; as, Tenho lido os dous poetas, I have read both poets ; because this plainly indicates a definite two, of whom some mention has been already made.

When the adjective is used substantively, it must have the neuter article o before it : verde ofende menos a vista que o vermelho, green hurts the eye less than red. There are also some adverbs preceded by the neuter article o ; as the following : o melhor que eu puder, the best I could ; o menos que for possivel, the least possible. Articles are repeated in Portuguese before as many nouns requiring the article as there are in the sentence ; as, ouro, a prata, a saude, as honras, e os deleites ntio pod em fazer feliz ao homem que ndo tern sciencia nem virtude, gold, silver, health, honours, and pleasures, cannot make a happy man without wisdom and virtue.

The article o is put before the word senhor, sir, or my lord ; as, senhor duque, my lord duke ; o senhor presidente, my lord the president ; os senhores, the gentlemen ; dos senhores, of the gentlemen. In a word, the natural associators with articles are those common appellatives which denote the several genera and species of beings, or those words which, though indefinite, are yet capable, through the article, of becoming definite. Therefore Apollonius makes it part of the pronoun's defini- tion, to refuse coalescence with the article : and it would be absurd to say, o eu, the I ; or, o tu, the thou ; because nothing can make those pronouns more definite than they are.

When the adjective um, nma, is used as an article in Portuguese, it denotes individuals as unknown ; but the articles o, a, denote individuals as known. Example : Seeing an object pass by which I never saw till then, a beggar with a long beard, for instance, I say : Ali vai um pobre com uma barba comprida, there goes a beggar with a long beard. But the man departs and returns a week after ; then I must say, A li vai o pobre da barba comprida, there goes the beggar with the long beard.

A philosophia de Newton, Newton's philosophy. As guardas do principe, the prince's guards. A porta de casa, the house-gate. Eis aqui a casa do companheiro do irmdo de minha mulker, here is my wife's brother's partner's house. When two substantives singular are the nominative of a verb, the verb must be put in the plural ; as, men irmdo e men pai estdo no campo, my brother and my father are in the country. If the nominative is a collective substantive, the verb is always put in the singular ; as, toda a cidade assistio, all the city was present.

Of adjectives, some are put before the noun, and- some after; and others may be put indifferently, either before or after. Examples : Meu pai, my father ; a sua casa, his house ; duas pessoas, two persons ; o primeiro homem, the first man. But when an adjective of number stands for a sur- name, or is joined to a proper or Christian name, it comes after the substantive, without the article ; as, Joao V. Verbal adjectives and participles : as, um homem divertido, a comical, a merry man ; uma mulfier estimada, a woman esteemed.

Adjectives referring to nations : as, um matke- matico Inglez, an English mathematician ; um alfaiate Francez, a French tailor ; musica Italiana, Italian music. If the substantive has three or more adjectives belong- ing to it, they must be placed after it with the conjunc- tion e before the last, which must likewise be observed, even when there be but two adjectives.

The Portuguese do not say, uma desagradavel enfadonha obra, but, uma obra desagradavel e enfadonha, a disagreeable tedious work, etc. Of adjectives, some always require either a noun or verb after them, which they govern ; as, digno de louvor, praiseworthy ; digno de ser amado, worthy to be loved ; capaz de ensinar, capable to teach ; and these have always the particle de after them. The following adjectives, which require the preposition de before the next infinitive, govern the genitive case.

Observe, that some of them require, in English, the pre- position at or with after them. Capaz, capable ; incapaz, incapable : as, capaz or incapaz de servir a propria patria, capable or incapable of serving one's country. Notado, charged ; as, notado de avareza, charged with avarice. Contente, glad ; as, estou contente do successo que elle teve, I am glad or overjoyed at his success. And likewise adjectives signifying fulness, emptiness, plenty, want, desire, knowledge, remembrance, ignorance, or forgetting. All adjectives signifying inclination, advantage and disadvantage, profit or loss, pleasure or displeasure, due submission, resistance, likeness, govern the dative case : as, insensivel ds affrontas, insensible to affronts ; ser inclin- ado d alguma cousa, to be inclined to something ; nocivo d saude, hurtful to health.

They also turn the adjective of dimension into its corresponding substantive, with the preposition de, and preceded by the measure : as, seis pes de altura, six feet high ; dez pes de largura, ten feet broad. Adjectives signifying experience, knowledge, or science, require em, or no, na, nos, nas, after them : as, versado nos livros, versed in books ; experto na medicina, expert in medicine.

Cardinal nouns require the genitive case after them ; as, um dos dois, one of the two. WE have sufficiently explained the pronouns in the First Part ; and, to avoid any further repetition, shall only observe that, 1st. Observe here, that when an adjective comes after vm ce , v. N6s is generally used by a king, a governor, or a bishop, in their writings, and then it signifies in English, we ; as, n6s mandamos, or mandamos, we com- mand : but nos before or after a verb in Portuguese signi- fies us in English ; as, elle nos disse, he told us ; d-ai nos tempo, give us time. V6s is applied when speaking to God or to a multitude.

The conjunctive pronouns are joined to verbs, and stand for the dative and accusative cases ; as, deu-me, he gave me ; ama-me, love me : but the personal pronouns are used instead of them when they are preceded by a preposition, and not immediately followed by a verb ; elle fallou contra mim, he spoke against me. Him or it, which follows the verb in English, must be expressed in Portuguese as in the following examples : When him or it in English follows the verb in the first person of the singular number, it must be expressed in Portuguese by o before or after the verb.

Example : I call him or it, eu o chamo. When him or it in English follows the verb in the first person of the singular number, it may be expressed in Portuguese either by o before the verb, or after it, omit- ting the last consonant of the verb. Example : thou callest him or it, tu o chamas, or chdma-lc-tu. When him or it is joined with the third person singu- lar of a verb, it may be expressed by o before or after the verb. Example : he calls him or it, elle o ckama, or die chama-o. When him or it is with a verb in the first person plural, it may be expressed in Portuguese either by o before the verb or lo after it ; omitting the last consonant, as in the second case.

Example : we call him or it, nos o chamamos, or nos chamamo-lo. Example : you call him or it, v6s o chamais, or vos chamai-lo. When him or it follows the verb in the third person plural, it may be expressed in Portuguese either by o before the verb, or no after it. Example : they call him or it, elles o chamao, or elles chamao-no. Her or it after a verb in English is expressed n Portuguese by a, according to the rules given above. Them after a verb is expressed in Portuguese by os for the masculine, and by as for the feminine, according to the gender and the rules proposed.

The words o, a, os, as, must always be put after the gerunds, but not before the infinitives. The best writing, therefore, is that now used by some writers for the sake of distinction, of marking the n with an ', thus, chamao-rfo ; or, as others do, isolating it by hyphens, thus, chamiio-n-o, in like manner as the French add their t in Va-t-il vu? The words to, la, Ion, las, must always be put after the verbs. Example : to see him, you must say para vel-o, or para o ver, and not para lo ver.

The same words must follow also the adverb ei : as, ei-lo aqui, here he is ; ei-lo ali, there he is ; ei-las aqui, here they are ; ei-la ali, there she is ; ei-las ali, there they are. They follow likewise the persons of the verbs : eu fi-lo, tufizeste- lo, elle fe-lo, n6s fizemo-lo, fec. I have been speaking of the words o, a, os, as, lo, la, los, las, and not of the articles, o, a, os, as ; because when those words precede, and sometimes when they follow the verbs, they are not articles, but relative pronouns.

They are articles only when they precede nouns or pronouns. THE verbs through every tense and mood except the infinitive ought to be preceded by a nominative case, either expressed or understood, with which they must agree in number and person. The Portuguese, as well as English, use the second person plural, though they address themselves but to a single person. Men amigo, vos ndo tendes razdo, my friend, you are in the wrong. Published by Independently Published, United States Condition: New. Language: Portuguese. Brand new Book. Maxwell, Steven K.

Scott, T. Harv Eker, entre outros. Este maravilhoso livro tem criado um efeito vislumbrante em minha vida. Seller Inventory APC More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Language: English. In the wake of the transatlantic crisis over Iraq, are Americans and Europeans ready to forge a future together? Can the grand project of European integration be reconciled with a strategic reorientation of the transatlantic relationship to a global agenda?

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Seller Inventory N More information about this seller Contact this seller Caja con 28 postales en color. Colaboran: Mr. Esgar Andre E. Follin, J. Chazaud, L. Pillon, B. Sampaio, C. Igert, D. Anzieu, J. Rouart, W. Janzarik, R. Ebtinger, J. Laboucarie, Th. Alajouanine, H. Hecaen, P. Sacristan, G. Moya, F. Sanabra, G. Cauquil, C. Edition originale. Pichon - P. Racamier Charles Brisset. Certains de tendance plus nettement sociopsychologique ou sociopsychiatrique Le Guillant - Sivadon - Veil. Seller Inventory son Seller Inventory YNB Capa Mole. Nosso Mundo p. Lang: Portugues. Universitaria p.

Published by Editorial Caminho, Portugal About this Item: Editorial Caminho, Portugal, Seller Inventory ESB Published by Oficina do Livro, Lisboa About this Item: Oficina do Livro, Lisboa, About this Item: Washinton, DC:. This new diversity both enriches the EU and challenges its cohesion. Is a bigger EU a better EU? Where does "Europe" end? The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation asked prominent authors from EU nations and important neighbors to examine the implications and consequences of European Union enlargement.

The New Frontiers of Europe offers a range of views on the opportunities and challenges posed by these historical changes. Library stamps. English text.