A clear message from longitudinal studies of reading development is that most children who become poor readers in third grade and beyond were having difficulty right from the start with phonologically-based reading skills. In addition, instruction that targets the specific weaknesses most likely to cause reading difficulty often prevents later reading failure and facilitates the reading development of most children. As we have emphasized earlier, a successful teacher of beginning reading generates enthusiasm and appreciation for reading.
Research reviews have repeatedly stated that children who are read to often, who are led to enjoy books, and who are encouraged to read widely are more likely to become good readers than children who lack these experiences.
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Teachers who are juggling the technical challenges of program organization and delivery may lose sight of the fact that purposeful reading and writing is the goal of instruction. Information on the importance of daily reading aloud, the selection of varied reading material, the use of the library, and the integration of topics across the curriculum will bolster literacy instruction, even as teachers focus on teaching specific reading and writing skills.
Team and school initiatives to promote a love of books and wide reading should be ever-present. Adams, M. Reading, writing and literacy. Siegal and K. Renniger Eds. New York: Wiley. Bear, D. Invernizzi, M. Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling. Beck, I. Conditions of vocabulary acquisition. Pearson Ed. New York: Longman Press. The fertility of some types of vocabulary instruction. Getting at the meaning: How to help students unpack difficult text.
American Educator, 22, , The rationale and design of a program to teach vocabulary to fourth-grade students. Berninger, V.
Early intervention for spelling problems: Teaching spelling units of varying size within a multiple connections framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, Treatment of handwriting fluency problems in beginning writing: Transfer from handwriting to composition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, Ehri, L. Graphophonemic awareness: Development in elementary students. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, Fletcher, J. Reading: A research-based approach. Evers Ed. Graham, S. The role of mechanics in composing of elementary school students: A new methodological approach.
Moats, L. The missing foundation in teacher education. American Educator, 19 2 , 9, National Reading Panel. Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Text comprehension. Part 2 of Chap. Vocabulary instruction. Part 1 of Chap.
Pressley, M. Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. New York: Guilford Press. Scarborough, H. The fate of phonemic awareness beyond the early school years. Scientific Studies of Reading, 2, Snow, C. Preventing reading difficulties in young children pp. In addition to their mention in Every Child Reading: An Action Plan, these components are commonly delineated in documents such as research reviews, state standards on instruction, the Reading Excellence Act funding criteria, curriculum guidelines, and teacher instructional manuals.
Of course, as the National Reading Panel notes, "phonics teaching is a means to an end. In implementing systematic phonics instruction, educators must keep the end in mind and ensure that children understand the purpose of learning letter sounds and that they are able to apply these skills accurately and fluently in their daily reading and writing activities" Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Health, , p.
The panel's report also states that, notwithstanding the fact that explicit, systematic, synthetic phonics is the most effective approach, there remain unanswered questions on how to make this instruction as effective as possible. For example, the panel notes that more research is needed on questions such as how long single instruction sessions should last, how many letter-sound relations should be taught, and how many months or years a phonics program should continue.
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Moreover, some children will learn and appropriately apply phonics skills quickly and effortlessly, while others must be taught slowly, step by step. The individual variation in any group remains a continual challenge to teacher judgment, resourcefulness, and program management skill. In the standardization of the Texas Primary Reading Inventory, these subtests combined predict the likelihood of success or failure with about 90 percent accuracy.
The readability of text, as reflected in sentence complexity and frequency of vocabulary, can now be assessed with software. Readability formulas tend to have more validity for children who have attained a reading level above 2nd grade than they do for those who are just beginning to read, and readability does not reflect the extent to which a text is decodable on the basis of what a child has been taught.
Author Interviews Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews. Book Finder Create your own booklists from our library of 5, books! Themed Booklists Dozens of carefully selected booklists, for kids years old. Nonfiction for Kids Tips on finding great books, reading nonfiction and more. Skip to main content. You are here Home. By: Learning First Alliance. We know from research that an effective reading program must address several aspects of reading. Among others, these aspects include the alphabetic code, fluency, comprehension, and motivation.
The following are nine components of effective reading instruction. Phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and concepts of print Phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge account for more of the variation in early reading and spelling success than general intelligence, overall maturity level, or listening comprehension.
The alphabetic code: Phonics and decoding In addition to phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, knowledge of sound-symbol associations is vital for success in first grade and beyond. Fluent, automatic reading of text Beginning readers must apply their decoding skills to fluent, automatic reading of text. Vocabulary Knowledge of word meanings is critical to reading comprehension. Text comprehension The undisputed purpose of learning to read is to comprehend.
Written expression Reading and writing are two sides of the same coin. Spelling and handwriting Recent research supports the premise that written composition is enhanced by mastery of the component skills of spelling and writing just as reading comprehension is supported by mastery of fluent word recognition. Screening and continuous assessment to inform instruction Frequent assessment of developing readers, and the use of that information for planning instruction, is the most reliable way of preventing children from falling behind and staying behind.
Motivating children to read and developing their literacy horizons As we have emphasized earlier, a successful teacher of beginning reading generates enthusiasm and appreciation for reading. Endnotes Endnotes Click the "Endnotes" link above to hide these endnotes. Durkin, D. Teaching them to read 6th ed. For more information, call the program coordinator at , or the college success coach at Help your child gain computer skills, or brush up on your own, by visiting a Polk County Public Schools Community Center.
These locations offer computer services and training for both students and adults. Contact the center for information and hours of operation. Click here for attendance login from a community center. Bartow, FL Main St. Fort Meade, FL , ext. Fort Meade Community Center 10 S. Meade, FL Palm St. Frostproof, FL Haines City, FL Lakeland, FL Lakeland, FL , ext First Baptist Church at the Mall E.
Memorial Blvd. Lakeland, FL ext. Girls, Inc. Jenkins Building W. Highland St. Chain of Lakes Achievers, Inc. Church of God the Bibleway Ave. Compassion Action for Haitians, Inc. Winter Haven, FL Wilfred Smith Community Center Ave. T Winter Haven, FL Parent and community members provide valuable resources and programs to Polk County Public Schools when they participate in parent organizations. These organizations collaborate with schools on events, fundraisers and numerous other initiatives that help to create engaging and supportive learning environments.
While these organizations work closely with the schools, they have separate financial requirements and obligations. All organizations must comply with district audit requirements, carry liability insurance, register with the IRS and Florida Department of Revenue, and apply for a Florida sales tax number. All parent organizations participating in fundraisers must have the permission of the principal and complete required district forms. Monthly financial reports, including a detailed transaction listing and a copy of the bank statement, are to be submitted to the school principal.
Other important financial documents include:. Students can earn credit, scholarships and graduation recognitions by getting involved in the school district or other facets of our community.
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Here are some tips to help you make the most of parent-teacher conferences. On the day of the parent-teacher conference, arrange childcare for your other children so you can give your undivided attention to the conference. Make sure you allow yourself plenty of time to get to the school, and be on time. Also make sure to take notes to remind yourself of important points later. After the conference, immediately start on the action plan you and the teacher developed, if applicable.
Here are some ways to create educational environments in your home, and to ensure your children are prepared for the next school day:. Here are some additional resources that will help you create a positive learning environment at home and motivate your child:. The Community Involvement Conference is an annual event that includes a series of workshops focusing on topics of interest to parents, community members and school leaders.
The event also includes a guest speaker and panel, and features a variety of program, fundraising and community resource vendors. By building strong parent-learning communities, the school district aims to increase student achievement and empower parents to raise children who are successful in school and life. Parents are welcome to visit, take part in workshops, and check out materials to help their child with academic skills at home.
Contact one of the centers for more information. The bus offers parents and students computers with internet access and printing capabilities, online subscriptions, iPad classes and free books. Parents must remain on site while students are using the Books Bridge Bus. More information can also be found on the Books Bridge Bus Facebook page. For more information, access the SAC Handbook. For more information on DAC, contact the senior coordinator of strategic partnerships at ext. By engaging in community service projects, students can earn credits and recognition at graduation, and qualify for scholarships.
Students provide more than , hours of service to Polk County every year through the community service program. Community service coordinators at each high school coordinate the application process and approve the hours and locations where students serve. Ready to get involved? Start by contacting your high school Community Service Coordinator to register with the community service program.
Community service hours served before registering with the program coordinator will not be counted. Service hours must be pre-approved before students begin to log hours.
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For more information, contact the district resource specialist trainer for school counseling services at The Prudential Spirit of Community Awards have been given to more than 80, middle and high school students across the country for helping the less fortunate, promoting health and safety, protecting the environment, and serving their communities through many other volunteer activities.
Click here for more information and to apply. The mission of Polk County Public Schools is to provide a high-quality education for all students. View Calendars. Polk County Public Schools are currently on summer schedule. Get Involved. Get Involved! Ready to get involved and make a meaningful difference in the lives of our children?
Wait for your application to process Once your application has been processed, you will be notified about your approval status within three weeks. Get your ID badge and attend orientation Get your identification badge from your school and attend a school volunteer orientation. Become a Mentor The mentor program brings together positive role models from the community and students who can benefit from one-on-one attention.
Learn More. Speak During the Great American Teach-In Share your life experiences and inspire children to begin thinking about their futures. AmeriCorps Polk Reads is a grant-funded reading tutoring program. Volunteer with Take Stock in Children A public-private partnership, this school-based mentoring organization has positively affected the lives of more than 11, children since Join a Parent Organization Parent organizations raise funds and deliver other means of support to their schools.
All Locations. Bartow Girls, Inc. Bartow Branch W. Polk St. Project Ave. Fund Raising Activity Approval Form form Financial Report for Fund Raising Activity form Monthly financial reports, including a detailed transaction listing and a copy of the bank statement, are to be submitted to the school principal. Create a Learning Environment at Home There are lots of ways you can support the learning your child does at school. Earn Community Service Hours Students can earn credit, scholarships and graduation recognitions by getting involved in the school district or other facets of our community.
Before the conference, make a list of your questions and concerns, such as: What kinds of activities does my child do well in at school? Where does my child have difficulty?